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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2007

Toyah L. Miller, María del Carmen Triana, Christopher R. Reutzel and S. Trevis Certo

Mediating effects allow strategic management researchers to understand “black box” processes underlying complex relationships whereby the effect of an independent variable…

Abstract

Mediating effects allow strategic management researchers to understand “black box” processes underlying complex relationships whereby the effect of an independent variable is transmitted to a dependent variable through a third variable. Since the seminal work of Baron and Kenny (1986), advancements have been made in mediation analysis. Thus, literature on the latest techniques for analyzing mediating and intervening varibales is presented. In addition, strategy literature published in the Academy of Management Journal and the Strategic Management Journal between 1986 and 2005 employing tests of mediation is reviewed to better understand how mediation techniques are used by strategy scholars. Finally, implications and limitations of current mediation analysis in strategy research are discussed, and recommendations are provided to strategy scholars examining mediation.

Details

Research Methodology in Strategy and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1404-1

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Christian Nitzl, Jose L. Roldan and Gabriel Cepeda

Indirect or mediated effects constitute a type of relationship between constructs that often occurs in partial least squares (PLS) path modeling. Over the past few years…

8447

Abstract

Purpose

Indirect or mediated effects constitute a type of relationship between constructs that often occurs in partial least squares (PLS) path modeling. Over the past few years, the methods for testing mediation have become more sophisticated. However, many researchers continue to use outdated methods to test mediating effects in PLS, which can lead to erroneous results. One reason for the use of outdated methods or even the lack of their use altogether is that no systematic tutorials on PLS exist that draw on the newest statistical findings. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study illustrates the state-of-the-art use of mediation analysis in the context of PLS-structural equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

This study facilitates the adoption of modern procedures in PLS-SEM by challenging the conventional approach to mediation analysis and providing more accurate alternatives. In addition, the authors propose a decision tree and classification of mediation effects.

Originality/value

The recommended approach offers a wide range of testing options (e.g. multiple mediators) that go beyond simple mediation analysis alternatives, helping researchers discuss their studies in a more accurate way.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 116 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Solimun and Adji Achmad Rinaldo Fernandes

This study aims to more deeply examine the various types of testing mediations and use the comparison test by using test-based mediation Sobel models and Bayesian…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to more deeply examine the various types of testing mediations and use the comparison test by using test-based mediation Sobel models and Bayesian approach. The purpose of this study are to apply the traditional (using indirect effect) and Sobel test, extend Yuan and MacKinnon (2009) work on Bayesian mediation analysis. Both analysis methods of mediation (Traditional, Sobel Test and Bayesian estimation) should apply in the research of management, by using structural equation modeling (SEM) in a structural model, with one mediation, one exogenous (independent) and one endogenous variable. The meta-analysis approximation has been used to investigate the job satisfaction as a mediation in the relationship between employee competence and performance (endogenous).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from ten dissertations of students of the Management Doctoral Program at the Brawijaya University from 2009 until 2013; data were analyzed for the mediation variable of job satisfaction (M) in the relationship between employee competence (X) and employee performance (Y) (Muindi and Obonyo, 2015; Olcer, 2015; Sattar et al., 2015; Khan and Ahmed, 2015). A researcher can determine the mediating variable and whether it is complete or partial or if mediation exists in several ways.

Findings

The results of the above findings using meta-analysis showed that 60% of previous research states that job satisfaction is a partial mediation on relationship competence of the performance, 10% of previous research states that job satisfaction is a full mediation on relationship competence of the performance and 30% stated that job satisfaction is not pemediasi (pemediasi means Mediation variable) on the relationship between competence and performance. This research found that all three approaches provide similar conclusions for ten previous research.

Research limitations/implications

The findings showed that the Sobel approach and the Bayesian approach provide results that are more sensitive than the traditional approach.

Practical implications

In my opinion, the rule to investigate the mediation variable should be completed with the conditions (1) q (theta) is not statistically significant, (2) α (alpha) and β (beta) are significant, and (3) q’ (theta) is significant, and increase when M is include as an additional predictor. This condition called partial mediation.

Social implications

The traditional method is simpler and easy. The method is less sensitive and is not sufficient for investigating the mediating variables. In general, the method results in a mediation variable, but it cannot be used to determine either partial or complete mediation variables. So, investigation by Baron and Kenny Methods (in Hair et al., 2010), the rule or testing called Sobel Test and another approach such as Bayesian to determine the mediation variable is necessary.

Originality/value

Various methods for detecting mediating/intervening have been widely used in previous research as a method of measurement using indirect effect (Hair et al., 2010), and calculations have been performed using Sobel test (Baron and Kenny, 1986) and Bayesian approach (Enders, 2013). In this study, I wanted to more deeply examine the various types of testing mediations, and use the comparison test by using the test-based mediation Sobel models and Bayesian approach (Baron and Kenny, 1986; Enders, 2013). The statistical application should not be complicated and difficult, it but must rather be simple and easy, so that it is user-friendly. The traditional method is simpler and easier than the other methods, but how sensitive is it? This research is conducted to investigate this problem. The evaluation of mediating mechanisms has become a critical element of behavioral science research (Enders, 2013), especially in the field of management, not only to assess whether (and how) interventions achieve their effects but also, more, broadly, to understand the cause of behavioral change. Methodologists have developed mediation analysis techniques for a broad range of substantive applications. However, methods for estimating mediation mechanisms with various methods have been understudied. The purpose of this study is to apply the traditional (using indirect effect) and Sobel tests and extend Yuan and MacKinnon’s (2009) work on the Bayesian mediation analysis. Both analyses methods of mediation (traditional and Sobel test and Bayesian estimation) should apply in the research of management, by using structural equation modeling (SEM) in a structural model, with one mediation, one exogenous (independent) and one endogenous variable. The meta-analysis approximation has been used to investigate job satisfaction as the mediation in the relationship between employee competence and performance (endogenous). This study uses software R to complete the mediating effect (Enders, 2013). R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. It is a GNU project which is similar to the S language and environment which was developed at Bell Laboratories (formerly AT&T, now Lucent Technologies) by John Chambers et al. R provides a wide variety of statistical analyses such as SEM and Mediation test. R provides an open source route for participation in that activity. The Bayesian estimation approach provides an R function and a macro that applies the method of mediation analysis.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 59 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 October 2019

Sridhar Manohar, Amit Mittal and Sanjiv Marwah

The purpose of this paper is to establish the link between three constructs, namely, service innovation, corporate reputation (CR), and word-of-mouth (hereinafter WOM)…

1102

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish the link between three constructs, namely, service innovation, corporate reputation (CR), and word-of-mouth (hereinafter WOM). Primarily, the aim is to understand whether innovation in a service firm drives its reputation, thereby resulting in positive WOM where the direct effect of service innovation of a firm on WOM is mediated by reputation. Furthermore, the study also seeks to understand whether the type of service firm has an effect on determining the level of the mediation effect.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts an integrated approach where the measure for the construct service innovation is explored through a qualitative approach, and the conceptual model is estimated through path analysis. The service industry taken for this study is banking, and the through non-probability criterion sampling technique, 252 customers responded to their level of agreement. The PLS-SEM technique was used to estimate the path coefficient by following the two-stage approach. The multigroup moderation analysis is performed to determine whether the type of the bank plays a major role in determining the direct effects and the mediation effect of CR between service innovation and WOM.

Findings

The result of this study indicates that there is a strong positive association between the three constructs. Further, the direct relationship between service innovation and WOM is partially mediated by reputation. The result of the multigroup moderation indicates that the type of the bank plays a major role in determining the mediation effect of reputation.

Practical implications

The study helps the decision makers and the managers of the bank to understand that frequent innovation within the firm would help to gain reputation, and thereby customers would tend to give a positive WOM. Further, non-reputable firms can still gain a positive WOM if they continuously innovate new services. In the Indian context, it is noted that there is a difference between private and public banks in determining the mediation effect of reputation between service innovation and WOM.

Originality/value

The originality of the study is based on the following: development of a unique scale to measure service innovation in the banking industry overcoming the existing scales which are based on goods-dominant logic; estimating empirically the combined effect of service innovation and CR on WOM; the process of evaluating the moderated mediation effect; how the mediating effect of CR varies from private sector banks to public sector banks.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2022

Yuan George Shan, Joey Wenling Yang, Junru Zhang and Millicent Chang

This study aims to examine the mediating role played by corporate governance (CG) in the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and analyst forecast quality.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the mediating role played by corporate governance (CG) in the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and analyst forecast quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors raise three specific questions: Does CG play a mediating role in the relationship between CSR and analyst forecast quality? If so, is such mediation effect of CG reduced for firms with weak governance? Do firms with superior CSR performance experience higher analyst forecast quality through the mediation effect of CG?

Findings

The present results suggest that CG serves as a partial mediator that facilitates CSR’s positive influence on analyst forecast quality. However, further analyses show that in firms with a low governance score, CG does not have a mediation effect. Conversely, the authors find that firms with superior CSR performance have higher forecast quality through the mediation effect of CG. The authors also find that the mediation effect of CG is more pronounced for the environmental component than for the social component of CSR.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the role of CG as a mediator between CSR and analyst forecast quality and to reveal that the strength of this effect varies depending on firms’ CG level and CSR commitment.

Article
Publication date: 29 November 2022

Yuzhong Lu and Yanqi Sun

This study examined the influence of corporate governance (CG) in relation to venture capital (VC) investment on invested firm's corporate social responsibility (CSR…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examined the influence of corporate governance (CG) in relation to venture capital (VC) investment on invested firm's corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance in the Chinese context. More specifically, this paper examined the mediation of the proportion of independent directors (INDD), management shareholding (MSH) and executives' political connections (POLC) in the above-mentioned relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This empirical study performed multiple mediation testing and bootstrap mediation robustness test on data from Chinese A-class shares IPO companies between 2010 and 2018.

Findings

The results of direct relationship analysis showed that VC support is detrimental to firm' CSR performance, consistent with previous research studies. The indirect effect analysis showed that VC reduced firm' CSR through reduction of INDD on board and increased MSH. Conversely, VC contributed to firm's CSR through higher POLC, which confirmed the significance of the joint mediation model.

Practical implications

This study offers stakeholders the opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the role of VC institutions, independent directors and executives, in terms of firm's CSR, as well as provides insights on control rights allocation and policy drafting on independent directors when considering accessing VC support.

Originality/value

By analyzing the mediation model of the VC–CSR relationship, this paper provides evidence to enrich the debate on the role of CG in the relation between VC and firm's CSR.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

George Chryssochoidis

Researchers in management regularly face modelling issues that involve double-moderated mediation models. Here, the author illustrates how to conceptualise, specify and…

Abstract

Purpose

Researchers in management regularly face modelling issues that involve double-moderated mediation models. Here, the author illustrates how to conceptualise, specify and empirically estimate mediation effects when having to simultaneously account for continuous (Likert type) and nominal (i.e. group) moderator variables. Researchers’ estimates of the mediation effects suffer serious bias because of the effects of unaccounted confounders. This is an issue that plagues management research, and this study aims to show how to address these valid reservations for its focus models. In aiming to inform a wider management audience, the study deliberately uses the rich context of a focus case as this allows the author to clarify the nuances that management researchers face applying double-moderated mediation models. Specifically, the study’s focus case is on professionals’ willingness to implement a new government policy. The study also combines traditional and Bayesian statistical approaches and explains the differences in estimation and interpretation that are associated with the Bayesian approach. Explaining, and exemplifying the use of, the models, the author focuses on how one can substantially increase the robustness of the methods used in management research and can considerably improve the quality of the generated theoretical insights. The study also clarifies important assumptions and solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a doubled moderated mediation Bayesian approach, and draws the sample data from a population of 5,199 professionals, all members of either the Dutch Association of Psychologists or the Dutch Association for Psychiatry. The data collection process resulted in 1,307 questionnaires being returned, a response rate of 25 per cent. All the items were measured using a Likert scale, ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”, unless stated otherwise.

Findings

Explaining, and exemplifying the use of, the models the study focuses on how one can substantially increase the robustness of the methods used in management research and can considerably improve the quality of the generated theoretical insights.

Originality/value

This is an original approach exemplified for wider use by management researchers.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Arsalan Shakoor, Sajid Haider, Muhammad Hanif Akhtar and Muhammad Ali Asadullah

The purpose of this study was to examine a moderated mediation model of job dissatisfaction and workplace social support in the relationship between work–life conflict and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine a moderated mediation model of job dissatisfaction and workplace social support in the relationship between work–life conflict and turnover intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 220 police investigation officers. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was applied for data analysis.

Findings

Empirical findings of study indicate that work–life conflict enhances employee turnover intentions by creating job dissatisfaction. However, workplace social support buffers this effect and reduces turnover intentions by weakening the effect of work–life conflict on job dissatisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to personnel management and organizational psychology literature by explaining how workplace social support can affect the mediating process of job dissatisfaction through which the relationship between work–life conflict and turnover intentions is determined. The limitations are related to external validity, single source data and cross-sectional nature of data.

Practical implications

Organizational leaders and practitioners can take insights from the findings of this study that if workplace social support prevails at a level greater than work–life conflict, it will nullify or suppress the effect of work–life conflict on turnover intentions by reducing job dissatisfaction.

Originality/value

The originality value of this study is that it has addressed the scarcity of testing boundary conditions of the indirect effect of work–life conflict on turnover intentions through job dissatisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 August 2022

Praveen Dhiman and Sangeeta Arora

Relying on social identity and social exchange perspectives, the present study aims to investigate the role of employee branding dimensions in stimulating employees’ brand…

Abstract

Purpose

Relying on social identity and social exchange perspectives, the present study aims to investigate the role of employee branding dimensions in stimulating employees’ brand citizenship behaviour (BCB) directly and indirectly through job satisfaction and affective brand commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

A field-survey method was used to target customer-contact employees of luxury chain hotels. Regression-based approach and bootstrap method (via PROCESS MACRO, Model 6) were applied to test the direct and indirect effects.

Findings

The results show that perceived external brand prestige has a strong direct effect on BCB. Through mediation analysis, this study observes that job satisfaction and affective brand commitment have significant mediation effects (i.e. individual, parallel and sequential) between employee branding dimensions and BCB. Analysing the results precisely, job satisfaction and affective brand commitment have the lowest sequential mediation effect and the greatest parallel mediation effect concerning the said relationships.

Originality/value

This study is novel in applying a three-path mediation model in the Indian hospitality context, considering a multi-dimensional perspective of employee branding to capture its diverse impact on BCB directly and indirectly through job satisfaction and affective brand commitment. Moreover, this study advances employee branding research by considering the under-investigated mediating (individual, parallel and sequential) role of job satisfaction and affective brand commitment.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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