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The term “social media” generally refers to the multi-point creation and distribution of electronic communication. It is understood in opposition to broadcasting. This chapter explains the history of media studies as a means of comprehending these newer media in the context of tourism. They need to be studied in the light of existing media, even as we seek a new form of truly interdisciplinary work that brings existing approaches together. Taking its agenda from social movements as well as intellectual ones, and its methods from social sciences and humanities, Media Studies 3.0 should focus on gender, race, class, sexuality, sustainability, and pleasure across national lines—an apt setting for those working on tourism.
This paper investigates how language homophily between service providers and migrant consumers affects migrant consumers’ intentions to engage with financial and medical…
This paper investigates how language homophily between service providers and migrant consumers affects migrant consumers’ intentions to engage with financial and medical service providers.
Three empirical studies were conducted with migrant consumers living in Chile, England and the USA. Participants were presented information on service providers, and language homophily was manipulated between subjects. In the high (low) language homophily condition, service providers were described as having (not having) the ability to speak the native language of the migrant consumer.
Language homophily was found to increase migrant consumers’ expectation of control over a service encounter and, in turn, increase their intention to use a provider’s services. Collectivism was identified as a boundary condition. Among high collectivist consumers, language homophily did not affect service usage intentions; however, language homophily did positively affect service usage intentions among low collectivist consumers.
This work extends prior research on service provider language by finding a positive effect of language homophily on service usage intentions and by identifying mediating (i.e. expected control over the outcome of the service encounter) and moderating (i.e. collectivism) mechanisms for this effect.
It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a…
It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a company’s activity. Therefore, it should not be surprising that the average recipient associates marketing with advertising, competitions and leaflets about new promotions delivered to houses or offices. Advertising, especially Internet advertising, is one of the most effective forms of marketing and one of the fastest developing areas of business. New channels of communication are emerging all the time – the Internet, digital television, mobile telephony; accompanied by new forms, such as the so-called ambient media. Advertising benefits from the achievements of many fields of science, that is, psychology, sociology, statistics, medicine and economics. At the same time, it combines science and the arts – it requires both knowledge and intuition. Contemporary advertising has different forms and areas of activity; yet it is always closely linked with the operations of a company – it is a form of marketing communication.
The indices of marketing communication presented in this chapter are generally known and used not only by advertising agencies but also by the marketing departments of many organisations. Brand awareness, advertising scope and frequency, the penetration index or the response rate belong to the most widely used indices; others, like the conversion rate or the affinity index, will get increasingly more significant along with the process of professionalisation of the environment of marketing specialists in Poland and with increased pressure on measuring marketing activities. Marketing indices are used for not only planning activities, but also their evaluation; some of them, such as telemarketing, mailing and coupons, provide an extensive array of possibilities of performance evaluation.
Fluid flow and heat transfer in a dual scale porous media is investigated to determine the interfacial convective heat transfer coefficient, numerically. The studied…
Fluid flow and heat transfer in a dual scale porous media is investigated to determine the interfacial convective heat transfer coefficient, numerically. The studied porous media is a periodic dual scale porous media. It consists of the square rods which are permeable in an aligned arrangement. It is aimed to observe the enhancement of heat transfer through the porous media, which is important for thermal designers, by inserting intra-pores into the square rods. A special attention is given to the roles of size and number of intra-pores on the heat transfer enhancement through the dual scale porous media. The role of intra-pores on the pressure drop of air flow through porous media is also investigated by calculation and comparison of the friction coefficient.
To calculate the interfacial convective heat transfer coefficient, the governing equations which are continuity, momentum and energy equations are solved to determine velocity, pressure and temperature fields. As the dual scale porous structure is periodic, a representative elementary volume is generated, and the governing equations are numerically solved for the selected representative volume. By using the obtained velocity, pressure and temperature fields and using volume average definition, the volume average of aforementioned parameters is calculated and upscaled. Then, the interfacial convective heat transfer coefficient and the friction coefficient is numerically determined. The interparticle porosity is changed between 0.4 and 0.75, while the intraparticle varies between 0.2 and 0.75 to explore the effect of intra-pore on heat transfer enhancement.
The obtained Nusselt number values are compared with corresponding mono-scale porous media, and it is found that heat transfer through a porous medium can be enhanced threefold (without the increase of pressure drop) by inserting intraparticle pores in flow direction. For the porous media with low values of interparticle porosity (i.e. = 0.4), an optimum intraparticle porosity exists for which the highest heat transfer enhancement can be achieved. This value was found around 0.3 when the interparticle porosity was 0.4.
The results of the study are interesting, especially from heat transfer enhancement point of view. However, further studies are required. For instance, studies should be performed to analyze the rate of the heat transfer enhancement for different shapes and arrangements of particles and a wider range of porosity. The other important parameter influencing heat transfer enhancement is the direction of pores. In the present study, the intraparticle pores are in flow direction; hence, the enhancement rate of heat transfer for different directions of pores must also be investigated.
The application of dual scale porous media is widely faced in daily life, nature and industry. The flowing of a fluid through a fiber mat, woven fiber bundles, multifilament textile fibers, oil filters and fractured porous media are some examples for the application of the heat and fluid flow through a dual scale porous media. Heat transfer enhancement.
The enhancement of heat transfer is a significant topic that gained the attention of researchers in recent years. The importance of topic increases day-by-day because of further demands for downsizing of thermal equipment and heat recovery devices. The aim of thermal designers is to enhance heat transfer rate in thermal devices and to reduce their volume (and/or weight in some applications) by using lower mechanical power for cooling.
The present study might be the first study on determination of thermal transport properties of dual scale porous media yielded interesting results such as considerable enhancement of heat transfer by using proper intraparticle channels in a porous medium.
This study aims to explain the impact of the Beijing Olympic Games 2008 on China's image in the international TV media. It applies agenda-setting theory to analyse foreign…
This study aims to explain the impact of the Beijing Olympic Games 2008 on China's image in the international TV media. It applies agenda-setting theory to analyse foreign TV coverage of the Olympics in nine countries. Using Rivenburgh's national image richness construct, it attempts to make sense of the coverage before and after Beijing 2008, particularly its impact on the image of the host country. The study concludes that the breadth and attribution of China's image remained relatively stable, that these factors did not improve China's national image directly but that indirectly they raised awareness of China in the international media and framed the host country's image more clearly.
This study examines a cross section of the Spanish retailing branch on the adoption and use of Social Media tools, identifying users and nonusers and their impact on…
This study examines a cross section of the Spanish retailing branch on the adoption and use of Social Media tools, identifying users and nonusers and their impact on management experiences. The use of 2.0 technologies has also been analyzed based on company size.
An online survey among 90 Spanish retailers provides a number of interesting insights in the adoption rates, the facilitating and disruptive factors in the adoption process, the types of applications used by retailers, and their experiences from them. Prior to filling in the online questionnaires, the recipients were contacted by phone and were informed about the study. A Chi-square analysis has been carried out to contrast the suggested research questions.
Retailers using Social Media as part of their marketing strategy use most social applications for customer-related purposes and see clear benefits in improving customer relations, market communication, improving their after-sales services, and obtaining customer feedback and customer information. Although many differences do not exist between large, medium, and small companies, it is remarkable that large companies use social web tools as branding and small companies as customer service.
The main problem of this study has been the low recruitment of answers by retailers.
Practical and social implications
Customers are using such technologies in overwhelming numbers and a substantial part of the customer generated content in Social Media is about brands, businesses, and products. Having a good idea about the customer dialog online can provide businesses with very valuable information and help them understand market trends but also identify potential areas of danger and problems.
Originality/value of chapter
The adoption of Social Media tools is a topic much studied from demand perspective. Nevertheless, the application to business and, specifically, retailing sector is less analyzed. With this study we pretend to improve this research line from offer perspective.
Smartphone multitasking behavior has become prevalent in our daily lives, yet factors influencing smartphone multitasking behavior have not been fully investigated. This…
Smartphone multitasking behavior has become prevalent in our daily lives, yet factors influencing smartphone multitasking behavior have not been fully investigated. This study aimed to examine the roles of a set of demographic, personality and motivational factors on smartphone multitasking behavior, and how these factors were related to general and application-specific types of smartphone multitasking behavior.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 2,659 smartphone users were invited to complete an online survey on smartphone multitasking behavior. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to examine the roles of demographic, personality and motivational factors on smartphone multitasking behavior.
The results showed that, in general, demographic factors, such as gender, age, occupation status, education and smartphone usage time significantly predicted smartphone multitasking behavior. People characterized by agreeableness, extraversion, neuroticism and openness to experience were more likely to multitask with smartphones. Information seeking, efficiency and habit motivations were identified as major motivational factors for smartphone multitasking behavior. The roles of demographic, personality and motivational factors differed much across varied types of application-specific smartphone multitasking behavior.
This study extends and advances the literature on media multitasking, smartphone multitasking in particular, by identifying a set of demographic, personality and motivational factors as antecedents of smartphone multitasking behavior. In addition, this study revealed the differentiated roles of the above-mentioned factors across varied types of smartphone application usages. The findings provide important implications for practitioners to tailor smartphone applications and services to different target smartphone users and use situations.