Search results1 – 10 of over 76000
The term “social media” generally refers to the multi-point creation and distribution of electronic communication. It is understood in opposition to broadcasting. This chapter explains the history of media studies as a means of comprehending these newer media in the context of tourism. They need to be studied in the light of existing media, even as we seek a new form of truly interdisciplinary work that brings existing approaches together. Taking its agenda from social movements as well as intellectual ones, and its methods from social sciences and humanities, Media Studies 3.0 should focus on gender, race, class, sexuality, sustainability, and pleasure across national lines—an apt setting for those working on tourism.
This study aims to explain the impact of the Beijing Olympic Games 2008 on China's image in the international TV media. It applies agenda-setting theory to analyse foreign…
This study aims to explain the impact of the Beijing Olympic Games 2008 on China's image in the international TV media. It applies agenda-setting theory to analyse foreign TV coverage of the Olympics in nine countries. Using Rivenburgh's national image richness construct, it attempts to make sense of the coverage before and after Beijing 2008, particularly its impact on the image of the host country. The study concludes that the breadth and attribution of China's image remained relatively stable, that these factors did not improve China's national image directly but that indirectly they raised awareness of China in the international media and framed the host country's image more clearly.
It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a…
It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a company’s activity. Therefore, it should not be surprising that the average recipient associates marketing with advertising, competitions and leaflets about new promotions delivered to houses or offices. Advertising, especially Internet advertising, is one of the most effective forms of marketing and one of the fastest developing areas of business. New channels of communication are emerging all the time – the Internet, digital television, mobile telephony; accompanied by new forms, such as the so-called ambient media. Advertising benefits from the achievements of many fields of science, that is, psychology, sociology, statistics, medicine and economics. At the same time, it combines science and the arts – it requires both knowledge and intuition. Contemporary advertising has different forms and areas of activity; yet it is always closely linked with the operations of a company – it is a form of marketing communication.
The indices of marketing communication presented in this chapter are generally known and used not only by advertising agencies but also by the marketing departments of many organisations. Brand awareness, advertising scope and frequency, the penetration index or the response rate belong to the most widely used indices; others, like the conversion rate or the affinity index, will get increasingly more significant along with the process of professionalisation of the environment of marketing specialists in Poland and with increased pressure on measuring marketing activities. Marketing indices are used for not only planning activities, but also their evaluation; some of them, such as telemarketing, mailing and coupons, provide an extensive array of possibilities of performance evaluation.
This paper explores the effects of US President Donald Trump's Twitter messages (tweets) on the stock prices of media and non-media companies.
The authors’ empirical analysis considers all Twitter messages posted by Donald Trump from May 26, 2016 (the date he passed the threshold of 1,237 delegates required to guarantee his presidential nomination) to August 30, 2018. The authors accessed President Trump's tweets through http://www.trumptwitterarchive.com, which provides links to all Twitter messages the President has ever posted. Of the 6,983 presidential tweets during our sample period, the authors select 513 messages that mention companies that are publicly traded in the United States for this study. The selected messages are then classified as having a positive, neutral or negative sentiment. The authors employ a series of univariate and multivariate tests as well as Heckman two-step regressions and partial least squares regressions to examine the effect of the President's tweets on the stock prices of the firms he tweets about.
For media firms, the authors find that positive tweets have a pronounced positive stock price impact, whereas negative and neutral tweets have little or no effect. For non-media firms, the authors observe the opposite: negative tweets tend to be associated with significant stock price declines, whereas neutral and positive tweets incur weakly positive stock price reactions. To a large extent, these stock price declines reverse on the following day. The authors further find that the President's reiteration of information that is already known by the market incurs an additional stock price reaction. The President's attitude towards the news appears to play a major role in this context.
The authors contribute to the literature by offering various new insights regarding the effect social media has on the stock markets. In addition, this paper expands the emerging strand of literature that explores how President Trump affects the stock prices of firms he tweets about. This paper differs from prior studies in this area by considering a broader range of tweets, by controlling for potential selection biases, by differentiating between Trump's tweets about media and non-media firms and by exploring the impact of “old” vs “new” news based on whether the President repeats information that is already known to the market. If social media posts by single influential people are found to affect markets, they may create trading opportunities for investors and financial managers and risk arbitrage opportunities for arbitrageurs. In the political science field, the findings of this research provide valuable insights into how politicians can employ social media platforms to affect the public, and the differential influence of nominees and politicians in office. Finally, our study gives corporations that wish to back a certain campaign or a candidate in an election a better idea of the possible risks and benefits of their actions, considering that candidates or politicians could post negative messages on social media platforms targeting companies that backed their opponents.
This paper aims to examine when and how the number of “likes” can exert significant influence on consumer evaluations of social media advertising. It sheds a novel…
This paper aims to examine when and how the number of “likes” can exert significant influence on consumer evaluations of social media advertising. It sheds a novel perspective on how social media “likes”, advertising disclosures and the presence of firm-serving motives influence advertising effectiveness.
Study 1 examines how the number of “likes” influences consumer attitudes towards the sponsoring brand by strengthening advertising credibility, when social media ads are effectively (vs non-effectively) disclosed. Study 2 further establishes how the influence of the number of “likes” for effectively disclosed ads varies depending on whether the company states (vs does not state) its firm-serving motives.
The authors found that a social media ad displayed with a higher number of “likes” is perceived to be more credible, which can then yield more positive attitudes towards the brand. However, the use of effective disclosures moderates this relationship. To offset this effect, companies can restore the value of “likes” by stating their firm-serving motives openly when they develop social media advertising messages.
The study offers a novel perspective on how consumers evaluate the number of displayed “likes” in the context of other social media features.
The study shows how social media marketers can become more effective in taking advantage of the number of “likes” that they accumulate on social networking site platforms.
The study illustrates a novel mechanism behind how and when the number of “likes” can influence the effectiveness of social media advertising.
This study examines a cross section of the Spanish retailing branch on the adoption and use of Social Media tools, identifying users and nonusers and their impact on…
This study examines a cross section of the Spanish retailing branch on the adoption and use of Social Media tools, identifying users and nonusers and their impact on management experiences. The use of 2.0 technologies has also been analyzed based on company size.
An online survey among 90 Spanish retailers provides a number of interesting insights in the adoption rates, the facilitating and disruptive factors in the adoption process, the types of applications used by retailers, and their experiences from them. Prior to filling in the online questionnaires, the recipients were contacted by phone and were informed about the study. A Chi-square analysis has been carried out to contrast the suggested research questions.
Retailers using Social Media as part of their marketing strategy use most social applications for customer-related purposes and see clear benefits in improving customer relations, market communication, improving their after-sales services, and obtaining customer feedback and customer information. Although many differences do not exist between large, medium, and small companies, it is remarkable that large companies use social web tools as branding and small companies as customer service.
The main problem of this study has been the low recruitment of answers by retailers.
Practical and social implications
Customers are using such technologies in overwhelming numbers and a substantial part of the customer generated content in Social Media is about brands, businesses, and products. Having a good idea about the customer dialog online can provide businesses with very valuable information and help them understand market trends but also identify potential areas of danger and problems.
Originality/value of chapter
The adoption of Social Media tools is a topic much studied from demand perspective. Nevertheless, the application to business and, specifically, retailing sector is less analyzed. With this study we pretend to improve this research line from offer perspective.
SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis is a powerful approach for evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of an organization with an internal…
SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis is a powerful approach for evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of an organization with an internal perspective. The approach also takes into account the opportunities and the threats from an external point of view. These features make SWOT a commonly used approach in strategic management. The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated SWOT analysis with multiple preference relations technique, to show the application of the proposed methodology, to prioritize the strategic factors and to present alternative strategies for ABC, a case company, which is targeting to use social media more effectively.
In this study, expert opinions are used to identify SWOT factors of ABC on social media. The obtained findings are evaluated and each factor is prioritized by means of the multiple preference relations technique.
The proposed evaluation model has four main groups, namely, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, under which 17 factors are identified. As a result of the evaluations, “O2: Opportunity to contact a large number of users simultaneously at affordable cost” has the highest importance level among other factors. Alternative strategies are developed based on the obtained results.
Decision-makers who have different backgrounds or ideas can state their preferences in different formats. Multiple preference relations technique is used to combine different assessments. SWOT analysis with multiple preference relations technique with a group decision-making perspective is proposed. This is the first time the method is used in the social media-related literature. With this study, the most appropriate social media strategic factors are selected for ABC and alternative strategies are determined based on the results.