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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Augustine Pang, Vivien H.E. Chiong and Nasrath Begam Binte Abul Hassan

The purpose of this paper is to test the viability of the media relations framework, Mediating the Media model (Pang, 2010), and ascertains its relevance to practitioners…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the viability of the media relations framework, Mediating the Media model (Pang, 2010), and ascertains its relevance to practitioners in a changing media landscape in Singapore where social media is emerging as an alternative source of information tool.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth interviews with 20 media relations practitioners who were former journalists. Practitioners with journalism experience were chosen as they perform better at media relations (Sallot and Johnson, 2006a; Sinaga and Callison, 2008).

Findings

The model posits two sets of influences, i.e. internal (journalist mindset, journalist routines and newsroom routines) and external (extra-media forces and media ideology) in media relations. Internal influences were found to be more prevalent than external influences and journalist mindset was the most pervasive factor influencing media relations.

Research limitations/implications

Findings are based solely on interviews and some claims cannot be corroborated. As this is a qualitative study situated in one country, it is also not generalizable.

Practical implications

This study will serve useful insights for new practitioners to approach media relations in a holistic and systematic manner and for seasoned practitioners to re-evaluate their current media strategies.

Originality/value

This inaugural test found rigor in the model, and affords an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of journalist-practitioner relationships in a changing media landscape. It also presents an intriguing opportunity for the model to be applied to countries where the media industry operates under vastly different environments so as to ensure that the model stands up to scrutiny as it seeks to be positioned as a viable model for media relations.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2001

Krishnamurthy Sriramesh and Dejan Verčič

As a profession, public relations has become a global enterprise. Public relations education is only now beginning to catch up with the global nature of the profession. It…

Abstract

As a profession, public relations has become a global enterprise. Public relations education is only now beginning to catch up with the global nature of the profession. It is quite widely acknowledged that as far as public relations education is concerned, the USA is the leader in the number of universities that offer public relations courses as well as in the breadth and depth of the public relations curriculum. In its October 1999 report on the status of education in the USA, the Commission on Public Relations Education constituted by the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA), called for curricula that prepared students to be effective communicators in the “age of global interdependence”. This paper argues that educators around the world are being hampered by the lack of an established body of knowledge (based on empirical evidence) about public relations practices in different parts of the world. This lack of evidence is preventing educators from preparing their students to become useful professionals who can meet the challenges of the “age of global interdependence”. The paper reviews literature identifying environmental variables that should help one understand public relations practices in different given countries. Based on this review, the paper operationalises these environmental variables as a next step towards cross‐national research. The paper also stresses the need to gather appropriate case studies in international public relations. Future researchers should be able to use this framework for conducting crossnational comparisons of public relations, thereby providing educators with the necessary empirical evidence to prepare the public relations professionals of the future.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Seow Ting Lee and Mallika Hemant Desai

The purpose of this paper is to seek to clarify the conceptual building blocks of relationship building between non-governmental groups (NGOs) and news media, which is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to seek to clarify the conceptual building blocks of relationship building between non-governmental groups (NGOs) and news media, which is essential for the development of civil society where dialogue is a product of ongoing communication and relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on an online survey with a sample size of 296 NGOs from India. The data are analyzed with SPSS to test six hypotheses related to dialogic orientation, media relations, relationship quality and the NGOs’ structural characteristics.

Findings

The study found that an organization's dialogic orientation has a positive impact on media relations knowledge and strategy but not on the action dimension that focusses on providing information subsidies to journalists. A stronger dialogic orientation is also associated with better organization-media relationships. A stronger engagement in media relations also has a more positive impact on the quality of organization-media relationship. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study are limited to a sample of NGOs from India. Future research should address more diverse samples to better understand the dynamics of media relations in NGOs, and how their patterns of media relations, use of information subsidies, culture and media choice shape news coverage and their impact in developing civil society.

Originality/value

By approaching media relations from an organizational perspective to investigate media relations in the NGO sector to address an under-researched area, the study is able to draw out the significant relationships between and among three distinct and yet connected conceptual building blocks of public relations.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2010

Graeme David Sterne

The purpose of this paper is to describe media perceptions of public relations in New Zealand and to explore the reasons behind these perceptions with a view to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe media perceptions of public relations in New Zealand and to explore the reasons behind these perceptions with a view to identifying what public relations practitioners and Public Relations Institute of New Zealand (PRINZ) can do to improve the perceptions and build a better working relationship given the key nature of the public relationsmedia relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 30 editors, news managers, business editors and senior news reporters from a full range of New Zealand's radio, television, print and online media were interviewed in late 2007. Maori and Pacific Island media were also included in order to gather perspectives from the non‐mainstream.

Findings

Media perceptions of public relations in New Zealand are largely (but not exclusively) negative. The relationship has four faces – sworn enemies; traditional rivals; close collaboration; and being in a different place (not connecting). Antagonism from media practitioners is largely based on experiences with public relations practitioners but also on self created identities. Variations are due to power differentials such as self and other definition, realities in the media landscape, and perceived misalignment of interests.

Research limitations/implications

This study only looks at the relationship from a media persective. A similar study of public relations practitioner perspectives would be the sensible next step. Further investigation of ethnic models of media and public relations are needed because they have not been done before and they may produce fresh ways of understanding and framing public relations.

Practical implications

This study argues that outright media hostility is hypocritical and unhelpful but that professional rivalry is healthy. Public relations practitioners in New Zealand need to improve their treatment of the media at a relational level and learn how to relate to other cultures more effectively. This is crucial because the strongest influence on media perceptions of public relations is the behaviour of public relations practitioners.

Originality/value

This study focuses on the perceptions of senior media in New Zealand. It demonstrates the array of perceptions and reveals that ethnic media feels disconnected from mainstream public relations. This study explains why this is and suggests some practical steps to take to remedy this rift. It also identifies more general measures public relations practitioners need to take to improve the crucial public relationsmedia relationship.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Jennifer Vardeman-Winter and Katie Place

The purpose of this paper is to explore how practitioner culture is maintained despite legal, technical, and educational issues resulting from the deluge of social media

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how practitioner culture is maintained despite legal, technical, and educational issues resulting from the deluge of social media. The authors examined the nexus of practitioner culture, social media usage, and regulatory forces like policies, authority figures, and social norms.

Design/methodology/approach

To explore practitioner culture, a cultural studies approach was used. Specifically, the circuit of culture model framed data analysis. The authors conducted qualitative interviews with 20 US public relations practitioners.

Findings

Social media emerged as integral for cultural maintenance at every point in the circuit of culture. Practitioners expressed shared meanings about the regulations of social media as the reinvention of communication amidst growing pains; blurred public-private boundaries; nuanced rules of netiquette; and new systems of measurement and education.

Research limitations/implications

The authors propose a regulation-formality hypothesis and regulation-identification articulations that should be considered in public relations practice, research, and education.

Practical implications

Findings suggest best practices to help practitioners negotiate their personal identities and the identities of their organizations because of the unregulated nature of social media.

Originality/value

This study fills the need for more qualitative, in-depth research that describes the cultural implications of social media in public relations to better address misunderstandings or gaps between its perceived effectiveness and actual use.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Augustine Pang

The prevailing challenge faced by practitioners is to conduct effective media relations, especially with the proliferation of diverse media platforms both online and…

Abstract

Purpose

The prevailing challenge faced by practitioners is to conduct effective media relations, especially with the proliferation of diverse media platforms both online and offline. For such a predominant and critical function, a systematic approach needs to be offered. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A new model is developed, drawing on insights from corporate communications and journalism literature.

Findings

This model identifies two sets of influences that practitioners should seek to understand. The internal influences include journalist mindsets, journalist routines, and newsroom routines. The external influences include extra‐media forces and media ideology.

Research limitations/implications

At this juncture, it is not able to predict causalities among the influences. What this model is able to establish is the connections among the influences. Future research can address that.

Practical implications

This model is instructive for new practitioners to view media relations as a holistic process rather than merely an information subsidy function. For seasoned practitioners, it serves to encourage them to re‐evaluate their current strategies and to engage in strategic thinking on how to transform their current practices.

Originality/value

The author has developed a new model called mediating the media that is meant to equip practitioners to conduct media relations in a systematic manner with the primary objective of winning the journalists over by the knowledge of their work and their profession. This may form the basis for an initial trail that takes media relations to the next level.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Cristina Navarro, Angeles Moreno and Ansgar Zerfass

Listening to and conversing with stakeholders has become a basic requirement for the survival of any organization in a society with insistent demands for transparency and…

Abstract

Purpose

Listening to and conversing with stakeholders has become a basic requirement for the survival of any organization in a society with insistent demands for transparency and dialogue. The purpose of this paper is to examine how Latin American practitioners are using social media for corporate and networking purposes, and their perceptions about which social media activity is more relevant for organizational stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

A population of 803 public relations professionals from 18 Latin American countries working on different hierarchical levels, both in communication departments and agencies across the region, were surveyed as part of a larger online survey. For this research, five questions about social media usage have been included in the first edition of the Latin American Communication Monitor (LCM) project.

Findings

The study shows that despite the massive incorporation of social media into communication strategies of organizations, Latin American professionals report less intensive use of these collaborative channels than do peers in the Asia-Pacific, but they are in line with colleagues from Europe. Practitioners report a cautious optimism on the success achieved in the social media arena, as well as an insignificant use of these tools for professional networking purposes.

Research limitations/implications

This paper touches only four sections of the LCM 2014/2015. Participant fatigue may have negatively impacted the quality of the data. A large sample of professionals was approached, but a much small number initiated and completed the online survey. This resulted in the lack of representation of some countries in the subcontinent. In the future, greater participation is needed to allow for a more comprehensive comparative analysis.

Practical implications

This research provides a more in-depth look at the current state of public relations practice in Latin America and the use of social media channels to communicate with stakeholders. Even if social media continue to create unprecedented opportunities, social media platforms have not been widely adopted by professionals in the region, probably due to the lack of appropriate structures, cultures and strategies for participative modes of social media communication.

Social implications

This dearth of knowledge about how PR professionals use social media affects the engagement process, and as a result, the reputation, legitimization, satisfaction with and trust in organizations. Without listening carefully to stakeholder needs, satisfying these needs and establishing a real conversation, organizations will not be able to attain the sought-after engagement that leads to a stable and lasting relation with the public.

Originality/value

Although numerous articles on the situation of public relations in different Latin American countries have been published, this research is first attempt to investigate the use of social media channels in the subcontinent through opinions of a representative sample of professionals.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2020

Suk Chong Tong and Fanny Fong Yee Chan

Market-oriented relations has been regarded as a kind of public relations practices widely performed by the practitioners of public relations and marketing. This study…

Abstract

Purpose

Market-oriented relations has been regarded as a kind of public relations practices widely performed by the practitioners of public relations and marketing. This study attempts to discuss market-oriented relations in the digital era in which public relations and marketing practitioners' involvement in managing market-oriented relations was simultaneously related to their perceptions of interactivity effects, value of public relations and benefits of digital media usage in public relations practices.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-administrated online survey targeting 241 practitioners engaged in coordinating public relations activities in Hong Kong was conducted in 2017.

Findings

Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis showed that practitioners' involvement in market-oriented relations practices had significant positive effects on their perceptions of interactivity effects, value of public relations and benefits of digital media usage. Practitioners' perceptions of interactivity effects and benefits of digital media usage were positively affected by their perceptions of public relations value, particularly public relations effectiveness. Clients' profitability and business intelligence, as well as interactivity effects in terms of involvement and perceived customization were practitioners' key concerns in managing market-oriented relations.

Originality/value

This study explores how practitioners of public relations and marketing perceived and practiced public relations in the digital era. Specifically, the conception of market-oriented relations in regard to the use of digital media was discussed in the proposed structural model.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Patrick Merle and Karen Freberg

The purpose of this study is to explore whether public relations professors’ presence on social media and the inclusion of a social media assignment influence students…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore whether public relations professors’ presence on social media and the inclusion of a social media assignment influence students’ perceptions of a course.

Design/methodology/approach

The experimental portion of this investigation consisted of a 2 (the presence or absence of a professor’s social media accounts) × 2 (the presence or absence of a social media assignment) factorial design resulting in four conditions.

Findings

The presence of a social media assignment positively influences students’ intent to register for a public relations course.

Research limitations/implications

The manipulation of a professor’s social media use and the inclusion of a social media assignment might have been too subtle. A more explicit scenario might elicit more reactions from the participants.

Practical implications

This study discussed key findings and best practices for professors who may want to use social media and the use of social media assignments in the classroom.

Originality/value

This experimental investigation emerged from a distinct need to understand whether university students expect their professors to engage in social media activities.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2009

Ehsan Khodarahmi

The purpose of this paper is to identify all important aspects of media relations researched by others and write a succinct literature review in order to facilitate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify all important aspects of media relations researched by others and write a succinct literature review in order to facilitate the data gathering procedure for the future research in the field. Reliable references are quoted to fulfil the purpose of this paper.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper aims to provide an easy to read literature review about media relations and explain terms by appropriate examples. This is done by reading other articles from previous research and reviewed contemporary issues in terms of media relations that businesses face and how they manage the whole process.

Findings

Throughout the course of the work, it was found that many small to medium‐sized businesses and organisations do not actually plan for their media relations and have limited knowledge of the concept. However larger organisations and conglomerates have a good understanding of media relations and use it as a powerful PR tool. Just a few of them integrate their media relations with other components of PR and this can allow some speculations.

Originality/value

Media relations should not be used when issues and crises rise; it is essential to have constant liaison with top media owners in order to be informed about what is going on in the market. This allows adopting/changing strategies when needed in order to earn more public trust, as well as proactively identifying potential issues. Such flexibility and relationship with the media helps businesses to hinder potential issues from being turned to any kind of situation, which may harm own brands and publicity. Therefore customers feel valued and the government trust that particular business activity, because it is in favour with the society. Hence it gives invaluable credit to the business of the company.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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