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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Bill Gerrard

This paper analyses the media ownership of professional sports teams. The theory of vertical integration is used to identify internal efficiency gains, lower uncertainty…

Abstract

This paper analyses the media ownership of professional sports teams. The theory of vertical integration is used to identify internal efficiency gains, lower uncertainty and increased market power as general explanations. The industryspecific reasons are examined, particularly the importance of securing access to broadcasting rights. The potential implications for teams, leagues and fans are discussed. It is suggested that media ownership of teams may undermine the sporting and financial viability of leagues thus necessitating intervention by sports administrators and government regulators.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Kara Chan and James U. McNeal

The current study aims to examine how media ownership, media usage and attention to advertising vary among urban and rural children in Mainland China and also to collect…

Abstract

Purpose

The current study aims to examine how media ownership, media usage and attention to advertising vary among urban and rural children in Mainland China and also to collect information about the contexts of media usage and time spent on various activities including media usage.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 1,977 urban and rural children ages six to 13 in the four Chinese cities of Beijing, Guangzhou, Nanjing and Shanghai, and in the rural areas of the four provinces of Heilongjian, Hubei, Hunan, and Yunnan, was conducted in March 2003 to May 2004. Questionnaires were distributed through 16 elementary schools and local researchers were selected and trained to administer the data collection.

Findings

Media ownership and media exposure were high for television, children's books, cassette players, VCD players and radios among both urban and rural samples. In general, media ownership, exposure and usage were higher among urban children than among rural children. However, television ownership and television exposure were slightly higher among rural children than among urban children. The urban‐rural gap between media ownership and media exposure was more prominent for new media such as DVD and computer/internet. Chinese children had low to medium attention to advertising. Rural children reported a higher attention to television commercial than urban children, while urban children reported a higher attention to other forms of advertising than rural children. Media usage by sex and by age group was also reported.

Research limitations/implications

Three of the four surveyed urban cities were highly advanced in terms of their economies and advertising development compared with all other Chinese cities.

Practical implications

The study should serve as an advertising media‐planning guideline for marketers and advertisers in China. It can help marketers select the right type of media to reach a specific age‐sex profile of urban and rural Chinese children. Television, the internet and children's print media can be good potential media for promotion to urban children. TV, children's books, cassette tapes, VCDs and radios can be good potential media for promotion to rural children.

Originality/value

This paper offers insights for designing media strategies to disseminate market information to urban as well as rural children in China.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2007

Lars P. Andersen, Birgitte Tufte, Jeanette Rasmussen and Kara Chan

The purpose of this paper is to present a study that compares ownership and usage of new media among young “tween” consumers in Denmark and Hong Kong. Further, it shows…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a study that compares ownership and usage of new media among young “tween” consumers in Denmark and Hong Kong. Further, it shows the ways of finding new interesting web sites.

Design/methodology/approach

In 2004‐2005 a survey was conducted in Denmark and Hong Kong of 434 fourth, fifth and sixth class students. Questionnaires were distributed in six elementary schools. Hypotheses about new media ownership and usage in the two societies are formulated based on the economic development and individualistic/collective cultural dimensions of the societies.

Findings

Household ownership of new media, ownership of mobile phone and heavy use of the internet were found to be more prevalent among Danish tweens than among Hong Kong tweens. Danish tweens were more likely to use mobile phones and the internet for interpersonal communication and for enjoyment than Hong Kong tweens. Hong Kong tweens used the internet more for educational purposes than Danish tweens. The results seem to support that adoption and consumption of new media are motivated differently in cultures of individualism and collectivism, and consequently that the tween consumer segment is not as globally homogeneous as it is claimed to be.

Research limitations/implications

The study was based on a convenience sample, thus it may be problematic to generalize from the findings.

Practical implications

The study can serve as a guideline for marketing communication targeting tweens. The emphasis on the hedonic use and social function of new media may be suitable for a highly developed, individualistic society. In collective societies, marketers may need to put emphasis on the instrumental values of new media, such as improving academic performance.

Originality/value

This paper offers insights into designing communication strategies for Danish and Hong Kong tweens, particularly when incorporating new media. Findings are compared with existing preconceptions of the tween segment in the marketing literature.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2017

Sonia Aguiar

This chapter presents an overview of the Brazilian regional media groups that are characterized by cross-ownership of media outlets in the four main reference platforms…

Abstract

This chapter presents an overview of the Brazilian regional media groups that are characterized by cross-ownership of media outlets in the four main reference platforms for news coverage: daily print, radio, broadcast television, and Web.

The research uses institutional documents to explore the history and operating mode of the groups that own the 50 best-selling newspapers in the country. The theoretical approach is guided by the notion of “spatialization” applied to business communication by Vincent Mosco, and by the concepts of “region,” “regionality,” and “regionalization” based upon authors aligned with the critical thinking approach in the field of geography.

The study identifies the multiple geographical scales at which these groups operate, as well as their dominant business models and the sources of their owners’ capital. Based on this analysis, it argues that the variables which are applied to the large-circulation media at a national level cannot be automatically transferred to the regional and local levels.

The study of regional media reveals a landscape that has not received adequate attention from communications researchers worldwide. It also points to problems which deserve more investigation and elaboration. This represents a new challenge for media studies, for the political economy of communication, and for the nascent field of geography of communication.

This chapter provides a distinctive and nuanced approach to the Brazilian media system. It can inspire other studies on regional communication which take into account the specificities of their geographic scales.

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Abstract

Details

Journalism and Austerity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-417-0

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Yang Ji, Erhua Zhou and Wenbo Guo

Anchored in the role of a social arbiter, the purpose of this study is to examine whether and how media coverage has an impact on CEO overconfidence and further explore…

Abstract

Purpose

Anchored in the role of a social arbiter, the purpose of this study is to examine whether and how media coverage has an impact on CEO overconfidence and further explore how media ownership and Confucianism affect the relationship in the Chinese context.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 1,492 Chinese listed companies from 2010 to 2015, the study adopts random effects models to empirically analyze the effect of media coverage on CEO overconfidence and the roles of media ownership and Confucianism.

Findings

The paper finds that media coverage is significantly and positively associated with CEO overconfidence, and the positive relationship between media coverage and CEO overconfidence becomes stronger for state-controlled media. What is more, the influence of media coverage on CEO overconfidence is attenuated for those firms located in stronger Confucianism atmosphere. A further analysis reveals that different tenors of media coverage yield asymmetric effects.

Originality/value

The paper provides a new and solid support for the argument that media praise stimulates CEO overconfidence and increases the knowledge about under what conditions CEO overconfidence varies, broadly speaking which fosters the development of upper echelons theory (UET). Meanwhile, the results extend the literature on media effect and information processing. The findings are also beneficial to improve corporate decisions and government regulation on Chinese media systems.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Steffi De Jans, Liselot Hudders and Veroline Cauberghe

This study aims to examine adolescents’ (between 12 and 18 years) perceptions of their knowledge and skills related to advertising (i.e. dispositional advertising…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine adolescents’ (between 12 and 18 years) perceptions of their knowledge and skills related to advertising (i.e. dispositional advertising literacy). More specifically, adolescents’ beliefs about their recognition and understanding of advertising (cognitive facet), their emotional reaction to advertising (affective facet) and their moral evaluation of advertising (moral facet) were investigated together with their beliefs about the way they resist advertising.

Design/methodology/approach

A large-scale survey was conducted, taking information from 2,602 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years.

Findings

The findings show that adolescents believe they can recognize advertising reasonably well and have a moderate understanding of it. They tend to be negative toward advertising, perceive it as an unfair practice and claim to resist it strongly. In addition, adolescents’ self-reported moral and affective advertising literacy positively affect advertising resistance. Adolescents’ cognitive advertising literacy increases with the number of different media device types owned, and cognitive and moral advertising literacy increase with age.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to examine adolescents’ beliefs about their dispositional advertising literacy. Most previous studies examined advertising literacy among young children (under 12 years) or adults after exposure to a specific advertising format (i.e. situational advertising literacy), while this study focuses on adolescents’ self-reported levels of cognitive, moral and affective dispositional advertising literacy. In addition, the focus on resistance strategies to examine how adolescents resist advertising is unique.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2018

Louisa Ha, Claire Youngnyo Joa, Itay Gabay and Kisun Kim

The purpose of this paper is to examine how college students’ social media use affects their school e-mail avoidance and campus involvement.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how college students’ social media use affects their school e-mail avoidance and campus involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed face-to-face interviews and self-administered survey/quantitative data.

Findings

Communication and business students are more involved on campus and likely to use social media as the primary communication medium than other majors. Social media and text messages are not the culprits of school e-mail avoidance. University departments, student organizations, and faculty advisors’ e-mails are most likely to be avoided. Social media users can be categorized as either “instant communicators” or “online content curators.” Facebook is the only social media brand conducive to campus involvement.

Research limitations/implications

This study only used one university’s students as sample. In examining school e-mail avoidance, it only focused on the source of e-mail. The study is limited by its sole reliance on quantitative behavioral data.

Practical implications

University administrators and academic advisors need to reconsider the e-mail communication to students, target at the instant communicator social media users, and use Facebook to create a strong sense of community and campus involvement for their students. Marketers can utilize the two social media user groups in selecting social media in targeting to students.

Originality/value

The study offered empirical evidence to explain how social media affect students’ school e-mail avoidance and the role of campus media and specific social media outlet on campus involvement. It advances the knowledge of media choice of students and the social media user groups.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Kara Chan and James McNeal

This study investigates household access to traditional and new media, media exposure, time spent on media and other activities, and attention to advertising among rural…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates household access to traditional and new media, media exposure, time spent on media and other activities, and attention to advertising among rural children in mainland China.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 1,008 rural children ages six to 13 in four Chinese rural provinces was conducted in March 2003. Questionnaires were distributed through elementary schools. The number of students in each school varied from 150 (in Heilongjiang) to 575 (in Yunnan). All the schools were situated in counties with population of less than 131,000. A national research company was appointed to administer the data collection.

Findings

Ninety‐eight percent of rural Chinese children have access to television and 71 percent have access to children’s books. Access to other broadcast and print media was under 50 percent. Most of the media consumption was in‐home. Rural children spent most of the time playing with friends, study and watching television. Older children spent more time on media and other activities than younger children. Boys spent more time on electronic games, radio and videotapes than girls. Respondents reported that they sometimes watched television commercials while they seldom attended to advertisements in all other media.

Originality/value

This paper offers insight to design media strategies to disseminate product information to rural children in China.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2020

Asli Elgün

Introduction – Community media was created as an alternative to the ever-globalising and rapidly monopolised media industry. This media is a unity that does not seek…

Abstract

Introduction – Community media was created as an alternative to the ever-globalising and rapidly monopolised media industry. This media is a unity that does not seek profit, voices the demands and problems of the community it serves, seeks the benefit of the public, and its creators are members of the community. It is seen as a tool for the development of democracy and pluralism, and to increase social impact. The sustainability of this tool has emerged as a debated topic in recent years. Community media can both serve as a tool for sustainable development and can be defined as a part of sustainable communication. The sustainability of community media is all about making the presence of the communicative tools of the community permanent and sustainable, or to insure the continuation of the community’s channels of communication as a part of a specific strategy.

Purpose – In this chapter, the author will discuss the concepts of community media, sustainability and female-oriented non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and then attempt to explain the media usage habits and the factors that affect the sustainability of the preferred channels of the female-oriented NGOs in İzmir.

Methodology – The study has been designed using a case study design based on qualitative research methods. Data have been collected via document analysis and in-depth face-to-face interviews. The data acquired were analysed descriptively.

Findings – Findings from the study show that the financial, content production-related, technical, and legal factors affect the sustainability of community media.

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