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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2020

Shu-Chuan Chu, Tao Deng and Hong Cheng

This study aims to provide an assessment of the existing literature on the role of social media advertising in hospitality, tourism and travel (HTT) as well as an agenda…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide an assessment of the existing literature on the role of social media advertising in hospitality, tourism and travel (HTT) as well as an agenda for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

Covering a 15-year time span (2004–2019), this study is focused on journal papers archived in two academic databases in social sciences: Business Source Complete and Communication and Mass Media Complete. Each of the 192 papers collected was coded for 8 major variables: journal, year of publication, research topic, country studied, type of social media investigated, method, theoretical underpinning and key findings.

Findings

Three major topic areas are identified in this study: use of social media from consumer’s perspective, use of social media from organization’s perspective and effects of social media.

Research limitations/implications

Although a few prior papers have provided a literature review of social media in tourism and hospitality, no review-based papers have ever examined social media as an advertising vehicle in the context of HTT. Most reviews to date have been limited to general social media studies, without much advancement of theory building in advertising research.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper represents the first theoretical review of academic research on social media advertising in HTT. The review concludes by suggesting a theoretical framework for studying social media advertising in HTT and offering an agenda for future research.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2021

Miral Sabry AlAshry

The purpose of this study is to investigate Libyan journalists’ perspectives regarding the media laws Articles 37,132, 38 and 46, which address media freedom in the new…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate Libyan journalists’ perspectives regarding the media laws Articles 37,132, 38 and 46, which address media freedom in the new Libyan Constitution of 2017.

Design/methodology/approach

Focus group discussions were done with 35 Libyan journalists, 12 of them from the Constitution Committee, while 23 of them reported the update of the constitution in the Libyan Parliament.

Findings

The results of the study indicated that there were media laws articles that did not conform to the international laws and United Nations treaties, which the Libyan Parliament committee approved. Another finding from the journalists was the Constitution should provide and guarantee press freedom, while media laws articles approved to put a paragraph about “censorship” in the press and media as a tool to silence government opposition. In addition, journalists indicated future constitution should redraft Article 38 to conform with Article 19 of the “International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,” to support the “principles of freedom of expression and information” without control. Moreover, Article 46 needs to be changed and linked to the “provisions of international law on the right of information access” to improve the access and dissemination of information in the media.

Practical implications

Redrafting the constitution articles in the future can be summarised as follows: First, the Libyan Constitution should provide and guarantee press freedom without any censorship and include clear articles to protect journalists in conflict zones. Second, Articles 37,132 and 38, about “freedom of information and publication,” need to be redrafted to link with Article 19 of the “International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,” to support the principles of freedom of expression and information, and the use of this right must not be subject to prior control. Third, Article 46 needs to be changed and linked to the provisions of “International law on the Right of Access to Information” to improve access and dissemination of information in the media to protect confidentiality sources. The most important articles should be implemented (freedom of information and personal information act) because after the Arab Spring revolutions, there was a transitional period in societies and a change in the constitutions of Tunisia and Egypt. They developed legal articles about media freedom so that Libya resembles other Arab countries. From that point, the journalists recommended that all information should be protected from government interference to ensure transparency, combat corruption and protect independent journalists. These articles will open the way to add more development articles to media freedom rules in the Journalists’ Syndicate. Fourth, there are also various types of threats encountered by journalists in their work. In pursuit of their right and freedom of expression, they recommended that Libya must establish an independent self-regulatory media that are free from political and economic influence. Fifth, journalists need licenses for them to work through the syndicate. The new syndicate should play an active role to safeguard the rights of journalists, activists and media entities to carry out their work and end the self-censorship. Sixth, the constitution should also add articles to end the impunity and change the articles in the penal code. Overall, the journalists covering the conflict and war are encountering threats, violence and imprisonment. As a result, Libyan journalists must seek new legislation to defend independent journalism and freedom of expression in their deeply divided country. In addition, they need to have a strong central authority to defend journalists and journalism in wartime, where journalists are regularly threatened, abducted and sometimes killed. Also, the Libyan Journalists Syndicate should stress the importance of the media’s self-regulation to guarantee their rights to freedom of expression, grant their readers’ respect and minimise government’s interference. Finally, they need to develop new laws to grant media freedom from regulations and restrictions, as well as defend and promote democracy, the citizens’ right to be informed, as well as their right to discuss and disseminate information. There is also the need to implement articles in the constitution, articles about the protection of political speech, which would be specific enough to differentiate between what is legally permitted and what may be ethically offensive.

Originality/value

This study will help the new Libyan parliament after the legislative elections on 24 December 2021 to amend the media laws articles in the constitution.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Khaldoon Nusair, Irfan Butt and S.R. Nikhashemi

While the importance of social media will continue to grow, the purpose of this study is to provide a retrospective systematic literature review of the social media

Abstract

Purpose

While the importance of social media will continue to grow, the purpose of this study is to provide a retrospective systematic literature review of the social media research published in major hospitality and tourism journals over a specific time period.

Design/methodology/approach

The study conducted a bibliometric analysis to review the literature of 439 social media articles published in 51 hospitality and tourism journals over a 15-year time span (2002-2016).

Findings

Ulrike Gretzel authored the highest fractional citations. The results indicated that social media-related research was mostly published in top-tier journals. The International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management was amongst the four leading journals in terms of the percentage of published social media articles. While inter-country social media research collaborations were relatively modest, interestingly, inter-country collaborations have been steadily increasing in the past five years. Another finding indicated that social media research in hospitality and tourism journals has been predominantly quantitative. The results revealed six new areas within the consumer behaviour research theme, namely, eWOM, service recovery, customer satisfaction, brand/destination image and service quality. Finally, it is important to note that four new trends in social media research appeared between 2011 and 2016, namely, big data, netnography, Travel 2.0 and Web 2.0.

Research limitations/implications

While this study made significant contributions to the social media literature, some limitations do exist. For example, the current research excluded publications from major conferences, books, book chapters and dissertations. Additionally, it is not within the scope of this paper to take into account issues related to self-citations.

Practical implications

The results obtained from analysis contribute to a comprehensive understanding of social media research progress in hospitality and tourism. For example, evaluating the performance of individual scholars helps educational institutions to compete in the global university ranking system. Additionally, to compete for funding opportunities on the topic of social media, institutions can use citation counts to demonstrate their competitiveness. Furthermore, due to the expected future growth in the number of social media platforms, practitioners need to understand motivating factors and tourists’ needs in different countries, target market segments, age groups and cultures to create highly engaging communities around their brands.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the sample of this study synthesized the largest selection of social media articles published in hospitality and tourism journals. This is the first study to apply the fractional score at the author level, the adjusted appearance score at the university level and the average citation score at the journal and inter-country levels in the analysis. In addition, prevalent research orientations and research trends in social media made significant contributions to existing literature.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Book part
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Jelena Brankovic

Rankings are widely regarded as particularly well-suited for capturing the public eye, which is considered a reason why they have become ubiquitous. However, we know…

Abstract

Rankings are widely regarded as particularly well-suited for capturing the public eye, which is considered a reason why they have become ubiquitous. However, we know little about how rankings direct media attention, as well as how media in turn shape and help sustain careers of specific rankings in the public over longer periods of time. To advance our understanding of the discursive dynamics at the intersection of rankings and the press, this study examines the media career of the Global Slavery Index (GSI) by analyzing 361 newspaper and magazine articles, published between the release of index’s inaugural edition in 2013 and until the end of 2019. To interpret the media coverage, the study draws attention to GSI’s universality, highly rationalized character, and a pledge to spotlight violation of the global moral order. The examination of the media coverage points to the following properties of the index as having shaped and helped sustain its career in the public: (1) repeated publication; (2) broad conceptualization of modern slavery; and (3) the construction thereof as a measurable global burden. The study finds that, throughout the period, the media were remarkably consistent in amplifying the most dramatic elements of the index. Over time, however, the index was increasingly more invoked for other purposes, usually either to lend credibility to a story or as a way of embedding local and situational concerns into global narratives.

Details

Worlds of Rankings
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-106-9

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Luca Rollè, Fabrizio Santoniccolo, Domenico D'Amico and Tommaso Trombetta

Introduction: Media representation of intimate partner violence (IPV) can influence public opinion and understanding of the phenomena and guide health policies. The…

Abstract

Introduction: Media representation of intimate partner violence (IPV) can influence public opinion and understanding of the phenomena and guide health policies. The current review has the aim to explore and discuss international, scientific literature focused on the portrayal of IPV in written forms of news media.

Method: Searching through EBSCO and PubMed, 2,435 studies were found and 41 were included in the current review.

Results: Bias in the portrayal of IPV was found within the studies included. While IPV-related news was mainly focused on male-perpetrated violence within heterosexual couples, little attention was paid to same-sex intimate partner violence (SSIPV). Newsworthy stories dominate IPV reporting within news media and a sensationalistic style was often employed. Furthermore, contextual information was often limited and the adoption of a thematic frame was rare, while news media were found to commonly employ an episodic frame. Official sources and family, friends and neighbours were the most quoted sources in news articles, while IPV experts were rarely drawn on for information. Regarding media representation of perpetrators, mainly regarding male abusers, news articles reported several reasons behind the violence with the consequence to justify and exonerate them from their responsibilities. Female perpetrators were found to be depicted, in some cases, as ‘mad’ or ‘bad’ people. Finally, victim-blaming content emerged within many of the articles included.

Conclusion: Bias in the media representation of IPV emerged in the current review, which needs to be addressed to positively influence public opinion and to promote an adequate understanding of the phenomena.

Details

Gendered Domestic Violence and Abuse in Popular Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-781-7

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2012

Stephanie Howells

Purpose – This chapter is an exploration of how the Canadian media characterize the entire population of Canadian school shootings over a 25-year time period.…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter is an exploration of how the Canadian media characterize the entire population of Canadian school shootings over a 25-year time period.

Methodology/approach – This chapter uses frame analysis to examine how the media characterize and frame Canadian school shootings within The Globe and Mail, a Canadian national newspaper.

Findings – This chapter demonstrates that the Canadian media utilize a small number of frames consistently over the 25-year period of analysis. Instead of changing their frame use within events over time, Canadian school shootings receive their own “frame emphasis,” reflecting the unique characteristics of each particular shooting. Additionally, the media utilize “exemplars,” or references to past North American school shootings, that serve as rhetorical anchors for future discussion of shooting events as they occur.

Research limitations/implications – As only one Canadian newspaper was utilized, this chapter may not be reflective of all Canadian news media.

Social implications – This chapter demonstrates the need to explore entire populations of school shootings in order to understand media frame use within and across events over time. It also demonstrates the need for international comparisons of school shootings, as the media utilize international exemplars to demonstrate links between school shooting events.

Originality/value of chapter – This chapter is unique in that it examines the entire population of Canadian school shootings to date (n=27), and it is the first to undertake a frame analysis of exclusively Canadian shootings.

Details

School Shootings: Mediatized Violence in a Global Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-919-6

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2020

Khaldoon Nusair

This paper aims to provide a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of the current state of social media literature by examining co-word network analysis and thematic keyword…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of the current state of social media literature by examining co-word network analysis and thematic keyword analysis of both scholars and hospitality and tourism journals in three sub-periods (2002-2006, 2007-2012 and 2013-2018).

Design/methodology/approach

This research used a bibliometric analysis of social media literature in the field of hospitality and tourism by synthesizing the literature of a large sample of 601 studies over an extended time period (2002-2018).

Findings

The jump in the number of examined contexts, platforms, methodological approaches and research implications during 2007-2012 has marked the start of social media as a new phenomenon in hospitality and tourism research. Interestingly, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management was a leading contributor to social media research between 2017 and 2018. The period 2013-2018 has witnessed newly emerging trends such as “big data,” “e-tourism,” “green experience” and “smart tourism.” This study’s analysis indicated that few keywords in social media appeared in the maturity stage. New platforms such as “Expedia,” “Foursquare,” “Flickr,” “Pinterest,” “Couchsurfing” and “Twitter” appeared between 2013 and 2018.

Originality/value

The scope of past research on the evolution of social media was limited to either a few of the most popular cited journals and/or analysis within a narrow time span. In contrast, the present study aims to uncover the rapid progress in social media research between 2002 and 2018, addressing growth in breadth and depth of thematic areas. Finally, this paper concluded with the proposal of knowledge-based life cycle framework that identifies key themes related to social media research. This framework provided insights into what has been addressed in previous literature (maturity and decline stages) and reported the topics that have been under-researched (introduction and growth stages).

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

Werner H. Kunz and Gianfranco Walsh

Digital media has revolutionized societies and changed forever how we do business. This paper aims to determine the current scope of service research in the area of…

Abstract

Purpose

Digital media has revolutionized societies and changed forever how we do business. This paper aims to determine the current scope of service research in the area of digital media, identifying research gaps and introducing new research contributions to complement our knowledge of digital media.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on all service articles of the SERVSIG literature alert system from 2016 to 2019, a subset of digital media articles was identified and latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) text-mining methods were used on the abstracts and titles of the articles for topic modeling of the field. Dominant research topics were identified and depicted in a two-dimensional space.

Findings

The study identifies eight distinct topic areas of digital media in service research and shows their relationship to each other in a two-dimensional space. A clear tendency in service research towards taking primarily a customer (versus business perspective) of digital media can be observed. Further, for some journals, a trend towards specialization on particular topics could be detected.

Research limitations/implications

This article advocates for more digital media research with a stronger business perspective. Further, although particular new technologies are exciting to discuss, it seems that the importance of customer relationship topics in digital media is not reflected in the current digital media research as needed.

Originality/value

The article uses a quantitative–explorative approach to determine the current state of research in regard to digital media in services. The authors introduce 11 new studies that aim to close the knowledge gap in critical areas of digital media.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2009

Brooke Fisher Liu

The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the media's disaster coverage reflects the messages disseminated by state emergency management agencies (SEMAs).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the media's disaster coverage reflects the messages disseminated by state emergency management agencies (SEMAs).

Design/methodology/approach

SEMAs were selected as the unit of analysis because the 2008 National Response Framework designates SEMAs with primary responsibility for managing disaster planning and coordinating the inter‐governmental response to disasters. Specifically, this study identifies ten disaster frames SEMAs use through a qualitative content analysis of all the media releases distributed by three SEMAs (n=303) during a two‐year time frame. It then evaluates whether the coverage reflects SEMA's frames through a quantitative content analysis of 1,088 newspaper articles.

Findings

Taken as a whole, the research indicates that framing allows the media to efficiently tell disaster stories, but the media's disaster frames often are not ideal from the perspective of emergency managers. These frames also are affected by individuals and groups outside of the media as well as cultural and societal values.

Originality/value

The paper can help emergency managers identify which disaster frames are best suited for information subsidies (e.g. media releases) and which frames may be better suited for direct‐to‐the public dissemination (e.g. community meetings and public service announcements).

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2021

Metwaly Ali Mohamed Edakar and Ahmed Maher Khafaga Shehata

The rapid spread and severity of the coronavirus (COVID-19) virus have prompted a spate of scholarly research that deals with the pandemic. The purpose of this study is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The rapid spread and severity of the coronavirus (COVID-19) virus have prompted a spate of scholarly research that deals with the pandemic. The purpose of this study is to measure and assess the coverage of COVID-19 research on social media and the engagement of readers with COVID-19 research on social media outlets.

Design/methodology/approach

An altmetric analysis was carried out in three phases. The first focused on retrieving all papers related to COVID-19. Phase two of the research aimed to measure the presence of the retrieved papers on social media using altmetric application programming interface (API). The third phase aimed to measure Mendeley readership categories using Mendeley API to extract data of readership from Mendeley for each paper.

Findings

The study suggests that while social media platforms do not give accurate measures of the impact as given by citations, they can be used to portray the social impact of the scholarly outputs and indicate the effectiveness of COVID-19 research. The results confirm a positive correlation between the number of citations to articles in databases such as Scopus and the number of views on social media sites such as Mendeley and Twitter. The results of the current study indicated that social media could serve as an indicator of the number of citations of scientific articles.

Research limitations/implications

This study’s limitation is that the studied articles’ altmetrics performance was examined using only one of the altmetrics data service providers (altmetrics database). Hence, future research should explore altmetrics on the topic using more than one platform. Another limitation of the current research is that it did not explore the academic social media role in spreading fake information as the scope was limited to scholarly outputs on social media. The practical contribution of the current research is that it informs scholars about the impact of social media platforms on the spread and visibility of COVID-19 research. Also, it can help researchers better understand the importance of published COVID-19 research using social media.

Originality/value

This paper provides insight into the impact of COVID-19 research on social media. The paper helps to provide an understanding of how people engage with health research using altmetrics scores, which can be used as indicators of research performance.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

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