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Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2014

Christian Seelos and Johanna Mair

Social entrepreneurs create novel approaches to social problems such as poverty. But scaling these approaches to the dimension of the problem can be a difficult task. In…

Abstract

Purpose

Social entrepreneurs create novel approaches to social problems such as poverty. But scaling these approaches to the dimension of the problem can be a difficult task. In the social enterprise sector, the subject of scaling has become a key dimension of organizational performance. This chapter advances the scholarly literature on the scaling of social enterprises, a literature which is currently in an embryonic stage and characterized by conceptual ambiguity and fragmented perspectives.

Methodology/Approach

We engage realist philosophy of science to develop mechanism-based causal explanations of the scaling performance of social enterprises. We also develop a coding scheme to guide systematic empirical analysis and highlight the explanatory power of counterfactuals. Counterfactuals have been largely neglected in empirical research as they represent mechanisms that are enabled but remain unobservable – in a state of suppression or neutralization of their effects.

Findings

We question the ability of organizations to “socially engineer” desired outcomes and introduce a new construct – organizational closure competence. Anchored in realism, this construct provides a basis for productive approaches to social engineering. We elaborate on the importance of organizational closure competencies for scaling, derive a series of propositions, and develop ideas for future research and for practice.

Research, Practical and Social Implications

Applying a realist lens allows us to add empirical rigor to research on social enterprises and scaling. Our approach constitutes a move from rich narratives to causal models and informs the way we design and evaluate efforts to address important societal challenges.

Originality/Value of Chapter

This chapter demonstrates how to operationalize realist philosophy of science for causal explanations of complex social phenomena and better utilize its theoretical and practical value.

Details

Social Entrepreneurship and Research Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-141-1

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2019

Hongying Tan, Umair Akram and Yujia Sui

Uncertain level discount (ULD) is a type of promotion combining regular discount (RD) with uncertainty. The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of ULD on…

Abstract

Purpose

Uncertain level discount (ULD) is a type of promotion combining regular discount (RD) with uncertainty. The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of ULD on consumers’ perceived quality compared with RD and to identify the relevant influencing mechanism and boundary for the effectiveness of ULD.

Design/methodology/approach

Three online experiments were conducted with 445 participants from China. First, experiment 1 compares the attractiveness of ULD and RD. Second, experiment 2 evaluates the impacts of ULD and RD on consumers’ perceived quality and clarifies the mechanism in this process. Finally, experiment 3 examines the moderating effect of product knowledge.

Findings

ULD has the same level of attractiveness as RD with equivalent expected discount value for consumers. Besides, consumers in ULD give higher ratings to product quality compared with those in RD, and the lower diagnosticity of price cues in ULD underlies the differential effects of ULD vs RD. Furthermore, product knowledge moderates the relationship between the two promotions and perceived quality.

Practical implications

The findings provide valuable guidance for managers to conduct promotional campaigns. ULD is an effective promotion to attract consumers to purchase with keeping consumers’ perceived quality high, and such effectiveness will rise for products that consumers are unfamiliar with. Managers can make rational use of ULD to achieve positive promotion results in both the short and long term.

Originality/value

Few studies pay attention to the long-term effects of the uncertain promotion. This research profoundly investigates the impact of ULD on perceived quality, which complements existing studies from a more integrated perspective that combines short- and long-term effects. Also, this research identifies the mechanism based on the cue diagnosticity theory and puts forward a new explanation for positive uncertainty in uncertain promotions. Finally, this research applies the impact of product knowledge on information process strategies into the uncertain promotion, which clarifies the utility boundary of ULD from a new perspective and offers a more comprehensive understanding for this promotion.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Sorin Gavrila Gavrila and Antonio De Lucas Ancillo

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has taken society, business and industries by surprise leading to a worldwide economic recession, pushing organizations to…

Abstract

Purpose

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has taken society, business and industries by surprise leading to a worldwide economic recession, pushing organizations to rethink their business model in order to shift from activity shutdown toward sustainable growth. The purpose of this research is to comprehend the implications and relationship between entrepreneurship, innovation, digitization and digital transformation aspects as the levers to achieve this goal.

Design/methodology/approach

Following the existing literature, an empirical approach has been established involving a quantitative analysis of secondary information obtained from official datasets and reports.

Findings

The COVID-19 pandemic was found to be an unfortunate accelerator regarding both consumers' habits and organizations' innovation and digital transformation, breaking with the past leading to new sustainable growth business models.

Practical implications

The research provides an underlying outcome that addresses how wealth and economic value could be generated within the framework of new economic models in a post-pandemic environment.

Originality/value

The research highlights how the pandemic has disrupted what was known about sustainable business growth, and how this affects the future of business beyond the pandemic scenario, transforming the way society, businesses and customers interact.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2018

Ming Xue, Huizhang Shen and Jidi Zhao

Using protest event analysis, this study aims to investigate which risk factors influence the severity of environmental protests in China, thus filling a gap in…

Abstract

Purpose

Using protest event analysis, this study aims to investigate which risk factors influence the severity of environmental protests in China, thus filling a gap in China-related environmental protest literature.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a database derived from media coverage of 129 environmental protests in China from 2009 to 2015, this empirical study identifies underlying risk factors influencing environmental protest severity, quantifies these protest cases and verifies the associations between risk factors and severity using ordered logistic regression.

Findings

The results show that higher environmental health threat, economic loss, distrust of local government, lack of local governmental response, improper local government action and higher population density are likely to increase environmental protest severity; however, contrary to expectations, environmental information disclosure has no significant effect. These findings illuminate the vital and variational role of local government throughout all stages of the evolutionary process in environmental protests. Moreover, public distrust of local government is the principal cause of these protests.

Originality/value

This study enhances the understanding of how Chinese environmental protests arise from the identified risk factors and contributes to quantitative multi-case research in this area. Furthermore, the findings may help local governments in China, as well as in other countries, to enact positive measures to prevent serious environmental protests and improve their ability to address the environmental problems that cause protests. More effective governance can decrease the number and severity of environmental protests and thus promote social stability.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 17 March 2020

Steven Si, Hui Chen, Wan Liu and Yushan Yan

The purpose of this study is to connect disruptive innovation and sharing economy by exploring the underlying mechanisms of how a disruptive innovation–based business…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to connect disruptive innovation and sharing economy by exploring the underlying mechanisms of how a disruptive innovation–based business project creates, delivers and captures value in sharing economy through analyzing the case of bike sharing in China.

Design/methodology/approach

An elaborate case study is used to unfold the process as well as the underlying mechanism and relationships among disruptive innovation, business model, bike-sharing business and value creation in sharing economy.

Findings

Bike sharing case fits well in disruptive innovation theory. Its low price and great convenience have led to rapid development in China. However, failures to improve their products and services and build an effective business model which can create, deliver and capture value have caused the failure of many bike-sharing companies. Other factors such as strategic decision-making, internal management problems, external conflicts as well as uncivilized consumer behaviors have also inhibited the sustainable development of bike-sharing companies.

Originality/value

The theoretical contributions of this study include the following: to explore how a disruptive innovation–based business creates, delivers and captures value successfully in sharing economy. This study contributes to both research and practice on disruptive innovation and sharing economy.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 59 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2019

Adi Sapir

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the emergence of organized academic entrepreneurship in the context of institutional complexity, in which multiple institutional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the emergence of organized academic entrepreneurship in the context of institutional complexity, in which multiple institutional logics co-exist. The paper is focused on the dynamics of internal legitimation of new research commercialization initiatives and the interrelations between internal and external legitimacy and their underlying institutional logics.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a historical case study of the founding of Yeda Research and Development Company at the Weizmann Institute of Science in 1959, the paper examines the rhetorical struggles between the proponents and opponents of the company. The analysis is based on archival data and focuses on the analysis of a meeting of the Institute’s Scientific Committee in which the new company was introduced and debated.

Findings

The findings show the strengths and limitations of rhetorical legitimation work in supporting the establishment of new organizational initiatives. Rhetorical strategies that bridge the different institutional logics in the field can enable the emergence of new enterprises. Yet, when organizational practices do not concur with the institutional logic on which internal legitimacy is based, new organizational initiatives become illegitimate and organizational actors withdraw their support.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to a deeper understanding of the under-researched process of constructing internal legitimacy for an organizational change, both in general and in the specific context of academic entrepreneurship. Further, this study contributes new insights to research on the historical process of the emergence of organized research commercialization in universities in the context of institutional complexity.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2021

Durmus Alper Camlibel and Salih Hakan Can

The purpose of this study was to expand available knowledge on predictors of male inmate violence by examining a large set of variables offered by the importation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to expand available knowledge on predictors of male inmate violence by examining a large set of variables offered by the importation, deprivation and threat appraisal and coping theories.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 465 male inmates from five medium-security prisons in Wisconsin completed surveys to report demographics, violence, personality, social stressors and healthy coping behaviors to help manage risk by identifying key factors.

Findings

Inmates reported more violence with the “imported” characteristics of younger age, less incarceration, no college experience and personality patterns of impulsiveness, hostility and internal locus of control. More violence was reported by inmates with social stressors experienced from family and correctional staff. Additionally, less violence was reported by inmates with more healthy coping behaviors of exercise and social support, especially from family and other inmates.

Research limitations/implications

One must remain uncertain about whether similar patterns of demographics, personality, social stressors and coping behaviors associated with inmate violence would be found in other US prisons. Future research can determine whether similar predictors of violence are found for women inmates and the consideration of ethnicity should be warranted when examining predictors of inmate violence.

Practical implications

Prison administrators can develop new programs to reduce social stressors and increase healthy coping behaviors found by this study to be significantly associated with reduced violence, exercise and social support from other inmates and family.

Social implications

This research recommends that educating and training correctional staff for a trauma-informed care approach is an integral part of lessening the effects of “pains of imprisonment” on inmate violence and healing the effects of trauma.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study provides the first direct comparison of social stressors from other inmates, correctional staff or family members outside the prison as possible predictors of male inmate violence.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2020

Yves-Rose Porcena, K. Praveen Parboteeah and Neal P. Mero

Empirical evidence concerning the relationship between diversity and firm performance continues to produce mixed results that are context-dependent (Guillaume et al.

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1462

Abstract

Purpose

Empirical evidence concerning the relationship between diversity and firm performance continues to produce mixed results that are context-dependent (Guillaume et al., 2017). Additionally, little is known about the relationship between workplace diversity management and corporate ethics and whether diversity management is a contextual factor to consider in ethics research. This study assesses whether diversity management's contributions to firm performance are maximized through its effects on the firm's ethical processes. This paper examines three manifestations of diversity management (diversity recruitment, diversity staffing, and valuing diversity) and their relationship with firm performance as mediated by internal and external ethics.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a sample from the Fortune 500 list of companies. The variables were constructed using several relevant indicators and applied to archival data collected from corporations' websites. The hypotheses on the relationship among diversity management, corporate ethics, and firm performance were tested using regression from the data gathered on 109 firms.

Findings

The analysis indicated that diversity management relates to both aspects of corporate ethics (internal and external ethics) but that only external ethics relate to firm performance. Results also found that external ethics partially mediate the relationship between diversity management and firm performance.

Research limitations/implications

There are limitations to using corporate websites as sources of data. Furthermore, the research design assumed that diversity is an antecedent of ethics. Nevertheless, the findings convincingly demonstrate that diversity management has a strong positive relationship with both aspects of corporate ethics. Recommendations for further research are offered.

Practical implications

The paper shows the value of diversity management and its impact on corporate ethics. Knowing that diversity management efforts contribute positively beyond their intended purpose may encourage managers to continue or implement such efforts, which could lead to more diverse and ethical workplaces and increased firm performance.

Originality/value

The paper addresses critical gaps in research and responds to repeated calls for studies integrating the business case for workplace diversity with its moral imperative (Alder and Gilbert, 2006; van Dijk et al., 2012; Yang and Konrad, 2011). The paper also provides evidence of a link from diversity management to firm performance through external ethics.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 59 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Kangyin Lu, Jinxia Zhu and Haijun Bao

Human resources have become a key issue in relation to the strong competition between service firms. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship…

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5464

Abstract

Purpose

Human resources have become a key issue in relation to the strong competition between service firms. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between high-performance human resource management (HRM) within this field to firm performance, making a useful attempt to explore the “black box” of enterprise human resources management effect on firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to validate the relationship between high-performance HRM and firm performance, Chinese service industry samples were collected. Structural equation modeling and regression are adopted to estimate the direct effect of high-performance HRM on firm performance and the mediating role of innovation.

Findings

The results show that the impacts of high-performance HRM on firm performance are significant. Moreover, innovation plays a partial mediating role between them. Training, work analysis and employee participation has a significantly positive impact on firm performance, while effects of profit sharing, employee development and performance evaluation on enterprise performance is not significant. The results strongly support the hypothesis that innovation holds intermediary variables between high-performance HRM and firm performance.

Practical implications

Studying the relationship between high-performance HRM and firm performance can help Chinese enterprises more reasonable and effective learning foreign advanced management ideas and methods. And then can help Chinese enterprises to establish a high-performance HRM system that is suitable for Chinese enterprises; the research can help enterprises to identify meaningful practice of human resources management, outstanding keys, and perfect the HRM system of enterprises; research on innovation and innovative thinking is conducive to develop employees’ innovation motive, promote employee’ innovative behavior, and improve firm performance.

Originality/value

This paper takes innovation as a mediating variable into the model and studies the intermediary role of innovation.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 115 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2019

Patricia Bazan and Elsa Estevez

The purpose of this paper is to assess the state of the art of social business process management (Social BPM), explaining applied approaches, existing tools and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the state of the art of social business process management (Social BPM), explaining applied approaches, existing tools and challenges and to propose a research agenda for encouraging further development of the area.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology comprises a qualitative analysis using secondary data. The approach relies on searches of scientific papers conducted in well-known databases, identifying research work related to Social BPM solutions and those contributing with social characteristics to BPM. Based on the identified papers, the authors selected the most relevant and the latest publications, and categorized their contributions and findings based on open and selective coding. In total, the analysis is based on 51 papers that were selected and analyzed in depth.

Findings

Main results show that there are several studies investigating modeling approaches for socializing process activities and for capturing implicit knowledge possessed and used by process actors, enabling to add some kind of flexibility to business processes. However, despite the proven interest in the area, there are not yet adequate tools providing effective solutions for Social BPM. Based on our findings, the authors propose a research agenda comprising three main lines: contributions of social software (SS) to Social BPM, Social BPM as a mechanism for adding flexibility to and for discovering new business processes and Social BPM for enhancing business processes with the use of new technologies. The authors also identify relevant problems for each line.

Practical implications

Some SS tools, like wikis, enable managing social aspects in executing business processes and can be used to coordinate simple business processes. Despite they are commonly used, they are not yet mature tools supporting Social BPM and more efficient tools are yet to appear. The lack of tools preclude organizations from benefitting from implicit knowledge owned by and shared among business process actors, which could contribute to better-informed decisions related to organizational processes. In addition, more research is needed for considering Social BPM as an approach for organizations to benefit from the adoption of new technologies in their business processes.

Originality/value

The paper assesses the state of the art in Social BPM, an incipient area in research and practice. The area can be defined as the intersection of two bigger areas highly relevant for organizations; on the one hand, the management and execution of business processes; and on the other hand, the use of social software, including social media tools, for leveraging on implicit knowledge shared by business process actors to improving efficiency of business processes.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

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