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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Dafnis N. Coudounaris

This paper aims to shed light on how small- and medium-sized enterprises can use export promotion programmes (EPPs) to improve their performance. The proposed conceptual…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to shed light on how small- and medium-sized enterprises can use export promotion programmes (EPPs) to improve their performance. The proposed conceptual model focuses on the need that the mechanism of awareness and use of EPPs should play a more active strategic role in shaping the firm’s export performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A meta-analysis of the pertinent literature reveals 16 studies on EPPs.

Findings

This study reveals that there are 16 relationships which are important based on the meta-analytic correlations. The analysis of these relationships shows that EPPs, export performance, strategy, knowledge, commitment, capabilities, competitive advantage and experience are the mostly used constructs.

Originality/value

This investigation supports the view that the moderating effects of the improvement of trust relationship between partners, i.e. importers to exporter and public policymakers to exporter, and the mechanism of awareness and use of EPPs accelerate the firm’s export performance. EPPs explain 31.3 per cent of the variance in export performance indicating their catalytic role in the exports’ growth.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2017

Shivendra Pandey, OP Wali and Rajan Chandra

The current study aims to evaluate the utilization of export incentives of the Indian Government. A model conceptualizing the relationships between incentive’s awareness

Abstract

Purpose

The current study aims to evaluate the utilization of export incentives of the Indian Government. A model conceptualizing the relationships between incentive’s awareness, utilization, perception of utilization on export increase and overall performance was tested.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 107 Indian exporters from the ten major exporting sectors of the Indian economy were chosen. The exporters within the sectors were chosen on the basis of the quota sampling technique. The top-most executive of the exporting house was interviewed using both structured questionnaire and in-depth method.

Findings

Results indicated that awareness impacted availing of incentives which led to the perception of enhanced export sales. Enhanced export sales led to the perception of an enhanced overall performance of the firm. Smaller firms believed more as compared to larger firms in the effect of export incentives on export sales growth. Recommendations have been provided to remove lacunae in various incentive schemes and improve utilizations.

Research limitations/implications

The inability to extract firm-level financial data of the value of various schemes availed, exports sales increase, overall performance indicators is a limitation of the study.

Practical implications

The lack of awareness seemed to be the biggest roadblock for the Indian Government to make export incentive schemes successful. The Indian Government needs to customize the offerings of incentive schemes by incorporating the general perceptions of experts/users. Some less-used schemes can be done away with and some new schemes with less paperwork will be more useful.

Originality/value

There is scant literature in the Indian context on the study of export incentive schemes. There is even less empirical primary evidence available. This study is one of the first to provide a model for the utilization of export schemes and has great practical relevance for exporters and Indian Government alike.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2018

Revti Raman Sharma, Gloria Sraha and Dave Crick

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of foreign market attractiveness on the association between export promotion programmes (EPPs) and export…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of foreign market attractiveness on the association between export promotion programmes (EPPs) and export performance in the context of Ghanaian firms. In addition to understanding how EPPs help enhance the attractiveness of the foreign markets and thus export performance, the study contributes to the under-developed export performance literature regarding Sub-Saharan African (SSA) firms.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed method approach is utilised. In the first instance quantitative analysis is undertaken on 116 Ghanaian firms via data collected using the drop and pick method. Qualitative data involving interviews with 18 managers of exporting firms are then reported upon.

Findings

The study finds full mediation effects for foreign market attractiveness. This suggests that EPPs can enhance export performance via the intervening variable of foreign market attractiveness. Specifically, EPPs should be considered as a resource in managers’ ability to develop capabilities in exporting, but need to be considered in the context of other intervening factors such as perceived foreign market attractiveness.

Originality/value

The literature regarding EPPs and export performance mostly overlook any link between EPPs and other determinants of export performance towards establishing an indirect relationship between the constructs. The study fills this important gap; in particular, in respect of SSA firms and specifically in the context of Ghana.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Anisur R. Faroque, Olli Kuivalainen, Jashim Uddin Ahmed, Mahabubur Rahman, Hiran Roy, M. Yunus Ali and Md Imtiaz Mostafiz

Although both institutional export assistance and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) contribute separately and positively to export performance, the interplay between them…

Abstract

Purpose

Although both institutional export assistance and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) contribute separately and positively to export performance, the interplay between them has received little attention. This study examines the role of international EO in deriving performance benefits from governmental and nongovernmental export assistance.

Design/methodology/approach

In this longitudinal study, two surveys were administered at two different times: In 2011, 705 Bangladeshi apparel exporters were surveyed, and in 2019, a subsequent survey of 198 firms in multiple industries was conducted. The aim of the surveys was to assess the relationships between governmental and nongovernmental assistance, EO and export performance.

Findings

The results of the first survey show that, while nongovernmental assistance influences performance directly and via EO, governmental assistance has only direct effects. Furthermore, the negative influence of government assistance on EO reduces the total effects and renders them nonsignificant. The results of the second survey demonstrate that government EPPs have both direct and indirect positive and significant effects on market performance, indicating a partial mediation, whereas quasi-governmental assistance has positive and significant direct effects as well as negative but nonsignificant indirect effects. Nongovernmental EPPs have both direct and indirect significant effects on international performance, indicating a partial mediation.

Research limitations/implications

The study has important implications for researchers studying export assistance and its impact on firm performance. Instead of adopting a parochial view of government assistance, this study categorizes such assistance into three types – government, quasi-government and nongovernment. Furthermore, this study bridges the export assistance and international entrepreneurship literature by including EO.

Practical implications

Entrepreneurs must emphasize the use of government assistance in order to enhance export performance. However, to promote both entrepreneurship and performance, they must emphasize nongovernment assistance. Exporters should also capitalize on the assistance extended by various quasi-governmental agencies to bolster export performance.

Originality/value

Given the performance advantage of export assistance, this study highlights the contribution of the private sector in promoting export entrepreneurship while shedding light on the pernicious role of (quasi-)governmental assistance in export entrepreneurship.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2019

Farhad Uddin Ahmed and Louis Brennan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differential effects of national export promotion policies (EPPs) on firms’ early internationalization using the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differential effects of national export promotion policies (EPPs) on firms’ early internationalization using the institution-based view (IBV) as our theoretical foundation. Early or speedy internationalization is an important topic for academics, executives and policy makers. However, the effect of the regulatory dimension of institutions incorporating governmental policies on firms’ early internationalization remains unexplored in the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was survey-based and the authors engaged in quantitative analysis using data drawn from the apparel industry in a least-developed country (LDC), i.e. Bangladesh. The authors employed 174 valid questionnaires in the analysis. To test the proposed hypotheses, an ordered-logistic regression modeling technique was used.

Findings

The findings reveal a positive effect of those national policies focusing on market development, guarantee-related and technical support schemes. Two individual elements of direct finance-related assistance, namely, bank loans and cash subsidy are also found to be influential.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature and extends the IBV by establishing that the industry-specific regulatory policies designed by home country governments can play a critical role in international expansion of new ventures from an LDC. In particular, the study established the critical role of national EPPs in driving firms’ early internationalization and thereby, contributing to the international marketing and international entrepreneurship (IE) literature. Least-developed countries provide different institutional environments for entrepreneurship. They thus provide an atypical context within the field of IE. By incorporating sample firms from an LDC, the authors address the knowledge gap related to those countries. The implications of the authors’ findings for national and enterprise development policies are also considered.

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

A.K. Shamsuddoha and M. Yunus Ali

The impact of export promotion programs (EPPs) on firm export performance (FEP) has received little attention in the export literature. This paper attempts to investigate…

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Abstract

Purpose

The impact of export promotion programs (EPPs) on firm export performance (FEP) has received little attention in the export literature. This paper attempts to investigate the direct and indirect impact of EPPs on FEP in a comprehensive model. The indirect effects of EPPs on FEP have been conceptualized through a set of firm‐ and management‐related antecedents for empirical testing.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were collected through mail survey from a sample of 203 exporting firms in three export‐oriented industries in a developing country. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques to test the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

Results suggest that in addition to its direct impact on the FEP, the usage of EPPs has direct impact on firm's export knowledge, and managers’ perception that in turn influence commitment to export, export strategy and FEP.

Research limitations/implications

Findings provide empirical support to theorize indirect effect of the usage of EPPs on FEP. Findings also provide guidelines for managers how to benefit from EPPs to gain export knowledge toward increasing commitment for successful exporting. Policy makers can also benefit from the study finding in designing policy programs. Readers should use caution in generalizing the findings unless verified in other developed and developing country contexts.

Originality value

The theoretical framework developed for the study is original and drawn on the extant literature. The empirical testing of the theoretical model in a developing country context is a significant contribution to fill the much needed gap in the literature toward generalizing similar findings.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Miriam Moeller, Michael Harvey and Jane F. Maley

The purpose of this paper is to investigate attitudes toward interacting with foreign nationals from emerging and developed markets. Differences in attitudes are assessed…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate attitudes toward interacting with foreign nationals from emerging and developed markets. Differences in attitudes are assessed using liability-of-foreignness factors.

Design/methodology/approach

Purposive sample collected at a private university in Australia; hierarchical linear modeling approach examines differences across regions of Australia, Asia, Middle East, Europe, and North America; Type 2 moderated mediation procedures.

Findings

Findings argue for variations across individual difference variables relative to the inclination to interact with emerging markets foreign nationals. Europeans’ willingness to interact with emerging market foreign nationals is diminished with high levels of tendency to stereotype, whereas North Americans’ willingness to interact with developed market foreign nationals is enhanced with high levels of tendency to stereotype.

Research limitations/implications

Use of self-reported measures may limit validity and generalizability; cross-sectional data; common method variance.

Practical implications

A greater consideration of cultural diversity inherent in the workforce allows for diminished adjustment difficulties. Acknowledgment and contextualization of diversity is not an option but a necessity upon which organizations must act to reach their fullest potential in respective foreign locations.

Social implications

Supports greater respect for social and cultural beliefs, norms, and values. Respect has implications for relationships and performance.

Originality/value

Content presents diversity issues within global organizations on their quest to employ global talent.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2021

Anisur R. Faroque, Hafiza Sultana, Jashim Uddin Ahmed, Farhad Uddin Ahmed and Mahabubur Rahman

This study aims to analyze the individual and joint effects of institutional support by government and nongovernment institutions on early internationalizing firms’ (EIFs…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the individual and joint effects of institutional support by government and nongovernment institutions on early internationalizing firms’ (EIFs) performance. It also investigated the moderating impact of firm age and size on the institutional support-firms’ export performance relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 705 EIFs in the apparel industry of Bangladesh and analyzed with hierarchical regression.

Findings

The positive influence of institutional support on exporting firms’ financial performance is stronger for the joint effect of government and nongovernment assistance than the individual impact. Firms’ size positively moderates the impact of individual government and nongovernment assistance, while age positively moderates their resource-bundling effect.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest the necessity of integrating resources from diverse but complementary sources of institutional support for superior export performance. The findings also show the presence of the liability of smallness and liability of newness in the standalone and joint influence of institutional support, respectively.

Practical implications

Firms need to bundle resources obtained from the government (unrequited) and nongovernment (reciprocal) institutional support to overcome the liability of smallness they might encounter while availing of support from only one source.

Originality/value

Distinguishing between government and nongovernment institutional support, this paper sheds light on exporting firms’ resource-bundling mechanism for these two sources of support in the backdrop of an emerging economy. It also offers fresh insights into the critical role of the liabilities of newness and smallness in early internationalization, especially with regard to the home-country institutional environment.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2016

Christy Smith and Jessica Terman

Scholars and practitioners have come to understand the important role of local governments in the causes and effects of climate change. The literature has examined both…

Abstract

Scholars and practitioners have come to understand the important role of local governments in the causes and effects of climate change. The literature has examined both the substantive and symbolic determinants of urban sustainability policies in addition to the implementation issues associated with those policies. At the heart of these policies is the idea that local governments have the desire and ability to engage in socially and environmentally responsible practices to mitigate climate change. While important, these studies are missing a key component in the investigation of local government involvement in sustainability policies: government purchasing power. This study examines the effect of administrative professionalism and interest group presence on the determinants of green procurement in the understudied context of counties in the United States.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Awad Elsayed Awad Ibrahim, Tarek Abdelfattah and Khaled Hussainey

The authors examine whether managers switch from artificial income smoothing using discretionary accruals to real income smoothing around corporate governance reform in Egypt.

Abstract

Purpose

The authors examine whether managers switch from artificial income smoothing using discretionary accruals to real income smoothing around corporate governance reform in Egypt.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample comprises 61 non-financial companies listed on the Egyptian Stock Exchange for the years 2004–2011. The authors use discretionary accruals as a proxy for artificial income smoothing and income/loss from asset sales as a proxy for real income smoothing.

Findings

The authors offer a significant contribution to accounting literature by providing new empirical evidence on the trade-off between real smoothing technique (e.g. income/loss from asset sales) and discretionary accruals around governance reform in a developing country.

Research limitations/implications

This study suffers from some limitations. First, the study sample is limited to only 338 observations. However, this is due to collecting the data manually and to the small number of listed firms during the study period. Second, the study period ended in 2011 due to the unprecedented political instability after the 2011 Egyptian people revolution. Third, although this study examines the effect of corporate governance, not all the governance aspects have been examined in the study models due to the lack of data.

Practical implications

First, the results of the total samples reveal that managers prefer real income smoothing than accruals income smoothing. This result may confirm the literature arguments on the advantages of REM methods over AEM methods. Cohen et al. (2008) find that firms switch to manage earnings using REM methods and explain that REM methods are harder to detect because they depend on operating decisions (Schipper, 1989). REM can be undertaken anytime during the year (Gunny, 2010). Besides, REM could not be deemed a violation of accounting standards or regulations (MyVay, 2006).

Originality/value

The authors offer a significant contribution to accounting literature by providing new empirical evidence on the trade-off between real smoothing technique (e.g. income/loss from asset sales) and discretionary accruals around governance reform in a developing country.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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