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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2021

Chien Hsiang Liao

This study aims to not only develop measurements of preferential attachment and homophily mechanisms based on their definitions and network theory but also examine the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to not only develop measurements of preferential attachment and homophily mechanisms based on their definitions and network theory but also examine the associations among these network mechanisms, community commitment, knowledge sharing and community citizenship behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 250 valid questionnaires are collected to examine the hypothesized associations. These hypotheses are examined by using partial least squares structural equation modeling.

Findings

The findings reveal both mechanisms are beneficial to develop new entrants’ emotional attachment to a virtual community, thereby motivating knowledge sharing and community altruistic behavior. The results contribute some practical and theoretical implications that are very helpful for the conceptualization of network mechanisms, community development, relationship management and incentives for extra-role behavior.

Originality/value

The literature on the link between network selection mechanisms and knowledge sharing remains unknown. This study is the pioneer to disclose this unknown association and examine the impacts of preferential attachment and homophily network mechanisms.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Tahir Ali, Aurangzeab Butt, Ahmad Arslan, Shlomo Yedidia Tarba, Sniazhana Ana Sniazhko and Minnie Kontkanen

This study investigates an under-researched yet fundamental question of how a developed country multinational enterprises (DMNE) perceives and manages political risks when…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates an under-researched yet fundamental question of how a developed country multinational enterprises (DMNE) perceives and manages political risks when undertaking infrastructure projects in the emerging markets (EMs).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use an abduction-based qualitative research approach to analyze six international project operations of a multinational enterprise originating from Finland in five EMs.

Findings

The findings suggest that the overall nature of political risks in EMs is not the same, except few political risk factors that are visible in most EMs. Consequently, the applied risk management mechanisms vary between EMs, except with few common mechanisms. The authors develop an integrative analytical framework of political risk management based on the findings.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first studies to identify political risk factors for western MNEs while undertaking international project operations and link them to reduction mechanisms used by them. The authors go beyond the notion of risk being conceptualized at a general level and evaluate 20 specific political risk factors referred to in extant literature. The authors further link these political risk factors with both social exchange and transaction cost theories conceptually as well as empirically. Finally, the authors develop a relatively comprehensive analytical framework of political risk management based on the case projects' findings that combine several strands of literature, including the social exchange theory, transaction cost theory, international market entry, project management and finance literature streams.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 5 August 2021

Ye Duan, Zenglin Han, Hao Zhang and Hongye Wang

Environmental problems such as CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) emissions have seriously affected the development of the steel industry, which has urged the industry to adopt a more…

Abstract

Purpose

Environmental problems such as CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) emissions have seriously affected the development of the steel industry, which has urged the industry to adopt a more effective emission reduction policy. This paper aims to analyze the impact of various CO2 emission reduction policies combinations on the economic benefits and environmental changes of the steel industry and to determine the scope of application.

Design/methodology/approach

To compare the impact and applicable implementation conditions, a production decision game model that incorporates these two policies has been constructed. Short-, medium- and long-term constraints are set on the emission reduction indicators and the indicators’ changes under various scenarios are compared.

Findings

In the case of a single emission reduction policy, the carbon trading (CT) mechanism is better than the carbon tax mechanism. The mixed carbon trading mechanism is superior to the mixed carbon tax mechanism in terms of total output and subsidies, but worse in terms of overall social welfare, producer surplus and macro losses.

Originality/value

This paper constructs multiple emission reduction and production backgrounds and discusses the impact of the comprehensive implementation of these policies, which is practically absent in previous studies. It is in line with the current industrial policy for stable production and environmental protection and also provides a reference for the formulation of detailed policies in the future.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Flávio Morais, Zélia Serrasqueiro and Joaquim J.S. Ramalho

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the effect of country and corporate governance mechanisms on zero leverage is heterogeneous across market- and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the effect of country and corporate governance mechanisms on zero leverage is heterogeneous across market- and bank-based financial systems.

Design/methodology/approach

Using logit regression methods and a sample of listed firms from 14 Western European countries for the 2002–2016 period, this study examines the propensity of firms having zero leverage in different financial systems.

Findings

Country governance mechanisms have a heterogeneous effect on zero leverage, with higher quality mechanisms increasing zero-leverage propensity in bank-based countries and decreasing it in market-based countries. Board dimension and independency have no impact on zero leverage. A higher ownership concentration decreases the propensity for zero-leverage policies in bank-based countries.

Research limitations/implications

This study’s findings show the importance of considering both country- and firm-level governance mechanisms when studying the zero-leverage phenomenon and that the effect of those mechanisms vary across financial and legal systems.

Practical implications

For managers, this study suggests that stronger national governance makes difficult (favours) zero-leverage policies in market (bank)-based countries. In bank-based countries, it also suggests that the presence of shareholders that own a large stake makes the adoption of zero-leverage policies difficult. This last implication is also important for small shareholders by suggesting that investing in firms with a concentrated ownership reduces the risk that zero-leverage policies are adopted by entrenched reasons.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to consider simultaneously the effects of both country- and firm-level governance mechanisms on zero leverage and to allow such effects to vary across financial systems.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Vogy Gautama Buanaputra, Destri Astuti and Slamet Sugiri

This study aims to investigate the dynamics of legitimacy and accountability relationships in an Indonesian boarding school. It examines how the key actors improve and use…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the dynamics of legitimacy and accountability relationships in an Indonesian boarding school. It examines how the key actors improve and use accountability mechanisms in the school and how these practices contribute to the organisation’s legitimacy.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a qualitative case study approach in an Indonesian boarding school and draws on Black’s (2008) notion of legitimacy and accountability relationships. The qualitative data were collected through face-to-face interviews, observations and documentary analysis.

Findings

Accountability mechanisms at Pondok Pesantren Wali Songo (an Islamic boarding school) were developed to alter the habit of conducting organisational affairs based merely on trust between the organisation members without any particular accountability mechanism, a common practice in Indonesian boarding schools. The mechanisms were believed to improve the public trust and bring convenience to the management of the school on the legitimacy (halal) of their doings, which in turn maintain their legitimacy as a provider of Islamic education services.

Originality/value

This study highlights the importance of accountability mechanisms in faith-based institutions context to maintain their legitimacy. It provides evidence of the mutual nature of accountability and legitimacy, which is often seen as contrasting concepts by previous studies, by drawing on Black’s (2008) legitimacy and accountability relationships.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Jinhua Chen, Graeme Harrison and Lu Jiao

This paper examines how lateral accountability mechanisms may be used to address the unity–diversity tension in a large not-for-profit (NFP) inter-organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines how lateral accountability mechanisms may be used to address the unity–diversity tension in a large not-for-profit (NFP) inter-organizational partnership governed under a lead organization model.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study was conducted in the New South Wales Settlement Partnership comprising 23 NFP organizations providing settlement services for migrants and humanitarian entrants. Multiple data sources included semi-structured interviews, proprietary and publicly available documents and observation.

Findings

The paper demonstrates (1) the usefulness of a strength-based approach that the lead organization adopts in enacting lateral accountability mechanisms, which enables a balance between unity and diversity in the partnership; and (2) the capability of the lead organization governance model to address the unity–diversity tension.

Research limitations/implications

The paper (1) identifies the importance of a strength-based approach in implementing lateral accountability mechanisms to address the unity–diversity tension; and (2) challenges prior research that advocates the network administrative organization governance model in addressing the tension.

Practical implications

For practice, the paper identifies a suite of lateral accountability practices designed to address the unity–diversity tension. For policy, it provides confidence for government in promulgating the lead organization governance model in “purchasing” public services.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates how lateral accountability mechanisms may be used to provide a balance between the objectives of preserving and leveraging the benefits of partner diversity and achieving unity. The strength-based approach (used in enacting the accountability mechanisms), while having a history in psychology and social work research, has not been recognized in prior partnership accountability and governance studies.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Tomi J. Kallio, Kirsi-Mari Kallio, Mira Huusko, Riitta Pyykkö and Jussi Kivistö

This article studies the tensions between universities' accountability and autonomy in response to the demands of public steering mechanisms coordinating higher education…

Abstract

Purpose

This article studies the tensions between universities' accountability and autonomy in response to the demands of public steering mechanisms coordinating higher education institutions.

Design/methodology/approach

Demonstrating the tension between accountability and autonomy, the impact and relevance of public steering mechanisms coordinating higher education are studied via a survey with selected representative Finnish universities. The response rate was an exceptionally high 94%. In addition to the statistical analysis of the survey, open-ended questions were also analyzed to give a more in-depth understanding of the findings. The study uses paradox theory and institutional complexity as its theoretical lenses.

Findings

The empirical analysis of this study shows a considerable gap between the experienced impact and the experienced relevance of the steering mechanisms in higher education. The authors’ further analysis of the open-ended data shows that indicator-based funding allocation has undermined the perceived university autonomy. The authors highlight the paradoxical tensions of university autonomy and higher education institutions' steering mechanisms' requirement for accountability. Finding an acceptable balance between accountability and institutional autonomy plays an important role in designing higher education policies.

Originality/value

The authors found that even if a steering mechanism is experienced as impactful, it is not necessarily considered relevant. One of the key aspects in understanding the reasons behind this mismatch is related to university autonomy. Most impactful steering mechanisms become considered less relevant because they also endanger institutional autonomy. In this sense, it could be expected that steering mechanisms should better balance accountability and autonomy.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Sara A. Kreindler, Stephanie Hastings, Sara Mallinson, Meaghan Brierley, Arden Birney, Rima Tarraf, Shannon Winters, Keir Johnson, Leah Nicholson, Mohammed Rashidul Anwar and Zaid Aboud

Interventions to hasten patient discharge continue to proliferate despite evidence that they may be achieving diminishing returns. To better understand what such…

Abstract

Purpose

Interventions to hasten patient discharge continue to proliferate despite evidence that they may be achieving diminishing returns. To better understand what such interventions can be expected to accomplish, the authors aim to critically examine their underlying program theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Within a broader study on patient flow, spanning 10 jurisdictions across Western Canada, the authors conducted in-depth interviews with 300 senior, middle and frontline managers; 174 discussed discharge initiatives. Using thematic analysis informed by a Realistic Evaluation lens, the authors identified the mechanisms by which discharge activities were believed to produce their impacts and the strategies and context factors necessary to trigger the intended mechanisms.

Findings

Managers' accounts suggested a common program theory that applied to a wide variety of discharge initiatives. The chief mechanism was inculcation of a sharp focus on discharge; reinforcing mechanisms included development of shared understanding and a sense of accountability. Participants reported that these mechanisms were difficult to produce and sustain, requiring continual active management and repeated (re)introduction of interventions. This reflected a context in which providers, already overwhelmed with competing demands, were unlikely to be able (or perhaps even willing) to sustain a focus on this particular aspect of care.

Originality/value

The finding that “discharge focus” emerged as the core mechanism of discharge interventions helps to explain why such initiatives may be achieving limited benefit. There is a need for interventions that promote timely discharge without relying on this highly problematic mechanism.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 January 2015

Masashi Konno, Yutaka Mizota and Taro Nakamura

This paper aims to develop a wave-transmitting mechanism for a travelling-wave-type omnidirectional mobile robot. Existing omnidirectional mechanisms are prone to movement…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a wave-transmitting mechanism for a travelling-wave-type omnidirectional mobile robot. Existing omnidirectional mechanisms are prone to movement instability because they establish a small contact area with the ground. The authors have developed a novel omnidirectional mobile robot that achieves stable movement by a large ground-contact area. The proposed robot moves by a wave-transmitting mechanism designed for this purpose.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve stable movement, a spiral-type travelling-wave-propagation mechanism that mimics the locomotion mechanism of a snail was developed. The mechanism was applied to an omnidirectional mobile robot.

Findings

The practicality of magnetic attraction was verified in experiments of the wave-transmitting mechanism. Moreover, omnidirectional movement was confirmed in a robot prototype adopting this mechanism.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed robot will eventually be deployed in human spaces such as factories and hospitals. A mechanically improved version of the robot will be evaluated in load-driving experiments and equipped with control systems.

Originality/value

This paper proposes an omnidirectional mobile robot with a large ground contact area that moves by continuous travelling waves. The practicability of this mechanism was experimentally confirmed, and a prototype robot achieved omnidirectional movement.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2012

Zhang Han‐jiang and Luo Duan‐hong

The purpose of this paper is to describe how the performance of a system is determined.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe how the performance of a system is determined.

Design/methodology/approach

Systems with the same structure or function often have different performances. What makes the difference? Within a system, the various actors make their decisions by their own and their actions depend on the mechanism of the system. The actors' strategy selection under different mechanisms and the mechanism design are precisely in the range of Game Theory. This paper compares two different pricing mechanisms, the Stackelberg Game and Cournot Game, in a linear supply chain. And the obtained result of the different behavior (Pm*, Pr*) and different performance (Um*, Ur*) of the supply chain obviously approves our proposition that the operational mechanism is of great importance to the performance of the system, the same as structure.

Findings

It is the structure of the system and operational mechanism which determines the performance of the system.

Research limitations/implications

The paper's limitations lie in the fact that it is not yet based on experimental evidence from real‐world systems.

Practical implications

Game Theory is one of the most effective methods to study the systematic mechanism, especially the mechanism designs, because it reveals the inherent nature of the systematic mechanism.

Originality/value

This paper points out that the mechanism which restricts each behavioral subject determines the performance of these systems. It puts forward a new region for the research of general system theory.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 41 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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