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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1957

R.T. EVERETT

Before speaking on any subject it is wise and necessary to study the subject set, or the terms of reference given, in order that the speaker should not depart from what he…

2994

Abstract

Before speaking on any subject it is wise and necessary to study the subject set, or the terms of reference given, in order that the speaker should not depart from what he has been assigned to do. In this connection I, too, thought it expedient to look at the title given to me as the subject on which I was invited to lecture. First of all there is that word ‘documentation’ much used in library circles. Now Dr. S. C. Bradford in his book Documentation defines the term as, and I quote, ‘the process of collecting and subject classifying all the records of new observations and making them available at need’, which doubtless summarizes in part the duties of a librarian. Now for the subdivision of the main subject— ‘Mechanical engineering’. A clear‐cut definition for this is not so easy. Let me quote some attempts which have been made. The Oxford English dictionary indicates that mechanical engineering is the contrivance or making of engines or of heavy machinery. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers has defined the term as ‘the art and science of generating, transmitting and utilizing mechanical power; of the production of tools, machinery and their productions; including research, development, design, application, and the co‐ordination of materials, personnel and management’. (See Mechanical Engineering, November, 1941, p. 824.) Chambers's Technical dictionary defines it as ‘that branch of engineering concerned primarily with the design and production of all purely mechanical contrivances; including all types of prime movers, vehicles and general engineering products’. And yet another definition appears in A Dictionary of mechanical engineering terms, by Horner and Abbey, which describes the subject as ‘the art of construction of mechanism, generally comprising both prime movers and machines’. It is evident then that there is no clear‐cut definition of this subject as there is in similar branches of engineering, such as electrical and civil, etc. Perhaps the truest, or at any rate an all‐embracing, definition of mechanical engineering so far printed is that which appears in The Oxford junior encyclopadia, volume 8: Engineering. I quote, ‘mechanical engineering in fact is the basis on which all other forms of modern engineering depend fundamentally’.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Article
Publication date: 21 December 2018

Marcelle Harran and Howard William Theunissen

In 2004, the Council for Higher Education (CHE) required a curriculum responsiveness to the teaching and learning of literacies at the programme level, which needed to be…

210

Abstract

Purpose

In 2004, the Council for Higher Education (CHE) required a curriculum responsiveness to the teaching and learning of literacies at the programme level, which needed to be addressed across all disciplines. This study aims to describe a situated higher education (HE) collaboration project between mechanical engineering and the Department of Applied Language Studies (DALS) at Nelson Mandela University from 2010 to 2014. The collaboration project aimed to develop the literacies levels of engineering students, reduce the first-year attrition rate and prepare engineering students to meet the high graduate attribute expectations of a competitive workplace amid employer concerns that engineering graduate communication competencies were lacking and insufficient.

Design/methodology/approach

The collaboration study used a mixed-method approach, which included student and lecturer questionnaires, as well as an interview with one engineering lecturer to determine his perceptions of the collaboration practices instituted. As the sample was purposeful, two mechanical engineer lecturers and 32 second-year mechanical engineering students from 2012 to 2013 were selected as the study’s participants, as they met the study’s specific needs. From the questionnaire responses and transcribed interview data, codes were identified to describe the themes that emerged, namely, rating the collaboration practices, attitudes to the course, report feedback provided and report template use.

Findings

Most of the student participants viewed the collaboration practices positively and identified their attitude as “positive” and “enthusiastic” to the language/engineering report collaboration initiative. The report feedback practices were viewed as improving writing skills and enabling the students to relate report writing practices to workplace needs. The engineering lecturers also found that the collaboration practices were enabling and improved literacy levels, although time was identified as a constraint. During the four-year collaboration period, the language practitioner increasingly gained report content knowledge, as well as unpacking the specific rhetorical structures required to produce the report text by co-constructing knowledge with the mechanical engineering lecturers.

Research limitations/implications

Studies have shown that language practitioners and discipline lecturers need to change their conceptualisation of academic discourses as generic transferable skills and autonomous bodies of knowledge. Little benefit is derived from this model, least of all for the students who grapple with disciplinary forms of writing and the highly technical language of engineering. Discipline experts often tend to conflate understandings of language, literacy and discourse, which lead to simplistic understandings of how students may be inducted into engineering discourses. Therefore, spaces to nurture and extend language practitioner and discipline-expert collaborations are needed to embed the teaching and learning of discipline-specific literacies within disciplines.

Practical implications

For the collaboration project, the language practitioner and mechanical engineering lecturers focused their collaboration on discussing and negotiating the rhetorical and content requirements of the Design 3 report as a genre. To achieve the goal of making tacit knowledge and discourse explicit, takes time and effort, so without the investment of time and buy-in, interaction would not be sustained, and the collaboration would have been unproductive. As a result, the collaboration project required regular meetings, class visits and negotiations, as well as a language of description so that the often tacit report discourse conventions and requirements could be mutually understood and pedagogically overt to produce “legitimate texts” (Luckett, 2012 p. 19).

Social implications

In practice, peer collaboration is often a messy, complex and lengthy process, which requires systematic and sustained spaces to provide discourse scaffolding so that the criteria for producing legitimate design reports are not opaque, but transparent and explicit pedagogically. The study also describes the organisational circumstances that generated the collaboration, as establishing and sustaining a collaborative culture over time requires planning, on-going dialogic spaces, as well as support and buy-in at various institutional levels to maintain the feasibility of the collaboration practice.

Originality/value

Literacy and discourse collaboration tends to reduce role differentiation amongst language teachers and specialists, which results in shared expertise for problem-solving that could provide multiple solutions to literacy and discourse learning issues. This finding is important, especially as most studies focus on collaboration practices in isolation, whilst fewer studies have focused on the process of collaboration between language practitioners and disciplinary specialists as has been described in this study.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

George K. Stylios

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…

3063

Abstract

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2009

Anne‐Françoise Gilbert

The paper raises the question of a persisting masculine dominance in engineering disciplines and the reasons behind it. Rather than addressing gender‐specific…

1049

Abstract

Purpose

The paper raises the question of a persisting masculine dominance in engineering disciplines and the reasons behind it. Rather than addressing gender‐specific socialisation as a cause of the under‐representation of women in engineering education, it aims to focus on the social and cultural practices of engineering itself, asking to what extent these practices are gendered and/or gendering.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in two departments at a technical university in Switzerland: mechanical engineering and materials science. An exemplary piece of field data is analysed in order to generate relevant concepts for characterising and contrasting cultures in engineering disciplines. Results are discussed in the framework of Bourdieu's theory of the scientific field.

Findings

Group culture in materials science values individuality and plurality, hence leaving more scope for gender diversity; group culture in mechanical engineering values the subordination of individual needs to group norms and tends to reproduce features of homosocial male worlds. The results support the hypothesis that disciplinary cultures in engineering are gendered and have a gendering effect of their own.

Research limitations/implications

Case studies in other disciplines and national contexts are needed to broaden the empirical basis of the argument.

Practical implications

Policies to achieve gender balance in higher education should not only aim at supporting women, but also at changing disciplinary cultures.

Originality/value

The paper presents a shift of focus from women's socialisation to gendering practices in engineering disciplines.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1969

Edward A. Brass

THE fact that the mechanical design engineer requires special treatment is well known to most engineering managers. Within the typical engineering department, the…

Abstract

THE fact that the mechanical design engineer requires special treatment is well known to most engineering managers. Within the typical engineering department, the mechanical design engineers will generally own the distinction of being the most temperamental, the most self‐centred, the most introverted, the most fractious, the most lacking in team spirit, the most productive, the most dedicated, and the hardest to replace members of the organization.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Mohamed Gouda Alkalla, Mohamed A. Fanni, Abdelfatah M. Mohamed and Shuji Hashimoto

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new propeller-type climbing robot called EJBot for climbing various types of structures that include significant obstacles…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new propeller-type climbing robot called EJBot for climbing various types of structures that include significant obstacles, besides inspection of industrial vessels made of various materials, including non-ferromagnetic material. The inspection includes capturing images for important spots and measuring the wall thickness.

Design/methodology/approach

The design mainly consists of two coaxial upturned propellers mounted on a mobile robot with four standard wheels. A new hybrid actuation system that consists of propeller thrust forces and standard wheel torques is considered as the adhesion system for this climbing robot. This system generates the required adhesion force to support the robot on the climbed surfaces. Dynamic simulation using ADAMS is performed and ensures the success of this idea.

Findings

Experimental tests to check the EJBot’s capabilities of climbing different surfaces, such as smooth, rough, flat and cylindrical surfaces like the real vessel, are successfully carried out. In addition, the robot stops accurately on the climbed surface at any desired location for inspection purposes, and it overcomes significant obstacles up to 40 mm.

Practical implications

This proposed climbing robot is needed for petrochemical and liquid gas vessels, where a regular inspection of the welds and the wall thickness is required. The interaction between the human and these vessels is dangerous and not healthy due to the harmful environment inside these vessels.

Originality/value

This robot utilizes propeller thrusts and wheel torques simultaneously to generate adhesion and traction forces. Therefore, a versatile robot able to climb different kinds of structures is obtained.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 October 2021

Yanen Wang, Ray Tahir Mushtaq, Ammar Ahmed, Ammar Ahmed, Mudassar Rehman, Mudassar Rehman, Aqib Mashood Khan, Shubham Sharma, Dr Kashif Ishfaq, Haider Ali and Thierno Gueye

Additive manufacturing (AM) technology has a huge influence on the real world because of its ability to manufacture massively complicated geometrics. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Additive manufacturing (AM) technology has a huge influence on the real world because of its ability to manufacture massively complicated geometrics. The purpose of this study is to use CiteSpace (CS) visual analysis to identify fused deposition modeling (FDM) research and development patterns to guide researchers to decide future research and provide a framework for corporations and organizations to prepare for the development in the rapid prototyping industry. Three-dimensional printing (3DP) is defined to budget minimize manufactured input and output for aviation and the medical product industrial sectors. 3DP has implemented its potential in the Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) reaction.

Design/methodology/approach

First, 396 original publications were extracted from the web of science (WOS) with the comprehensive list and did scientometrics analysis in CS software. The parameters are specified in CS including the span (from 2011 to 2019, one year slice for the co-authorship and the co-accordance analysis), visualization (show the merged networks), specific criteria for selection (top 20%), node form (author, organization, region, reference cited; cited author, journal and keywords) and pruning (pathfinder and slicing network). Finally, correlating data was studied and showed the results of the visualization study of FDM research were shown.

Findings

The framework of FDM information is beginning to take shape. About hot research topics, there are “Morphology,” “Tensile Property by making Blends,” “Use of Carbon nanotube in 3DP” and “Topology optimization.” Regarding the latest research frontiers of FDM printing, there are “Fused Filament Fabrication,” “AM,” in FDM printing. Where “Post-processing” and “environmental impact” are the research hotspots in FDM printing. These research results can provide insight into FDM printing and useful information to consider the existing studies and developments in FDM researchers’ analysis.

Research limitations/implications

Despite some important obtained results through FDM-related publications’ visualization, some deficiencies remain in this research. With >99% of articles written in English, the input data for CS was all downloaded from WOS databases, resulting in a language bias of papers in other languages and neglecting other data sources. Although, there are several challenges being faced by the FDM that limit its wide variety of applications. However, the significance of the current work concerning the technical and engineering prospects is discussed herein.

Originality/value

First, the novelty of this work lies in describing the FDM approach in a Scientometric way. In Scientometric investigation, leading writers, organizations, keywords, hot research and emerging knowledge points were explained. Second, this research has thoroughly and comprehensively examined the useful sustainability effects, i.e. economic sustainability, energy-based sustainability, environmental sustainability, of 3DP in industrial development in qualitative and quantitative aspects by 2025 from a global viewpoint. Third, this work also described the practical significance of FDM based on 3DP since COVID-19. 3DP has stepped up as a vital technology to support improved healthcare and other general response to emergency situations.

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2019

Amit Kumar, Vinod Kumar and Vikas Modgil

The purpose of this paper is to identify the criticality of various sub-systems through the behavioral study of a multi-state repairable system with hot redundancy. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the criticality of various sub-systems through the behavioral study of a multi-state repairable system with hot redundancy. The availability of the system is optimized to evaluate the optimum combinations of failure and repair rate parameters for various sub-systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The behavioral study of the system is conducted through the stochastic model under probabilistic approach, i.e., Markov process. The first-order differential equations associated with the stochastic model are derived with the use of mnemonic rule assuming that the failure and repair rate parameters of all the sub-systems are constant and exponentially distributed. These differential equations are further solved recursively using the normalizing condition to obtain the long-run availability of the system. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for evaluating the optimum availability of the system and supporting computational results are presented.

Findings

The maintenance priorities for various sub-systems can easily be set up, as it is clearly identified in the behavioral analysis that the sub-system (A) is the most critical component which highly influences the system availability as compared to other sub-systems. The PSO technique modifies input failure and repair rate parameters for each sub-system and evaluates the optimum availability of the system.

Originality/value

A bottom case manufacturing system is under the evaluation, which is the main component of front shock absorber in two-wheelers. The input failure and repair rate parameters were parameterized from the information provided by the plant personnel. The finding of the paper provides the various availability measures and shows the grate congruence with the system behavior.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 February 2020

Nestor L. Osorio and Gabriel E. Osorio

Mechatronics is a very important area of research in industrial applications. The purpose of this study is to find some of the most important components of the literature…

Abstract

Purpose

Mechatronics is a very important area of research in industrial applications. The purpose of this study is to find some of the most important components of the literature on this subject.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on the use of the database Compendex; it was searched in the broadest way for documents related to mechatronics. In addition, subject guides from libraries of universities with mechatronics programs were studied to find resources available in those areas.

Findings

The literature of mechatronics is extensive and multidisciplinary. Based on the results from Compendex, the following data were found: most productive authors, list of leading journals and conference proceedings, publishers and grant organizations, authors’ affiliations and other minor details. Based on the analysis of subject guides, the following types of resources were found: research databases, reference books and ebook collections.

Research limitations/implications

Part of the analysis is based on a search performed in one technical database, Compendex; it was the database that generated the largest number of citations as compared to Inspec and the Web of Science. The results have a strong English language focus. It is possible that by using the results from multiple data bases, some additional sources could be obtained.

Practical implications

Mechatronics is a relatively new technological field comprising a number of scientific and engineering areas. The results obtained summarized a significant amount of bibliographic information.

Originality/value

The work is original; to the best of the authors’ knowledge, no other study has analyzed the literature on this subject.

Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Lindsey Bass, Nicholas Alexander Meisel and Christopher B. Williams

Understanding how material jetting process parameters affect material properties can inform design and print orientation when manufacturing end-use components. This study…

1911

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding how material jetting process parameters affect material properties can inform design and print orientation when manufacturing end-use components. This study aims to explore the robustness of material properties in material jetted components to variations in processing environment and build orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors characterized the properties of six different material gradients produced from preset “digital material” mixes of polypropylene-like (VeroWhitePlus) and elastomer-like (TangoBlackPlus) materials. Tensile stress, modulus of elasticity and elongation at break were analyzed for each material printed at three different build orientations. In a separate ten-week study, the authors investigated the effects of aging in different lighting conditions on material properties.

Findings

Specimens fabricated with their longest dimension along the direction of the print head travel (X-axis) tended to have the largest tensile strength, but trends in elastic modulus and elongation at break varied between the rigid and flexible photopolymers. The aging study showed that the ultimate tensile stress of VeroWhitePlus parts increased and the elongation decreased over time. Material properties were not significantly altered by lighting conditions.

Research limitations/implications

Many tensile specimens failed at the neck region, especially for the more elastomeric parts. It is hypothesized that this is due to the material jetting process approximating curves with a pixelated droplet arrangement, instead of curved contour as seen in other additive manufacturing processes. A new tensile specimen design that performs more consistently with elastomer-like materials should be considered. The aging component of this study is focused solely on polypropylene-like (VeroWhitePlus) material; additional research into the effects of aging on multiple composite materials is needed.

Originality/value

The study provides the first known description of orientation effects on the mechanical behavior of photopolymers containing varied concentrations of elastomeric (TangoBlackPlus) material. The aging study presents the first findings on how time affects parts made via material jetting.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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