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This paper discusses the American debate over price controls and economic stabilization after World War II, when the transition from a war economy to a peace economy was…
This paper discusses the American debate over price controls and economic stabilization after World War II, when the transition from a war economy to a peace economy was characterized by bottlenecks in the productive system and shortages of food and other basic consumer goods, directly affecting the living standard of the population, the public opinion, and political discourse. Specifically, we will focus on the economist Franco Modigliani and his proposal for a “Plan to meet the problem of rising meat and other food prices without bureaucratic controls.” The plan prepared by Modigliani in October 1947 was based on a system of taxes and subsidies to foster a proper distribution of disposable income and warrant a minimum meat consumption for each individual without encroaching market mechanisms and consumers’ freedom. We will discuss the contents of the plan and its further refinements, and the reactions it prompted from fellow economists, the public opinion, and the political world. Although the Plan was not eventually implemented, it was an important initiative for several reasons: first, it showed the increasing importance of fiscal policy among postwar government tools of intervention in the economic sphere; second, it showed a third way between direct government intervention and full-fledged laissez faire, in tune with the postwar political climate; third, it proposed a Keynesian macroeconomic approach to price and income stabilization, strongly based on econometric and microeconomic foundations. The Meat Plan was thus a fundamental step in Modigliani’s effort to build the “neoclassical synthesis” between Keynesian and Neoclassical economics, which would deeply influence his own career and the evolution of academic studies and government practices in the United States.
This paper aims to explore how the socio-ecological model can be expanded to address wicked problems that are perpetuated by marketing systems through examining the ways…
This paper aims to explore how the socio-ecological model can be expanded to address wicked problems that are perpetuated by marketing systems through examining the ways the external environment can be targeted.
The authors used an extended socio-ecological model to provide a framework for social marketers to combat climate change through the food system in the external environment.
The socio-ecological model is extended to examine how social marketers can influence the micro and macro environment through targeting the physical structure, economic, political and socio-cultural environment of desirable (sustainable) and undesirable (unsustainable) food products.
The authors highlight that social marketers should focus on the various ways the external environment at multiple levels can be targeted to produce systemic change.
This paper broadens the current macro-social marketing knowledge by providing a framework to analyse where and how change can be affected at the various levels of society.
The major objective of Aganbegyan′s book is to enhance argumentsmade by Gorbachev in the latter′s Perestroika. New Thinking for OurCountry and the World. Like his leader…
The major objective of Aganbegyan′s book is to enhance arguments made by Gorbachev in the latter′s Perestroika. New Thinking for Our Country and the World. Like his leader, Aganbegyan asserts that the ultimate purpose of perestroika is people′s welfare and that the policy of the acceleration of the Soviet economic development is the principal means to achieve the goal. This article challenges Aganbegyan′s claim. It argues that: (1) given the inefficient and wasteful character of the Soviet system, the projected increase in the standard of living of the Soviet population could be accomplished now, and not in the future; (2) the acceleration of the economic growth and restructuring of Soviet society contradict one another and, thus, make the attainment of the proclaimed goal impossible even in the future, and (3) the forthcoming reform of retail prices more than anything else reveals the true, anti‐consumerist nature of the policies of the Soviet leadership.
The number of animals raised and slaughtered for food in the U.S. has increased dramatically since 1945. We examine how two factors have been fundamental in this expansion…
The number of animals raised and slaughtered for food in the U.S. has increased dramatically since 1945. We examine how two factors have been fundamental in this expansion of “meat” consumption: the market and the state. U.S. agricultural policies that emerged form the New Deal centered on price supports and production controls. While these policies were aimed at controlling supply, they instead spurred intensive and industrial techniques that resulted in continuous overproduction, especially in corn, wheat and soybeans. As a result, farm organizations and the state promoted “meat” production and consumption as a way to alleviate the surplus. To handle this expansion, intensive and industrial methods reshaped “meat” production, resulting in more oppressive living conditions for animals raised as “meat”. We explore this connection between the market, state policy and animal oppression. We also briefly analyze how this relationship has likewise affected workers and peripheral nations in the world economy.
Determines this research programme was planned against a background of argument and counter‐argument, largely unsubstantiated, which was being voiced about the sale of animals from farms for meat, their slaughter, and the distribution of meat to the consumer through wholesalers and retailers – nevertheless certain clearly perceptible developments and trends emerge. Discusses the fact that consumer tastes are changing in favour of convenience foods and how this was expected to have an effect on consumption of meat, with more steaks, chops, stewing meat and mince required, and reduced demand for the traditional roast. Concludes the gradual reduction in the number of retail butchers shops can be expected to continue, as the housewife becomes more accustomed to buying pre‐packaged meat from self‐service displays.
An analysis of patterns of food consumption in Romania is undertaken with the UK used as a benchmark when appropriate. The period of transition in Romania towards a more…
An analysis of patterns of food consumption in Romania is undertaken with the UK used as a benchmark when appropriate. The period of transition in Romania towards a more market‐oriented economy has involved substantial changes in patterns of food consumption and significant year‐to‐year variation. The decline in real incomes provides an interesting validation of Engel’s law on the relationships between household income and food expenditure. There is evidence that Romanian diet is deteriorating relative to modern nutrition guidelines; possible policy responses are discussed.
China is undergoing economic and political reforms. The aspect focused on is the problem of food supply. The Institute of Development Studies, of the State Council′s Rural Research Centre, has done comprehensive research on this project and found many unprecedented features of this “food crisis”. The IDS identifies China′s food problem as an institutional shortage and irrational food consumption pattern, quite different from that of other countries, capitalist or socialist. They raised some proposals in solving the problem. This article is a detailed report on the research.
This paper extends the concept of market orientation from the firm to the value chain level and seeks to develop empirically founded propositions on determinants of…
This paper extends the concept of market orientation from the firm to the value chain level and seeks to develop empirically founded propositions on determinants of different levels of market orientation of value chains.
Four case studies on value chains within the areas of agribusiness and fisheries are conducted. For each value chain, desk research is combined with interviews with decision‐makers of all types of value chain members. Interview guidelines were derived from a conceptual model of potential determinants of value chain market orientation.
Degree of market orientation of value chains is found to be related to degree of heterogeneity and dynamism of end‐users served, nature of chain relationships, regulations and prevailing mental models of decision‐makers. Short and balanced chains are believed to further upstream market orientation.
The results point at two areas, where additional research on market orientation is called for: a better conceptualization of market intelligence and theorizing on most cost effective ways of being market oriented, including implications for the distribution of market oriented activities among value chain members.
The paper underlines the importance of managing channel relationships, up to and including vertical integration, when serving markets with high degrees of end‐user volatility.
This paper is the first empirical contribution to the market orientation literature employing a perspective encompassing the whole value chain.
As a movement for alternative means of food production and consumption has grown, so, too, have civic efforts to make alternative food accessible to low-income persons…
As a movement for alternative means of food production and consumption has grown, so, too, have civic efforts to make alternative food accessible to low-income persons (LIPs). This article examines the impact of alternative food institutions (AFIs) on low-income communities in the United States and Canada, focusing on research published since 2008.
Through a three-stage literature search, I created a database of 110 articles that make empirical or theoretical contributions to scholarly knowledge on the relationship of AFIs to low-income communities in North America. I used an in vivo coding scheme to categorize the impacts that AFIs have on LIPs and to identify predominant barriers to LIPs’ engagement with AFIs.
The impacts of AFIs span seven outcome categories: food consumption, food access and security, food skills, economic, other health, civic, and neighborhood. Economic, social and cultural barriers impede LIPs’ engagement with AFIs. AFIs can promote positive health outcomes for low-income persons when they meet criteria for affordability, convenience and inclusivity.
This review exposes productive avenues of dialogue between health scholars and medical sociology and geography/environmental sociology. Health scholarship offers empirical support for consumer-focused solutions. Conversely, by constructively critiquing the neoliberal underpinnings of AFIs’ discourse and structure, geographers and sociologists supply health scholars with a language that may enable more systemic interventions.
This article is the first to synthesize research on five categories of alternative food institutions (farmers’ markets, CSAs, community gardens, urban farms, and food cooperatives) across disciplinary boundaries.