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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2002

Kofi Q. Dadzie, Wesley J. Johnston, Boonghee Yoo and Thomas G. Brashear

Establishing the validity and measurement equivalence of core marketing concepts in the emerging market economies of Africa is a key step in assessing the transferability…

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1845

Abstract

Establishing the validity and measurement equivalence of core marketing concepts in the emerging market economies of Africa is a key step in assessing the transferability of modern marketing theory and managerial practice to these countries. However, measurement equivalence issues are rarely addressed in studies of marketing practices in Africa. Accordingly, this study examines the equivalence of core marketing concepts based on interviews of 459 marketing managers from Kenya, Nigeria, Japan and the USA. The results show that optimal scaling analysis of the managers’ evaluations provide more valid and meaningful assessment than that of the raw data. The managers’ evaluations of the concepts revealed amazingly similar or prototypical perceptions of marketing’s core concepts and its applicability in their organizations, despite the profound country environmental differences. It appears that the concepts fall into two cross‐national categories of applicability that permeate the industrialized and developing country categorization. Managerial and research implications are discussed.

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Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Sebastian Kurowski

The purpose of this study is to use a developed and pre-tested scenario-based measurement instrument for policy compliance and determine whether policy compliance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to use a developed and pre-tested scenario-based measurement instrument for policy compliance and determine whether policy compliance measurements in the current policy compliance research are biased as has been postulated during a pre-study. The expected biases are because of social desirability and because of biases based on identity theory.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted (n = 54) that used policy compliance scales from literature and the developed self-reporting policy compliance (SRPC) scale, along with the Marlow–Crowne social desirability (MC-SDB) scale. Differences between the policy compliance scales were assessed. Moreover, a transformation of the SRPC measurements into the literature-based scales was examined using pair-wise t-testing. Finally, correlations between the MC-SDB and the policy compliance scales were examined.

Findings

There are no significant influences on the desire for social approval of the respondents as was exhibited by the MC-SDB values and policy compliance on either scale. However, the SRPC scale measurements show deviations from the literature-based policy compliance scales. Individuals that exhibit secure behaviour, which is not rooted in a policy but rather in anything but the policy, are also captured as being policy compliant in the current scales. This shows that a response bias exists in current scales. Respondents, who perceive to exhibit secure behaviours, may think that they are in compliance with the policy, even when they are not.

Practical implications

These findings mean that several contributions in the field of policy compliance must be questioned and that a revisit of several factors influencing policy compliance may be required.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, response biases in policy compliance research have not been considered to date.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Manus Rungtusanatham, John C. Anderson and Kevin J. Dooley

Describes the process and outcomes of operationalizing the 14 dimensions underlying the SPC implementation/practice construct. Employs a standard procedure to create a…

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1275

Abstract

Describes the process and outcomes of operationalizing the 14 dimensions underlying the SPC implementation/practice construct. Employs a standard procedure to create a measurement instrument comprising 14 measurement scales, with the number of constituent measurement items ranging from one to four, that correspond to the 14 dimensions underlying the SPC implementation/practice construct. Reports the results of assessing three properties of measurement quality for these newly‐created measurement scales, namely: face validity, internal consistency reliability and uni‐dimensionality. Such a measurement instrument can then be applied to examine antecedents and consequences of SPC implementation/practice and to diagnose existing organizational efforts at implementing and practicing SPC and to identify opportunities to improve organizational implementation and practice of this quality improvement intervention. Demonstrates the application and interpretation of the SPC implementation/practice measurement instrument within one organizational setting. Concludes by identifying future research needs.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Pedro Jácome de Moura Jr and Carlo Gabriel Porto Bellini

The purpose of this paper is to review three decades of the literature on flow measurement and propose issues to advance research on the measurement of social flow at work.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review three decades of the literature on flow measurement and propose issues to advance research on the measurement of social flow at work.

Design/methodology/approach

In a systematic literature review, the authors analyzed 143 articles published in the first three decades (1983–2013) of scholarly publications on flow measurement, of which 84 articles used scales to measure flow and 16 articles used scales to measure flow at work.

Findings

The main findings are: flow is frequently measured in association with other constructs or by means of proxies; flow measurement is highly dependent on a study’s purposes and context; flow is mostly studied at the level of the individual and, when studied beyond the individual, the measurement of flow in groups is simplified as an aggregation of individual-level measures; and social flow at work is an underresearched construct that nevertheless impacts organizations in important ways, thus deserving a specific research agenda.

Research limitations/implications

The first limitation refers to the databases included in the review. There is always the possibility that important works were ignored. Another limitation is that the coding procedure was highly dependent on the authors’ discretion, as it did not include independent coding and formal assessment of agreement among coders. But the greatest limitation may refer to our very perspectives on flow, flow measurement and social flow at work, as they are highly attached to current models instead of seeing the issues with different lenses. This limitation is also present in the literature.

Practical implications

Reviewing three decades of scholarly publications on how flow has been measured contributes to organizations in their planning for person-job fit. The measurement of flow can reveal if and when flow correlates with personal characteristics and organizational events, thus serving to inform initiatives on personnel development, acculturation and job design. However, considering that flow as a social phenomenon has been conceived in superficial terms, that a vast number of empirical studies were developed with non-professional subjects, and that flow measurement involves significant adaptations to each situation, organizations are thus advised to be careful in adopting extant instruments.

Originality/value

This study provides a rich account on how flow measurement has been addressed in the scholarly literature, and it calls attention to research opportunities on social flow at work.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

James L. Price

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool…

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11777

Abstract

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool, seeks to improve measurement in the study of work organizations and to facilitate the teaching of introductory courses in this subject. Focuses solely on work organizations, that is, social systems in which members work for money. Defines measurement and distinguishes four levels: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Selects specific measures on the basis of quality, diversity, simplicity and availability and evaluates each measure for its validity and reliability. Employs a set of 38 concepts ‐ ranging from “absenteeism” to “turnover” as the handbook’s frame of reference. Concludes by reviewing organizational measurement over the past 30 years and recommending future measurement reseach.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 18 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2020

Špela Orehek and Gregor Petrič

The concept of information security culture, which recently gained increased attention, aims to comprehensively grasp socio-cultural mechanisms that have an impact on…

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1037

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of information security culture, which recently gained increased attention, aims to comprehensively grasp socio-cultural mechanisms that have an impact on organizational security. Different measurement instruments have been developed to measure and assess information security culture using survey-based tools. However, the content, breadth and face validity of these scales vary greatly. This study aims to identify and provide an overview of the scales that are used to measure information security culture and to evaluate the rigor of reported scale development and validation procedures.

Design/methodology/approach

Papers that introduce a new or adapt an existing scale of information security culture were systematically reviewed to evaluate scales of information security culture. A standard search strategy was applied to identify 19 relevant scales, which were evaluated based on the framework of 16 criteria pertaining to the rigor of reported operationalization and the reported validity and reliability of the identified scales.

Findings

The results show that the rigor with which scales of information security culture are validated varies greatly and that none of the scales meet all the evaluation criteria. Moreover, most of the studies provide somewhat limited evidence of the validation of scales, indicating room for further improvement. Particularly, critical issues seem to be the lack of evidence regarding discriminant and criterion validity and incomplete documentation of the operationalization process.

Research limitations/implications

Researchers focusing on the human factor in information security need to reach a certain level of agreement on the essential elements of the concept of information security culture. Future studies need to build on existing scales, address their limitations and gain further evidence regarding the validity of scales of information security culture. Further research should also investigate the quality of definitions and make expert assessments of the content fit between concepts and items.

Practical implications

Organizations that aim to assess the level of information security culture among employees can use the results of this systematic review to support the selection of an adequate measurement scale. However, caution is needed for scales that provide limited evidence of validation.

Originality/value

This is the first study that offers a critical evaluation of existing scales of information security culture. The results have decision-making value for researchers who intend to conduct survey-based examinations of information security culture.

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2007

Ricardo Chiva, Joaquin Alegre and Rafael Lapiedra

The present study sets out to propose and validate a measurement scale that aims to capture the organisational capability to learn, based on a comprehensive analysis of…

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6130

Abstract

Purpose

The present study sets out to propose and validate a measurement scale that aims to capture the organisational capability to learn, based on a comprehensive analysis of the facilitating factors for learning. The organisational learning capability scale consists of 14 items grouped into five dimensions: experimentation, risk taking, interaction with the external environment, dialogue, and participative decision making.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from eight Spanish ceramic tile manufacturers. The survey was addressed to shop floor workers. A total of 157 valid questionnaires were obtained, representing a response rate of 61 per cent. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the construct measurement model was tested and the scale was validated.

Findings

The results of the study indicate that the operational measure developed here satisfies the criteria for unidimensionality, reliability, and validity.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the sample features, final results should be considered with caution. Further research is needed to validate the organisational learning capability scale in other contexts and addressed to other kinds of respondents. However, this study contributes to organisational learning research by providing a valid and reliable operational measure that is expected to help researchers in future theory testing.

Practical implications

The proposed measurement scale for organisational learning capability could be implemented as an audit tool. Thus, managers could unveil which organisational learning issues are strong and which are weak. This would provide guidance for improvement.

Originality/value

This paper provides a new measurement instrument for organisational learning capability.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 28 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Boris Bartikowski, Katsuyuki Kamei and Jean‐Louis Chandon

This paper aims to investigate whether verbal rating scales are viable formats for attitude measurement through an application to Japanese consumers' product quality perceptions.

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2680

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether verbal rating scales are viable formats for attitude measurement through an application to Japanese consumers' product quality perceptions.

Design/methodology/approach

The article notes theoretical differences between Likert‐based and Thurstone approaches to attitude measurement. The paper illustrates a Thurstone scale development process.

Findings

The new scale possesses nomological validity; it correctly predicts how consumer ethnocentrism relates to product quality evaluations for brands in different competitive situations.

Practical implications

The convenient, ready‐to‐apply verbal rating scale can measure Japanese consumers' perceptions of product quality. The article also offers survey researchers some practical guidance for developing their own verbal rating scales.

Originality/value

Verbal rating scales are rarely found in existing literature. This study sheds light on a frequently overlooked measurement scale format for measuring attitudes.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2012

Süleyman Murat Yildiz and Ali Kara

The research presented in this study replicates and extends the QSport-10 scale proposed by Rial, Varela, Rial and Real in their 2010 study, by incorporating the Programme…

Abstract

The research presented in this study replicates and extends the QSport-10 scale proposed by Rial, Varela, Rial and Real in their 2010 study, by incorporating the Programme dimension into the original measurement of service quality in Physical Activity and Sports Centres (PSCs). The objective of this research is to examine the dimensionality of the QSport-10 scale and extend it to capture the additional Programme service quality dimension. Study results confirmed the dimensionality of the service quality measurement offered by the QSport-10 scale and presented strong empirical support for the existence of Programme, Installations and Staff dimensions. Programme dimension was considered the most important factor for the largest consumer segment in the study.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2018

Lida Esperanza Villa Castaño, Jesús Perdomo-Ortiz, William Fernando Durán León, Sebastián Dueñas Ocampo and Florina Guadalupe Arredondo Trapero

The purpose of this paper is to find evidence of construct validity in a Mexican population for a socially responsible consumption (SRC) measurement scale originally…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find evidence of construct validity in a Mexican population for a socially responsible consumption (SRC) measurement scale originally proposed for Colombia.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a quantitative approach and a correlational scope, factorial invariance and differential item functioning analyses were performed on the SRC measurement scale based on data from 323 Colombian graduate students and 456 Mexican students.

Findings

The empirical evidence confirms that the factor structure of the SRC measurement scale applied in Colombia remains valid in the Mexican context.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations pertain to the attitudinal measurement scale and the non-representativeness of the chosen samples.

Practical implications

When identifying a structure for SRC, particularly considering the formulation of marketing strategies and business reputation, companies should consider the new criteria of buying consumption.

Originality/value

For the first time in Latin America, an SRC measurement scale is constructed, and its construct validity is evaluated for two countries: Mexico and Colombia. The authors thus provide empirical evidence for the hypothesis that SRC measurement is contingent on the expression of measurement considering the socioeconomic and cultural context in which the study is conducted.

Propósito

Buscar evidencia de validez de constructo en una población mexicana para la escala de medida del Consumo Socialmente Responsable (CSR) propuesta para Colombia.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Con un enfoque cuantitativo y alcance correlacional se realiza un análisis de invarianza factorial y de funcionamiento diferencial del ítem (DIF), de la escala de medida del CSR en 323 estudiantes de posgrado colombianos y 456 mexicanos.

Hallazgos

La evidencia empírica confirma que la estructura factorial de la escala de medida del CSR aplicado en Colombia se mantiene en el contexto mexicano.

Limitaciones de la investigación/implicaciones

Las propias de las escalas de medida actitudinal y de la no representatividad de las muestras elegidas.

Implicaciones prácticas

Cuando se identifica una estructura de un CSR, las empresas en la formulación de estrategias de mercadeo y reputación empresarial, deben considerar los nuevos criterios de compra de consumo.

Originalidad/valor

Por primera vez en Latinoamérica se construye una escala de medida del CSR y se realiza una validez de constructo considerando dos países como lo son México y Colombia. En este sentido, se aporta evidencia empírica a la hipótesis según la cual la medición del CSR es contingente en su expresión de medida al contexto socioeconómico y cultural donde se realice el estudio.

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

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