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The essential investments in new product development (NPD) made by industrial companies entail effective management of NPD activities. In this context, performance…
The essential investments in new product development (NPD) made by industrial companies entail effective management of NPD activities. In this context, performance measurement is one of the means that can be employed in the pursuit of effectiveness.
Existing attempts to assess national development and processes of democratization suffer from conceptual and measurement challenges. This paper proposes a comprehensive…
Existing attempts to assess national development and processes of democratization suffer from conceptual and measurement challenges. This paper proposes a comprehensive concept of democratic development and develops a more inclusive concept of democracy to provide a common set of categories to evaluate its depth and quality.
In order to measure the depth and health of democracy, democratic development incorporates four categories of human progress, each measured by multiple variables. The four categories deemed important for human progress are general development, democratic health, democratic inclusiveness, and human capital. Components of democratic development incorporate existing measures of political and economic development to create a comprehensive and accessible measure of democratic development.
The comparative tables based on multiple goals of development clearly reveal that neither the GDP index nor the HDI are adequate measures of development. Democratic development can be more fully captured by four perspectives: development, democratic inclusiveness, democratic health, and human capital, providing a framework to measure progress in reform, democracy, and development, from public agencies up to the national level. This concept incorporates aspects and orientations of the capabilities approach to create a concept that is amenable to use as a self‐assessment tool and as a basis for comparison of development, broadly conceived.
This inclusive concept is particularly well suited for analyzing citizen satisfaction and democratic stability.
Rather than focusing on singular measures, the approach presented here offers a balanced set of measures aimed at providing a comprehensive view of the gamut of democratic and economic development processes relative to existing models that is more appropriate for self‐assessment/planning purposes than traditional measures, which may be more appropriate for statistical modeling purposes.
Kazuaki Miyamoto, Surya Raj Acharya, Mohammed Abdul Aziz, Jean-Michel Cusset, Tien Fang Fwa, Haluk Gerçek, Ali S. Huzayyin, Bruce James, Hirokazu Kato, Hanh Dam Le, Sungwon Lee, Francisco J. Martinez, Dominique Mignot, Kazuaki Miyamoto, Janos Monigl, Antonio N. Musso, Fumihiko Nakamura, Jean-Pierre Nicolas, Omar Osman, Antonio Páez, Rodrigo Quijada, Wolfgang Schade, Yordphol Tanaboriboon, Micheal A. P. Taylor, Karl N. Vergel, Zhongzhen Yang and Rocco Zito
The paper examines whether there is a threshold between financial development and poverty in African economies.
The paper examines whether there is a threshold between financial development and poverty in African economies.
The study adopts the innovative dynamic panel threshold model of Seo and Shin (2016) made practicable by Seo et al. (2019)–the model estimates threshold relationship even in the presence of endogeneity. Also, following the recommendations of Cihak et al. (2013) and Sahay et al. (2015), we also adopt a robust measure of financial development based on the four pillars of financial deepening, stability, efficiency and access derived from the principal component analysis (PCA).
The empirical results show that there exists a threshold level of financial development necessary for poverty reduction in Africa.
Our result is important for policy formulations. First, individual African country must discover the level of financial development necessary for spurring poverty reduction. Second, policymakers, especially in lower-income countries, must keep improving their financial sector development to achieve the threshold level necessary for achieving poverty reduction even though financial development might seem less relevant at its present level.
The policymakers in Africa should note that there exists a threshold level of financial development that reduces poverty. Hence, the present level of financial development might have not yielded a considerate effect on poverty. Still, the policymakers must keep pushing on until the threshold is achieved.
Financial development reduces poverty level but it must reach a certain threshold level before it does so. So, we advise African policymakers to continue to develop their financial sector to achieve this threshold.
This seems to be the first work to document the threshold relationship using the dynamic panel threshold. Besides, the study specifically concentrates on Africa dividing the continent into different income levels. Moreover, we adopt a robust measure of financial development unlike extant studies on Africa.
Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).
The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.
This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.
To present a measurement framework to capture the importance of the use of knowledge within the new product development (NPD) process.
A literature review enabled 200 product development measures to be compiled. These were categorised into six dimensions: stakeholder contribution, operating context, reuse, invention, exploitation, and NPD performance. Four companies applied selected measures and assessed the cube for its ability to improve measurement and management of their NPD process. This process refined the approach. A web‐based questionnaire (with 130 responses) assessed how a wider population perceived their performance and capability to measure performance in each of the six dimensions.
Respondents consider themselves capable of delivering good products and services, but are less confident in their ability to manage and measure knowledge reuse, invention and exploitation activities.
Full implementation of the measurement cube was not possible. Further research should assess the comprehensiveness, applicability and usefulness of the approach in more detail.
Introduction of the measurement cube and measures in the six dimensions identified would enable companies to go beyond traditional financial measures for their NPD processes and move towards a more performance‐oriented culture.
This paper synthesises the results from many other isolated studies on NPD metrics. In addition, it focuses on the measurement of the NPD process from a knowledge perspective, providing an integrating framework (the measurement cube), which is unique.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the measures practiced by public sector organizations (PSOs) to develop their capability and strength toward attaining the skills…
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the measures practiced by public sector organizations (PSOs) to develop their capability and strength toward attaining the skills requirements for public-private partnership (PPP) program.
The study adopted a quantitative approach based on primary data obtained via questionnaire survey. The literature review provided the basis for identification of variables that were evaluated through structured questionnaire survey. The respondents were professionals in PSOs that have procured PPP projects in Southwestern Nigeria. These were sampled through the drawing of referral chain, involving respondents-driven sampling technique. The data collected were analyses using descriptive and inferential statistics.
The capability development measures of PSOs in PPP projects delivery clustered around five components: conventional practices, training and development, organizational practices, human capital enhancement and government-aided intervention. These five components of capability development measures are expected to be focused with adequate and equal interest and embraced by PSOs in countries with evolving PPP markets.
The study provides implications for domestic human capital strengthening for enhanced infrastructure delivery in countries with evolving PPP markets.
This study contributes to the existing literature on capabilities improvement on PPP projects. This was achieved by providing empirical evidences with respect to human resource boost for enhanced performance of public sector organizations in their partnership with their private sector counterparts for PPP project success.
The key to successful project management is knowing how well the process is performing to prevent problems rather than fix them after they occur. Success measurement in…
The key to successful project management is knowing how well the process is performing to prevent problems rather than fix them after they occur. Success measurement in product development has emphasized end‐result measures of overall project performance or economic value. The product development literature has largely ignored process performance (i.e., the measurement of how effectively the product development process is actually working). Process performance may be an early warning signal of downstream problems in a project's quality, time, or productivity. This paper proposes a model of process performance at the project level during product and process engineering. The model suggests that process performance mediates the influence of concurrent engineering (process choice) on overall project development performance. This process performance model is tested in the automobile industry using a sample of 406 product development projects in Germany and the USA. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
- Basic needs
- economic development
- economic growth
- educational services
- Gini ratio
- gross national product (GNP)
- human development index
- human poverty
- human poverty index
- human welfare
- income poverty
- Lorenz curve
- physical quality of life index
- population below the poverty line
- poverty rates
- purchasing power
- purchasing power parity
- quality of life
- real per capita GNP
- structural transformation