Search results

1 – 10 of over 14000
Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Tom McNamara, Sabry Shaaban and Sarah Hudson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of unpaced reliable production lines that are unbalanced in terms of their mean operation times, coefficients…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of unpaced reliable production lines that are unbalanced in terms of their mean operation times, coefficients of variation and buffer capacities.

Design/methodology/approach

Simulations were carried out for five‐ and eight‐station lines with various buffer capacities and degrees of means imbalance. Throughput, idle time and average buffer level performance indicators were generated and statistically analysed.

Findings

The results show that an inverted bowl allocation of mean service times, combined with a bowl configuration for coefficients of variation and a decreasing order of buffer sizes results in higher throughput and lower idle times than a balanced line counterpart. In addition, considerable reductions in average inventory levels were consistently obtained when utilizing a configuration of progressively faster stations, coupled with a bowl‐shaped pattern for coefficients of variation and an ascending buffer size order.

Research limitations/implications

The results for these specific experiments imply that resources expended on trying to achieve a balanced line could be better used by seizing upon possible enhanced performance via controlled mean time, variability and buffer imbalance. Results are valid for only the line type and parameter values used (simulation results are specific and not general).

Practical implications

Guidelines are provided on design strategies for allocating labour and capital unevenly in unpaced lines for better performance in terms of increased throughput or lowered idle time or average buffer levels.

Originality/value

This paper might be viewed as one of the first simulation investigations into the performance of unpaced production lines with three sources of imbalance.

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1984

S.J. Moss

The two main approaches to the analysis of technical change are impact studies which are concerned with quantitative measures of the effects of technical change and case…

Abstract

The two main approaches to the analysis of technical change are impact studies which are concerned with quantitative measures of the effects of technical change and case studies which are used to develop inductive generalisations about the sources and directions of technical change. Each of these approaches has deficiencies which are widely and frankly recognised by their respective practitioners.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Martin K. Hingley

This study investigates the issue of power in business‐to‐business relationships and constitutes an appraisal of the theory relating to issues of supply chain…

5809

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the issue of power in business‐to‐business relationships and constitutes an appraisal of the theory relating to issues of supply chain relationships; in which the received view from the relationship marketing literature with its emphasis on trust, dyadic symmetry and mutuality is questioned. It is contended, alternatively that other types of relationships, for example, those based on selfishness are equally relevant; and that power imbalanced business relationships are just as important to the understanding of business exchange.

Design/methodology/approach

Specific reference is made to power relationships in vertical food supply channels in the UK, where the majority of control lies in the hands of large multiple retailers. The paper cites case material drawn from studies into the relationships between UK‐based fresh food supplier organisations and their principal customers, the leading UK food retailers.

Findings

Specific outcomes are determined with regard to issues of power, mutuality and the nature of power‐dependent relationships. Power play is omnipresent in exchange relationships and is not always seen in a negative light. Relationship‐building is perfectly possible in asymmetric relationships and weaker parties are tolerant of power imbalance.

Research limitations/implications

The study concludes that power should be a central consideration when concerned with business relationships and that imbalances in power are no specific barrier to parties entering into relationships or to their success.

Practical implications

Findings from chosen case studies are transferable to other vertical channel circumstances. Any future investigation should consider the expression and limits of power and the boundaries of tolerance to power imbalance.

Originality/value

Provides evidence of the nature of power‐dependent business relationships.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2022

Diandian Chen and Yong Ma

Since 1978, China has made tremendous economic achievements through industrial upgrading. However, these achievements are accompanied by an expanding income gap between…

Abstract

Purpose

Since 1978, China has made tremendous economic achievements through industrial upgrading. However, these achievements are accompanied by an expanding income gap between rural and urban areas. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between industrial structure and urban–rural income inequality in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the fixed-effects model and provincial data for the period 1985–2019, this paper estimates a linear relationship between industrial structure and urban–rural income inequality. By decomposing total income inequality into four components, the paper then analyzes how industrial structure affects each component.

Findings

The results show that industrial structure imbalance and industrial upgrading are positively associated with urban–rural income inequality. The positive effect of industrial imbalance mainly comes from widening the wage gap, while that of industrial upgrading mainly comes from aggravating business income inequality and property income inequality. Moreover, industrial balance and upgrading are conducive to increasing the share of wage income at the cost of property income.

Originality/value

By progressively examining the total inequality and the inequality of income components, this paper provides a better understanding of how industrial structure affects urban and rural income inequality. The findings of this study highlight the “inequality cost” associated with industrial structure adjustment, which provide policy-related insights on the balance development of urban and rural areas.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

Sabry Shaaban, Tom McNamara and Sarah Hudson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of unpaced unreliable production lines that are deliberately unbalanced in terms of their coefficients of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of unpaced unreliable production lines that are deliberately unbalanced in terms of their coefficients of variation (CVs).

Design/methodology/approach

A series of simulation experiments were carried out for five and eight station lines with mean buffer space set at one, two, four and six units. CVs were allocated in 12 different configurations for each of these lines.

Findings

The results show that the best unbalanced CV patterns in terms of throughput rates or idle times as compared to a balanced line counterpart are those where the steadiest stations are concentrated near the centre of the line. On the other hand, either concentrating the steadier operators towards the centre or close to the end of the line gives best average buffer level results.

Practical implications

The results provide guidelines for production line managers when designing unpaced unbalanced lines depending on their performance aims.

Originality/value

The investigation of the effects of unbalancing CVs in unreliable lines has not previously been studied and can provide insights into how best to place workstations with differing variability along the line.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 October 2018

Sihem Khemakhem, Fatma Ben Said and Younes Boujelbene

Credit scoring datasets are generally unbalanced. The number of repaid loans is higher than that of defaulted ones. Therefore, the classification of these data is biased…

Abstract

Purpose

Credit scoring datasets are generally unbalanced. The number of repaid loans is higher than that of defaulted ones. Therefore, the classification of these data is biased toward the majority class, which practically means that it tends to attribute a mistaken “good borrower” status even to “very risky borrowers”. In addition to the use of statistics and machine learning classifiers, this paper aims to explore the relevance and performance of sampling models combined with statistical prediction and artificial intelligence techniques to predict and quantify the default probability based on real-world credit data.

Design/methodology/approach

A real database from a Tunisian commercial bank was used and unbalanced data issues were addressed by the random over-sampling (ROS) and synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE). Performance was evaluated in terms of the confusion matrix and the receiver operating characteristic curve.

Findings

The results indicated that the combination of intelligent and statistical techniques and re-sampling approaches are promising for the default rate management and provide accurate credit risk estimates.

Originality/value

This paper empirically investigates the effectiveness of ROS and SMOTE in combination with logistic regression, artificial neural networks and support vector machines. The authors address the role of sampling strategies in the Tunisian credit market and its impact on credit risk. These sampling strategies may help financial institutions to reduce the erroneous classification costs in comparison with the unbalanced original data and may serve as a means for improving the bank’s performance and competitiveness.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2017

Tiago Cardao-Pito

In the euro’s initial years, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain observed capital flow bonanzas and credit-booms, two cycles known to precede banking crises…

Abstract

In the euro’s initial years, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain observed capital flow bonanzas and credit-booms, two cycles known to precede banking crises. Domestic banks fuelled those cycles via funding obtained from foreign financial institutions. Yet, these countries’ banking and financial crises have unfolded in different modes. In Ireland and Spain, credit-booms propelled real-estate bubbles, which dragged banks into crises, with governments’ accounts later being affected when rescuing banks (Spanish regional banks, and all Irish major banks). In Greece and Italy, extra monetary means perpetuated government imbalances (e.g. debt levels above 100% of GDP, large yearly deficits). More severely in Greece, banks were brought into crises by sovereign crises. In Portugal, a mixture of private and public sector–led crises have occurred. Our comparative study finds that these crises: (1) are connected to shocks and imbalances caused by dangerous banking sector cycles during the monetary integration process; (2) were not mere expansions of the US subprime crisis; (3) were not only caused by country-specific features and institutions; and (4) followed distinct paths, therefore, a uniform model encompassing all post-euro crises cannot exist.

Details

Economic Imbalances and Institutional Changes to the Euro and the European Union
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-510-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 July 2018

Steffen Volkenand, Guenther Filler and Martin Odening

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and compare the impact of order imbalance on returns, liquidity and price volatility in agricultural futures markets on an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and compare the impact of order imbalance on returns, liquidity and price volatility in agricultural futures markets on an intraday basis. The authors examine whether order imbalance is more powerful to explain variations in asset prices compared to other indicators of trading activity, particularly trading volume.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Chicago Mercantile Exchange best bid best offer data, the impact of order imbalance is analyzed via regression analyses. The analyses are carried out for corn, wheat, soy, live cattle and lean hogs in March 2008 and March 2016.

Findings

Results confirm the positive relation between order imbalance and returns as well as between order imbalance and price volatility as suggested by market microstructure models. Order imbalance, however, does not generally outperform trading volume as an explanatory variable.

Practical implications

For some contracts, returns can be predicted using lagged order imbalance. This offers the opportunity to derive profitable trading strategies.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first attempts to explore the relationship between order imbalance and returns, liquidity and volatility for agricultural commodity futures on an intraday basis, accounting for the increased trading volume and for the high speed at which new information enters the market in an electronic trading environment.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 78 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2017

Pasquale Foresti and Oreste Napolitano

Risk-sharing is a crucial issue in order to evaluate the performance of a monetary union. By implementing conventional econometric techniques, this paper intends to…

Abstract

Risk-sharing is a crucial issue in order to evaluate the performance of a monetary union. By implementing conventional econometric techniques, this paper intends to estimate the degree of risk-sharing through the cross-ownership of assets within 11 European countries in the period 1971–2014. We show that risk-sharing has been increasing after the launch of the euro due to increased cross-ownership of assets. Nevertheless, we also show that despite the extreme needs for adjustment mechanisms as a reaction to asymmetric shocks in the EMU during the crises, the estimated market risk-sharing mechanism seems to have remained marginal in this period. We also show that the degree of asymmetry (potential benefits from risk-sharing) has declined with the start of the EMU, but it has sharply increased during the crises period. This implies that EMU countries have needed good functioning risk-sharing mechanisms during the crisis, while in this period their estimated performance does not seem to have improved. We interpret these results as the evidence of a missing element of the EMU that forced governments to intervene by means of fiscal policy to tackle the imbalances deriving from the financial crisis. Therefore, we conclude that the weakness in the risk-sharing has been one of the channels that allowed the global financial crisis to mutate in a sovereign debt crisis in the EMU.

Details

Economic Imbalances and Institutional Changes to the Euro and the European Union
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-510-8

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Exorbitant Burden
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-641-0

1 – 10 of over 14000