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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Subhadip Roy and Varsha Jain

The “meaning transfer model (MTM)” is one of the less researched models in celebrity endorsement. The purpose of this paper is to empirically measure and validate a…

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1399

Abstract

Purpose

The “meaning transfer model (MTM)” is one of the less researched models in celebrity endorsement. The purpose of this paper is to empirically measure and validate a comprehensive model of meaning transfer in celebrity endorsements.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a conceptual model of meaning transfer that starts from celebrity identity as an antecedent of perceived celebrity meaning (CM), the study integrates CM, brand meaning (BM) and consumer behavior (CB) and two moderators leading to six studied hypotheses. The model is empirically tested using survey data (of 483 consumers) from India with the application of factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

Findings

Major results indicate a positive effect of CM on BM and BM on subsequent CB. The moderating effect of consumer knowledge and product involvement in successful meaning transfer is also observed.

Research limitations/implications

Contribution of the present study lies in the validation of a comprehensive model of meaning transfer in celebrity endorsements that may pave the way to the explanation of previous confounding results.

Practical implications

The present study provided an actionable model for marketers that would lead to successful meaning transfer and the various factors that need to be controlled.

Originality/value

This is the first study to validate the MTM that integrates the basic tenets of celebrity endorsement theory.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Simona D'Antone and Dwight Merunka

The purpose of this paper is to explore how brand origin (BO) cues affect the consumer’s association of a new brand with BO learning and the subsequent effects on brand…

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1752

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how brand origin (BO) cues affect the consumer’s association of a new brand with BO learning and the subsequent effects on brand image (BO semiotics). An integrative theoretical framework is proposed that includes both processes.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model is based on analogical learning theory and triadic semiotic theory.

Findings

Two types of BO knowledge form BO meanings in consumer minds: country-related categories and exemplar brands, which have a classification and/or inferential role. The brand cues (indexes or icons) used by consumers to identify BO generate one or the other type of BO knowledge. Indexes trigger the classification function of country-related categories while icons trigger the inferential role of country-related categories and exemplar brands. BO knowledge informs the meaning transfer when consumers interpret the meaning of a new brand, leading to either a transfer of relations or a transfer of attributes to the new brand.

Practical implications

Marketers should monitor BO exemplar brands that consumers use as meaning sources and carefully select the signs used in their communications to evoke BO.

Originality/value

The proposed framework contrasts with dominant categorisation perspectives, re-establishing the dual role of categories and emphasising the relevance of brand cues in BO identification and BO exemplar brands in the BO meaning transfer process. A meaning-centred perspective is adopted to integrate BO identification and the related transfer mechanisms.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Varsha Jain and Subhadip Roy

Of the three major streams of research in celebrity endorsements, the “Meaning Transfer Model (MTM)” has received the least attention from researchers. In the present…

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7545

Abstract

Purpose

Of the three major streams of research in celebrity endorsements, the “Meaning Transfer Model (MTM)” has received the least attention from researchers. In the present study, the authors aim to investigate the basic components of the “Meaning Transfer Model” proposed by McCracken (1986, 1989) and outcome of the flow of meaning through celebrity endorsements.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used an interpretive approach to address four broad research questions framed after a comprehensive literature review. Eight focus group discussions (FGD) (along with embedded word association techniques) were conducted among audience from heterogeneous demographic backgrounds from India. Content and thematic analysis were carried out on the FGD transcripts and the word association test results to generate findings.

Findings

The findings indicate seven themes of celebrity meaning, namely, personality, credibility, physical appearance, feelings, performance, values and cogent power. Most meanings were found to be transferred to a brand via the endorsement. The possibility of reverse meaning transfer and the change of celebrity meanings overtime were also observed.

Research limitations/implications

The major contribution of the present study is the development of a measurable and applicable model of meaning transfer in celebrity endorsements, along with a set of testable propositions.

Practical implications

The findings provide a guiding framework for practitioners who would like to use a celebrity endorsement strategy.

Originality/value

This is one of the first attempts to develop a comprehensive model of meaning transfer in celebrity endorsements that includes sub-constructs of “meaning” and the moderators in the process.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Wan Yang

The aim of this paper is to summarize the celebrity endorsement literature to identify trends and challenges related to key research areas. Based on a critical review of…

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7335

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to summarize the celebrity endorsement literature to identify trends and challenges related to key research areas. Based on a critical review of existing literature, this paper presents several recommendations regarding potential future directions of celebrity endorsement research in hospitality and tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a critical review of literature from both the general marketing and hospitality and tourism fields.

Findings

Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in hospitality and tourism celebrity endorsement research, with several new constructs being revealed and tested. However, the extant findings are rather mixed and inconclusive because industry features have not been systematically examined and study contexts and samples have varied widely. To advance the hospitality and tourism celebrity endorsement research, an extended meaning transfer model with six propositions is proposed. Several areas for future research are also discussed.

Practical implications

This paper offers up-to-date findings on celebrity endorsement to practitioners, and the proposed extended meaning transfer model can provide marketers useful guidelines on selecting appropriate endorsers for their products/brands.

Originality/value

In previous studies, scholars mainly used one or more of the three types of celebrity endorser selection models and only examined specific antecedents of effective endorsement. To date, researchers have not yet conceptualized a modified model that captures the unique features of the hospitality and tourism industry and reconciles the mixed findings in the extant literature. This paper proposes an extended meaning transfer model to explain the endorser selection process, provides a good foundational understanding of the extant celebrity endorsement research and makes several recommendations regarding future research directions for hospitality and tourism scholars with implications for practitioners.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Stefan Scheidt, Carsten Gelhard, Juliane Strotzer and Jörg Henseler

While the branding of individuals has attracted increasing attention from practitioners in recent decades, understanding of personal branding still remains limited…

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3930

Abstract

Purpose

While the branding of individuals has attracted increasing attention from practitioners in recent decades, understanding of personal branding still remains limited, especially with regard to the branding of celebrity CEOs. To contribute to this debate, this paper aims to explore the co-branding of celebrity CEOs and corporate brands, integrating endorsement theory and the concept of meaning transfer at a level of brand attributes.

Design/methodology/approach

A between-subjects true experimental design was chosen for each of the two empirical studies with a total of 268 participants, using mock newspaper articles about a succession scenario at the CEO level of different companies. The study is designed to analyse the meaning transfer from celebrity CEO to corporate brand and vice versa using 16 personality attributes.

Findings

This study gives empirical support for meaning transfer effects at the brand attribute level in both the celebrity-CEO-to-corporate-brand and corporate-brand-to-celebrity-CEO direction, which confirms the applicability of the concept of brand endorsement to celebrity CEOs and the mutuality in co-branding models. Furthermore, a more detailed and expansive perspective on the definition of endorsement is provided as well as managerial guidance for building celebrity CEOs and corporate brands in consideration of meaning transfer effects.

Originality/value

This study is one of only few analysing the phenomenon of meaning transfer between brands that focus on non-evaluative associations (i.e. personality attributes). It is unique in its scope, insofar as the partnering relationship between celebrity CEOs and corporate brands have not been analysed empirically from this perspective yet. It bridges the gap between application in practice and the academic foundations, and it contributes to a broader understanding and definition of celebrity endorsement.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Thomas A. Baker III, Kevin K. Byon and Natasha T. Brison

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether negative meanings consumers attribute to a corporation transfer to the endorser and to examine the moderating effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether negative meanings consumers attribute to a corporation transfer to the endorser and to examine the moderating effects of corporate-specific and product-specific negative meanings on an endorser’s credibility.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a protocol designed by Till and Shimp (1998), two experiments were conducted to examine if meaning transfer exists (experiment 1) and if meaning type moderates reverse meaning transfer (experiment 2). A doubly repeated multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to investigate changes in the endorser’s credibility and attitudes toward the brand.

Findings

The results revealed that the negative meanings consumers associated with these corporate crises influence consumer perceptions of the endorser as well as attitude toward the brand.

Research limitations/implications

This finding supports the position that meaning type moderates reverse meaning transfer and may explain variances in the literature on the significance of reverse meaning transfer. Based on these findings, brand crises have a negative effect on the endorser’s credibility.

Practical implications

The results lead the authors to suggest that endorsers as well as marketers should closely scrutinize brand partnerships, as the relationship may positively and negatively influence consumer perceptions of the athlete endorser.

Social implications

Based on the findings from this study, brand managers need to appreciate differences in brand crisis type by tailoring brand image remediation strategies to fit the type(s) of meaning(s) associated with a specific controversy.

Originality/value

The results from the current study add, significantly, to the literature by being the first to evidence that different meanings associated with different types of brand crises produce different attitudes toward the brand.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Jin Woo Lee and Soo Hee Lee

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of digital platforms on the contemporary visual art market. Drawing on the theoretical insights of the technology…

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1191

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of digital platforms on the contemporary visual art market. Drawing on the theoretical insights of the technology acceptance model, the meaning transfer model and arts marketing literature, the authors conceptualise the role of user participation in creating the meaning and value of contemporary artworks in the online art market.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conduct a qualitative study of Saatchi Art as an instrumental case for theorising. It is an online platform for trading visual artworks created by young and emerging artists. The data for this study were collected through direct observation and documentary reviews, as well as user comments and buyer reviews from Saatchi Art. The authors reviewed 319 buyer comments Art and 30 user comments. The collected data are supplemented with various secondary sources such as newspapers, magazines, social media texts and videos.

Findings

The growth of digital art platforms such as Saatchi Art provides efficiency and accessibility of information to users while helping them overcome the impediments of physical galleries such as geographical constraints and intimidating psychological environments, thereby attracting novice collectors. However, users’ involvement in the process of valuing artworks is limited and still guided by curatorial direction.

Research limitations/implications

The first limitation of this research is that the data in this research cannot capture interactions between users, though users’ intention to use Saatchi Art is affected by the social influence of other users. Second, this research has not examined artists as users of digital art platforms and their interactions with other types of users. Artists’ intention to use the online platform might be underlined by enhancing their status in the peer group or seeking legitimacy in the field by following other artists and getting recommendations from important referents.

Practical implications

The outcomes of this research suggest that newcomers in the online art market should acknowledge that users’ intention to use the online art platform is determined by not only technological usefulness of the website but also the symbolic capital of the information provider.

Originality/value

User participation in the online art market is guided by curatorial direction rather than social influence. This confirms re-intermediation of marketing relationships, highlighting the role of new intermediaries such as digital platforms in arts marketing.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2007

Simon C. Darnell and Robert Sparks

This paper critically examines the processes of meaning creation and transfer in sports celebrity endorsements. It uses findings from a qualitative case study that…

Abstract

This paper critically examines the processes of meaning creation and transfer in sports celebrity endorsements. It uses findings from a qualitative case study that investigated how Canadian journalists covered Simon Whitfield's gold medal win in the inaugural men's triathlon Sydney Olympic Games in 2000, and how sponsors subsequently capitalised on his media image. The results highlight key factors that influence Olympic sports reporting and their implications for leveraging an Olympic athlete's media image as part of a product endorsement strategy.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Gashaw Abeza, Norm O’Reilly, Benoit Séguin and Ornella Nzindukiyimana

The purpose of this paper is to examine the practice of celebrity athletes’ product endorsement in the context of social media, guided by meaning transfer model.

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1493

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the practice of celebrity athletes’ product endorsement in the context of social media, guided by meaning transfer model.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a content analysis method based on data gathered from the official Twitter account of 17 of the highest-paid athletes over a period of five months.

Findings

Results outline the state, involvement level, roles, modes, preferred content types, discernible differences, shared features, and best practices employed in endorsement tweets. A framework of athletes’ product endorsement on Twitter is presented.

Research limitations/implications

The study presented theoretical and practical implications, and limitations and impetus for future research.

Originality/value

The study investigated professional athletes’ use of their own media channel for the purpose of endorsement, presented a framework that illustrates the practice of celebrity athletes’ product endorsement on social media, and identified a best practice and an exemplary reference.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Siva K. Balasubramanian, Hemant Patwardhan, Deepa Pillai and Kesha K. Coker

The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a conceptual framework of attitudinal constructs that influence attitude toward the brand in movie product placements…

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3630

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a conceptual framework of attitudinal constructs that influence attitude toward the brand in movie product placements. Advertising literature is replete with studies on factors that influence attitude toward the brand (Ab). However, this topic remains under-explored for product placements.

Design/methodology/approach

Our framework showcases several theories to relate attitude and fit constructs to attitudes toward the product placement and attitude toward the brand. We use the structural equation model approach to estimate the conceptual framework.

Findings

Several attitudinal movie constructs (attitude toward the actor, the character and the movie) influence attitude toward the product placement, which in turn mediates the relationship between the former attitudinal constructs and attitude toward the brand. Interestingly, only the fit between the actor and placed brand impacted attitude toward the product placement, with no effects found for the fit between the character and the fit between the movie and brand and the attitude toward the product placement.

Research limitations/implications

We focus on explicit attitudes; implicit attitudes need future research attention.

Practical implications

Findings affirm a key role for the actor featured in the placement in directly or indirectly shaping the attitude toward the brand.

Originality/value

This is the first study to apply the structural equation modeling approach to this research area.

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