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Article

Md. Mofakkharul Islam, Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal and Firoz Ahmed

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize chitosan, N-octyl chitosan (NOCh) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh) derivative from prawn shell wastes and identify their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize chitosan, N-octyl chitosan (NOCh) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh) derivative from prawn shell wastes and identify their applications as modifiers on cellulosic fibres, jute and cotton, to develop quality textile fibres.

Design/methodology/approach

Chitosan was obtained by deacetylation of chitin. NOCh was obtained by reductive amination of chitosan. Water-soluble CMCh was prepared by reacting chitosan with monochloroacetic acid in aqueous alkaline media at ambient conditions. Chitosan, NOCh and CMCh were applied on cellulosic fibres, and structure and physico-chemical characteristics of chitosan derivatives and modified fibres were investigated and analysed.

Findings

The molecular weight, degree of deacetylation and ash content of prepared chitosan were 1,39,958 Da, 85 and 2.33 per cent, respectively. The moisture content, water holding capacity and total nitrogen content were above 10, 450 and 6.5 per cent, respectively. Average degree of substitution of CMCh was 0.82 as determined by titrimetric analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra showed characteristic peaks of carbonyl group at 1,659 cm−1, NH2 at 1,600 cm−1, symmetric stretching of C-H in the methyl group at 1,520 cm−1 and carboxylic group at 1,737 cm−1. Thermograms showed moderate thermal stability in treated fibres compared to untreated fibres. Surface morphology of the modified fibres exhibited smoother surface due to the absorption of chitosan, NOCh and CMCh.

Originality/value

Modification of jute and cotton by sorption of NOCh and CMCh introduced new functional groups on the fibre surface with chemical bonding, which was confirmed by FTIR. Surface morphology of the fibres was carried out by scanning electron microscopy. As the modified fibres also showed good dyeability and colour fastness as well as other properties, the chitosan derivatives as a textile modifier would be helpful to avoid synthetic petroleum-based chemical modifiers as well as to manage the environmental pollution from prawn shell waste and other toxic chemicals.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

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Article

Md. Asadul Hoque, Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal, Md. Saiduzzaman and Uttom Kumar Paul

Colorfastness properties of dyed degummed and dyed stannic chloride weighted silk fiber were studied as a function of exposure to sunlight in air, washing with soap…

Abstract

Purpose

Colorfastness properties of dyed degummed and dyed stannic chloride weighted silk fiber were studied as a function of exposure to sunlight in air, washing with soap solution and spotting with alkalis.

Design/methodology/approach

Improved multi-voltine variety of degummed silk fibers was weighted with the treatment of stannic chloride at the varying pH level. Maximum weighting of silk fiber was achieved at the optimum SnCl4 concentration, pH of the solution, time and temperature. The degummed (un-weighted) and weighted silk fibers were then dyed with Direct Blue 1 and Direct Red 28 dyes at the optimized dying conditions.

Findings

The role of base (Na2CO3) on dyeing of weighted silk fiber with Direct Red 28 was found very influential. The loss in tenacity of degummed silk fiber was higher than that of SnCl4 weighted silk fiber when they were exposed to sunlight in air.

Originality/value

The colorfastness of weighted dyed silk was comparatively higher than that of un-weighted dyed silk.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

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Article

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal and Firoz Ahmed

This study aims to explore the use of knitted rag by synthesizing different grades of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by applying multiple-step carboxymethylation techniques.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the use of knitted rag by synthesizing different grades of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by applying multiple-step carboxymethylation techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

CMC was synthesized from knitted rag, a cellulosic waste of textile and garment industries, in aqueous ethanolic sodium hydroxide and subsequently mono-chloroacetic acid reaction medium. Low-substituted to high-substituted products were obtained from single-step to seven-step carboxymethylation of cellulose. In this way, it was possible to produce low-cost and different grades of substituted carboxymethylated cellulose. The synthesized CMC was characterized, and their physical properties were investigated. The structure of CMC and grafted CMC were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

Findings

Solubility, CMC content, degree of substitution and molecular weight of CMC were increased gradually with the increase in the number of reaction steps, although fourth step attained the optimum. The cellulosic waste of knitted rag can easily be used to produce value-added products such as CMC and other cellulose derivatives, and that will ultimately reduce the pollution problems from this waste.

Originality/value

Grafting of prepared CMC film with methyl methacrylate monomer increased their strength, although decreased rigidity and moisture content because the incorporation of hydrophobic methyl methacrylate monomer was observed.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

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Article

Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal, Md. Asadul Hoque, Md. Abdul Latif and Md. Khairul Islam

The modification of jute fiber with acetic (aliphatic) and phthalic (aromatic) anhydrides has revealed pronounced improvement of the inherent drawbacks (such as breaking…

Abstract

The modification of jute fiber with acetic (aliphatic) and phthalic (aromatic) anhydrides has revealed pronounced improvement of the inherent drawbacks (such as breaking strength, thermal stability, color fastness, etc.) of jute fiber. Between the acetic anhydride (AA) and phthalic anhydride (PA) modified fibers, the latter have shown better improvement of the described properties. Modification of jute with anhydrides is carried out in an aqueous medium (solid-liquid system) with potassium persulfate as the initiator under the catalytic influence of ferrous sulfate (FeSO4). At an optimized reaction condition, the percent weight gain and efficiency of the modifying agents are 12.94% and 14.38% for AA respectively and 15.18% and 18.98% for PA respectively. The FT-IR spectra confirm the modification reaction and the TGA shows an improvement in the thermal properties. The mechanical properties are investigated with a tensile tester. Upon prolonged exposure of the modified fibers to sunlight, the color fastness of the modified and unmodified fibers is measured with a grey scale.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article

M.M. Rahman, Sourav Saha, Satyajit Mojumder, Khan Md. Rabbi, Hasnah Hasan and Talaat A. Ibrahim

The purpose of this investigation is to determine the nature of the flow field, temperature distribution and heat and mass transfer in a triangular solar collector…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this investigation is to determine the nature of the flow field, temperature distribution and heat and mass transfer in a triangular solar collector enclosure with a corrugated bottom wall in the unsteady condition numerically.

Design/methodology/approach

Non-linear governing partial differential equations (i.e. mass, momentum, energy and concentration equations) are transformed into a system of integral equations by applying the Galerkin weighted residual method. The integration involved in each of these terms is performed using Gauss’ quadrature method. The resulting non-linear algebraic equations are modified by the imposition of boundary conditions. Finally, Newton’s method is used to modify non-linear equations into the linear algebraic equations.

Findings

Both the buoyancy ratio and thermal Rayleigh number play an important role in controlling the mode of heat transfer and mass transfer.

Originality/value

Calculations are performed for various thermal Rayleigh numbers, buoyancy ratios and time periods. For each specific condition, streamline contours, isotherm contours and iso-concentration contours are obtained, and the variation in the overall Nusselt and Sherwood numbers is identified for different parameter combinations.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article

Syeliya Md Zaini, Grant Samkin, Umesh Sharma and Howard Davey

The purpose of this paper is to explore the approaches used by researchers in examining the influences of external factors towards voluntary disclosure in emerging countries.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the approaches used by researchers in examining the influences of external factors towards voluntary disclosure in emerging countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The data collected in this study were collected through a review of empirical literature based on 35 articles published between 1998 and 2013. The sample articles on the link between external factors and the level of voluntary disclosure were located by searching keywords in the most relevant social science research databases such as Business Source Premier, Emerald full text, JSTOR, Science Direct, Scopus, and Social Science Research Network.

Findings

The result reveals that research in voluntary disclosure practices by companies in emerging countries remains low. The majority of studies employed content analysis to examine the extent of voluntary disclosure practices. Results from studies show that greater regulatory enforcement in the region and increase in stakeholders’ comprehension about their rights and choices with regards to business activities can influence the majority of the companies to provide voluntary disclosure. The literature revealed that social responsibility and environmental information are the popular categories of voluntary disclosure while risk and human capital/intellectual capital are the least popular categories.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is limited to a review of 35 articles.

Practical implications

The study provides avenues for policy makers and regulators to carry out reforms on voluntary disclosure practices.

Social implications

The findings may provide insights to capital market regulators when conducting effective regulation and supervision of information transparency in listed companies.

Originality/value

Since limited studies exist that examine voluntary disclosure in emerging countries, little is known about the implications of external factors such as a country’s policy, regulations, stakeholders, and business environment on voluntary disclosure practices. This paper contributes to filling this gap by a review of articles of empirical research on voluntary disclosure in emerging countries.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

Content available
Article

A.A. Ousama, Helmi Hammami and Mustafa Abdulkarim

The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the impact of intellectual capital (IC) on the financial performance of Islamic banks operating in the Gulf…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the impact of intellectual capital (IC) on the financial performance of Islamic banks operating in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The study measures IC by the value added intellectual coefficient model. A regression analysis was used to assess the impact of IC on financial performance. The research sample consisted of Islamic banks operating in the GCC countries during the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. Data originated from the annual reports of Islamic banks.

Findings

The results support the thesis that IC has a positive impact on the financial performance of Islamic banks. Even though the average IC is lower than that reported in other studies, the positive effect on financial performance is obvious. The findings also show that human capital (HC) is higher than capital employed (CE) and structural capital (SC). The study reveals that SC has an insignificant impact on the financial performance of the Islamic banks compared to CE and HC.

Practical implications

The findings provide empirical evidence that IC affects the Islamic banks’ financial performance. It helps Islamic banks in the GCC countries to understand how to use their IC efficiently, especially SC as it is yet to be used efficiently. Also, the findings benefit the relevant authorities (e.g. legislators and central banks) who could use them to emphasise strategic policy reforms whenever required.

Originality/value

The current research adds to the empirical studies in the GCC countries as it views the region as a collective as opposed to individual countries. It also extends the IC and performance measurement literature of Islamic banks in the GCC countries. Moreover, the current study enriches the limited literature on IC in the context of Islamic banking.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Article

Arash Asiaei and Nor Zairah Ab. Rahim

The purpose of this study is to develop a model to understand the relationships among technology, organizational and environmental (TOE) contexts, intention to adopt cloud…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a model to understand the relationships among technology, organizational and environmental (TOE) contexts, intention to adopt cloud computing (IACC) and actual usage of cloud computing (AUCC) in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia as a developing country. More specifically, this paper seeks to explore the mediation effect of IACC on the relationship between TOE context and AUCC.

Design/methodology/approach

A positivist research approach was selected for this study. Drawing largely upon the TOE framework, this study uses survey data from 209 Malaysian SMEs. Structural equation modelling (SEM) based on partial least squares (PLS) was used to assess the structural relations of the research model.

Findings

The results of the structural model show that data security, technology readiness, top management support, competitive pressure and innovativeness are the most significant factors in predicting the adoption of cloud computing in Malaysian SMEs. Further, the results indicate that intention to adopt cloud computing can play a mediating role between TOE factors and the actual usage of cloud computing.

Research limitations/implications

The focus upon Malaysian SMEs may diminish the generalizability of the findings. This study provides profound insight into the management and foundation of cloud computing, different types of cloud services and deployment models that could facilitate the management of enterprise strategic resources and contribute to the performance improvement. This study also provides another important implication for practitioners regarding the absolute necessity of value drivers’ identification within enterprise and understand the causal relationships, which are vital in driving those values.

Practical implications

This study provides several practical guidance for practitioners in deploying cloud services which are most suitable option for their specific technology requirement in their enterprise to enjoy the full benefits of their intangible assets. Another significant implication of this study lies in the fact that it may require a different emphasis on nature and adoption design when there is a higher level of stress on technology-related and cloud computing resources.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the extant literature by developing an integrative model to identify how a wide set of contextual factors can determine the intention to adopt cloud computing and, in turn, influence the actual usage of cloud computing in SMEs in Malaysia as a developing country.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

Keywords

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Article

Agung Sutrisno, Indra Gunawan, Iwan Vanany, Mohammad Asjad and Wahyu Caesarendra

Proposing an improved model for evaluating criticality of non-value added (waste) in operation is necessary for realizing sustainable manufacturing practices. The purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

Proposing an improved model for evaluating criticality of non-value added (waste) in operation is necessary for realizing sustainable manufacturing practices. The purpose of this paper is concerning on improvement of the decision support model for evaluating risk criticality lean waste occurrence by considering the weight of modified FMEA indices and the influence of waste-worsening factors causing the escalation of waste risk magnitude.

Design/methodology/approach

Integration of entropy and Taguchi loss function into decision support model of modified FMEA is presented to rectify the limitation of previous risk reprioritization models in modified FMEA studies. The weight of the probability components and loss components are quantified using entropy. A case study from industry is used to test the applicability of the integration model in practical situation.

Findings

The proposed model enables to overcome the limitations of using subjective determination on the weight of modified FMEA indices. The inclusion of the waste-worsening factors and Taguchi loss functions enables the FMEA team to articulate the severity level of waste consequences appropriately over the use of ordinal scale in ranking the risk of lean waste in modified FMEA references.

Research limitations/implications

When appraising the risk of lean waste criticality, ignorance on weighting of FMEA indices may be inappropriate for an accurate risk-based decision-making. This paper provides insights to scholars and practitioners and others concerned with the lean operation to understand the significance of considering the impact of FMEA indices and waste-worsening factors in evaluating criticality of lean waste risks.

Practical implications

The method adopted is for quantifying the criticality of lean waste and inclusion of weighting of FMEA indices in modified FMEA provides insight and exemplar on tackling the risk of lean waste and determining the most critical waste affecting performability of company operations.

Originality/value

Integration of the entropy and Taguchi loss function for appraising the criticality of lean waste in modified FMEA is the first in the lean management discipline. These findings will be highly useful for professionals wishing to implement the lean waste reduction strategy.

Details

International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-4166

Keywords

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Article

Kaveh Asiaei, Ruzita Jusoh and Nick Bontis

The purpose of this paper is to empirically explore how the effect of intellectual capital (IC) on organizational performance is indirect and mediated through performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically explore how the effect of intellectual capital (IC) on organizational performance is indirect and mediated through performance measurement (PM) systems.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a survey of 128 chief financial officers of Iranian publicly listed companies. Hypotheses were tested using partial least squares regression, a structural modeling technique which is appropriate for highly complex predictive models.

Findings

Results from the structural model indicate that, in general, companies with a higher level of IC place a premium on the balanced use of PM systems in a diagnostic and interactive style. Furthermore, the results provide some evidence that IC is indirectly associated with organizational performance through the intervening variable of the balanced use of interactive and diagnostic PM systems.

Practical implications

This study sheds light on the issue of how senior management should use PM systems to take full advantage of intellectual assets which could lead to improved organizational performance.

Originality/value

This is the first study of its kind to synthesize a model which examines IC, PM systems, and organizational performance. Although the effect of different types of intangible assets on performance has been substantially examined in the literature, less effort has been devoted to understanding the role of PM systems in leveraging an organization’s IC.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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