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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Mbaye Fall Diallo and Jose Ribamar Siqueira Jr

Brand experience is a key factor that helps elucidate why consumers choose a given brand among others. The purpose this paper is to investigate how previous experience…

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2407

Abstract

Purpose

Brand experience is a key factor that helps elucidate why consumers choose a given brand among others. The purpose this paper is to investigate how previous experience with store brands affects store brand purchase intention in two emerging markets and whether the cultural context moderates the relationships between store brand positive or negative cues and store brand purchase intention.

Design/methodology/approach

A store-intercept survey undertaken in the Latin American context generated 769 usable responses from consumers of two metropolitan cities (Brasilia and Bogota), respectively, in Brazil and Colombia. The questionnaires were collected in four well-established retail chains by professional investigators. Structural equation modelling was used to test a series of proposed hypotheses.

Findings

Overall, this paper reveals that consumers in Latin America do care about brand experience when shopping. More specifically, the results indicate that previous positive experience with store brands has a positive effect on consumer purchase intention in both countries investigated. In Brazil, store brand price perceptions mediate rather strongly the relationship between previous experience with store brands and purchase intention. In contrast, this effect is weak in Colombia. Store brand perceived risk has significant mediation effects in Brazil, but no mediation effects in Colombia. The authors also underline heterogeneous moderation effects of the cultural context, suggesting that common perceptions of Latin America as a culturally homogeneous region are stereotypical.

Research limitations/implications

Respondents were consumers of only two Latin American emerging countries (Brazil and Colombia) and shoppers of two retail chains in each country. Caution should therefore be exercised when generalising the results to other emerging markets.

Practical implications

The paper offers recommendations on how to standardise/adapt brand experience management in different Latin American markets. Overall, retailers should go beyond the transaction itself and establish true differentiation using different store brand ranges. However, due to differences in cultural contexts, marketing communication should adopt different approaches to each country: emphasise the price advantages of store brands in Brazil, but focus on other factors such as quality in Colombia. Because they are culturally bound, risk perceptions towards store brands should also be managed carefully. It would be possible to target premium consumer segments with standard store brands in Colombia while a more sophisticated approach is necessary in Brazil (e.g. co-branding or launching more premium store brands).

Originality/value

By employing three theoretical frameworks (learning theory, cue utilisation theory and culture theory), this research investigates the effect of previous experience with store brands on purchase intention in two emerging countries that are geographically close but culturally different. It highlights direct and indirect processes of brand experience and underlines significant structural path differences between the two Latin American countries investigated in terms of consumption behaviour towards store brands.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2018

Souad Djelassi, Delphine Godefroit-Winkel and Mbaye Fall Diallo

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors influencing customer loyalty to shopping centres across different emerging countries. Specifically, it seeks to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors influencing customer loyalty to shopping centres across different emerging countries. Specifically, it seeks to determine how the cultural context moderates the direct effects of shopping centre perceived value and customer satisfaction on customer loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

A shopping centre-intercept survey was conducted among 244 consumers in Morocco and 203 consumers in Tunisia. The proposed model was analysed using partial least squares path modelling.

Findings

The results demonstrate the impacts of perceived utilitarian and non-utilitarian value on customer satisfaction with a shopping centre, both moderated by the cultural context. Specifically, utilitarian, hedonic and relaxation values exert stronger influences on satisfaction in Tunisia than in Morocco; but socialisation value has a stronger impact on it in Morocco than in Tunisia. The influences of value dimensions on customer loyalty to the shopping centre do not vary between Tunisia and Morocco.

Practical implications

With these results shopping centre developers and retailers can develop more efficient strategies to target Maghreb emerging countries. For example, they should focus on factors that may increase the utilitarian, hedonic and relaxation values offered by shopping centres in Tunisia but address factors that facilitate socialisation value in Morocco.

Originality/value

By using a cross-culture perspective, this paper extends and enriches knowledge on shopping centre patronage in Maghreb countries. Also, it considers two non-utilitarian values (socialisation and relaxation), which are relevant in Maghreb countries.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 46 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2016

Mbaye Fall Diallo and Gérard Cliquet

International retailers operating in different emerging countries should figure out how their store image is perceived across these countries and whether they should adapt…

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1573

Abstract

Purpose

International retailers operating in different emerging countries should figure out how their store image is perceived across these countries and whether they should adapt or standardise the retail offer. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how store image is perceived across different emerging markets and how it relates to customer knowledge cues and personal characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

A store-intercept survey undertaken in Brazil and Vietnam generated 505 usable responses from customers of two metropolitan cities (Brasilia and Hanoi), respectively, in Brazil and Vietnam. The questionnaires were collected in Extra (Brazil) and Big C (Vietnam) retail chains belonging both to the same group (Casino, France).

Findings

Overall, this paper reveals that emerging market customers assess positively modern retail stores and are concerned about services, merchandise, and store layout when shopping. More specifically, the results indicate differences and similarities between Brazilian and Vietnamese customers in terms of store image attributes, store image dimensions, and overall store image. Moreover, customer knowledge of retailers affects store image perceptions at different levels in both countries. Also, significant differences arise across age, gender, and education in both countries, but not across household income categories.

Research limitations/implications

Respondents were customers of only two emerging markets (Brazil and Vietnam) and shoppers of two retail chains (Extra and Big C). Caution should therefore be exercised when generalising the results to other emerging markets.

Practical implications

The paper shows both differences and similarities in store image perceptions in different emerging countries. Because store layout is more positively rated in Brazil than in Vietnam, retailers should be careful to that attribute. In both countries, to improve assortment perceptions, managers might focus on first price (budget) store brands, which can help diversify the assortment and attract less wealthy customers. The service dimension also demands careful management, but personnel training should mirror the local culture.

Originality/value

This research highlights differences and similarities between Brazilian and Vietnamese customers in terms of store image perceptions. It shows that store image mechanisms are similar in emerging countries as in developed countries. Furthermore, the paper is the first to relate store image perceptions to customer knowledge cues in emerging countries.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2020

Joseph Kaswengi, Mbaye Fall Diallo, Houcine Akrout and Pierre Valette-Florence

This study investigates how price, promotion and consumer characteristics affect consumer choice of high over medium- and low-equity cosmetic brand under different…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates how price, promotion and consumer characteristics affect consumer choice of high over medium- and low-equity cosmetic brand under different macroeconomic conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses purchase records from MarketingScan's Behaviour Scan panels (a GFK – Mediametrie Company) covering the period from 2008 to 2009. The panel analysed represents a sample of 2,149 households representative of the national population.

Findings

Results indicate that regular price and relative brand price increase high-equity cosmetic brand choice over both low- and medium-equity brands, while reference price decreases it. Brand feature promotion activity and joint promotion positively affect high-equity cosmetic brand choice, whereas display promotion decreases it. In comparison to medium-equity cosmetic brands, gender and education slightly increase high-equity cosmetic brand choice, while age decreases it. Surprisingly, household income does not affect high-equity cosmetic brand choice. The effect of regular price decreases over worsening macroeconomic conditions. However, the effect of relative brand price decreases between low and moderate contraction periods, but increases between moderate and high contraction times. Feature promotion is effective only when the contraction is moderate, while the negative effect of display promotion is stable over time.

Originality/value

The paper underlines the moderating role of macroeconomic conditions on the relationship between pricing decisions as well as promotion activity and consumer choice of high-equity cosmetic brands.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2021

Isabelle Collin-Lachaud and Mbaye Fall Diallo

This research seeks to investigate how in-store mobile use affects store loyalty directly or indirectly via the mediation of store value and whether social influence…

Abstract

Purpose

This research seeks to investigate how in-store mobile use affects store loyalty directly or indirectly via the mediation of store value and whether social influence moderates such relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a sample of 862 actual customers from a market research company panel, we used structural equation modelling to test a series of research hypotheses.

Findings

The results show a positive but weak effect of in-store smartphone use on loyalty. This effect is significantly mediated by the store’s hedonic and symbolic value dimensions, but not by its utilitarian value. This research also uncovers significant moderation effects of social influence on the relationships investigated. The effect of in-store smartphone use on store loyalty is stronger when social influence is lower. However, the effects of hedonic and symbolic store value are stronger when social influence is higher.

Research limitations/implications

This research is carried out in one country (France). It focuses on social influence through in-store mobile phone use; it would also be useful to consider physical social influence.

Practical implications

Retailers should position their stores on specific value dimensions and use social influence appropriately to improve loyalty. For instance, utilitarian value should be offered to customers with low social influence. To prevent negative social influence, retailers could develop “controlled” social influence through their own private mobile app to favour interaction.

Originality/value

This research underlines the critical role of store value and social influence on the relationships between smartphone use and store loyalty. It shows that the effects of value dimensions (utilitarian, hedonic and symbolic) on loyalty differ depending on social influence level.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Mbaye Fall Diallo, Jean-Louis Moulins and Elyette Roux

Despite the numerous works on multifaceted relationships between customers and brands, such relationships remain complex and poorly understood in retailing. This research…

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1333

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the numerous works on multifaceted relationships between customers and brands, such relationships remain complex and poorly understood in retailing. This research analyses the direct effects of brand images (hedonic, symbolic and functional) on three specific relationship variables (brand trust, brand attachment and brand social identification). It also investigates their indirect effects on three types of loyalty (cognitive, affective and normative) in retailing.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on quantitative research involving 417 respondents. It uses structural equation models to test relevant research hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that hedonic brand image affects brand attachment, while functional brand image influences brand trust. Symbolic brand image has similar effects on the three relationship variables (attachment, trust, identification). Moreover, the relationships between brand image dimensions and brand loyalty types are positively mediated by attachment, trust and brand identification. Therefore, the authors highlight a more complex process in customer–brand relationships than previously thought.

Research limitations/implications

This article focusses on the cosmetic retail sector. It would be interesting to empirically test/extend the model in other industries/sectors. Future studies could also include brand attitude in their research model.

Practical implications

To strengthen affective loyalty, retail managers should focus on both hedonic image and brand attachment (e.g. emphasise the brand personality traits that refer to both affect and hedonism). To develop normative loyalty, they should improve symbolic brand image and facilitate customer brand identification.

Originality/value

This research provides a new three-dimensional model of customer relationships with brands to account for the dynamic nature of customer loyalty in retailing. It shows how three dimensions of brand image (hedonic, functional and symbolic) affect three types of loyalty (affective, cognitive and normative) through the mediation of three specific relationship variables (brand attachment, brand trust and brand identification).

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 14 December 2015

Mbaye Fall Diallo

Although they are increasingly offered by mass retailers in Asia, store brands (SBs) are not well understood in Asian countries. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Although they are increasingly offered by mass retailers in Asia, store brands (SBs) are not well understood in Asian countries. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how store and brand-level factors affect consumer usage of SBs in an Asian emerging country.

Design/methodology/approach

A consumer survey, based on sample of 445 respondents, is undertaken in two competing modern retail chains in Vietnam. Structural equation modelling is used to test the research hypotheses. A latent interaction variable was created to test the moderation of store familiarity.

Findings

Results indicate that SB price image, consumer attitude towards SBs and SB perceived value influence most strongly SB usage in Vietnam, whereas store image perceptions have no direct effect on it. Some investigated relationships differ across store formats. Overall, store familiarity has a weak direct effect on SB usage, but its interaction effects differ depending on store format.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited because it investigated only one Asian country and two retail chains. Besides, it did not account for effect of product categories on SB usage.

Practical implications

Findings indicate that a positive store image is not sufficient to increase consumer usage of SBs in Vietnam. Retailers should be especially careful when designing retail outlets in this market, where consumers seem attached to traditions. Results highlight the importance of taking measures to develop more positive attitudes towards SBs. Also, store familiarity has a weak effect on SB purchase and should therefore be monitored more carefully by retail chains operating in Vietnam.

Originality/value

This research is the first to address Vietnamese consumer usage of SBs. In contrast to their counterparts in other emerging countries, Vietnamese consumers do not strongly rely on store image when purchasing SBs. Their focus is rather on brand perceived value. These results challenge conventional wisdom that attributes a low utilitarian value orientation to Asian consumers.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 43 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2016

Mbaye Fall Diallo and joseph kaswengi

This study investigates how marketing policy and consumer characteristics affect consumer choices of store brands across four product categories during specific crisis periods.

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates how marketing policy and consumer characteristics affect consumer choices of store brands across four product categories during specific crisis periods.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a large set of panel data (N = 80,732), the authors develop dynamic choice models to assess consumers’ choices of store brands during crisis periods.

Findings

Key marketing variables (i.e., price, product quantity, displays, and feature promotions) and consumer characteristics both affect store brand choice significantly. However, crisis intensity moderates the unique relationships of the four marketing variables, consumer characteristics, and store brand choice. Furthermore, the findings vary across product categories, such that the effects differ depending on the product category, because consumers adopt diverse strategies to deal with difficult economic situations.

Research limitations/implications

The findings reveal both theoretical implications for marketing research and managerial orientations for retailers and manufacturers that hope to sell different products in challenging economic situations. A limitation of this research is its failure to include perceptual variables in the analysis.

Originality/value

In contrast with previous studies, this research investigates how crisis intensity affects the relationship of brand choice with both marketing variables and consumer characteristics. It also documents differences between product categories, using a panel data analysis and dynamic modelling.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Mbaye Fall Diallo, Steve Burt and Leigh Sparks

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of image and consumer factors in influencing store brand (SB) choice between two retail chains (Carrefour and Extra…

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1616

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of image and consumer factors in influencing store brand (SB) choice between two retail chains (Carrefour and Extra) in a Latin American market, Brazil. SBs are increasingly offered by retailers in emerging markets. What is less clear, however, is how emerging market consumers make their choices between the SBs on offer from different retail chains.

Design/methodology/approach

A mall-intercept survey conducted by a Brazilian market research company generated 600 usable questionnaires collected in two retail chains. Structural equation modelling was used to test a series of proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The results revealed that SB attitude, SB price-image, store image perceptions, SB perceived value and SB purchase intention have significant and positive direct or indirect effects on SB choice overall, and for each retail chain. However, for price-related constructs, the relationships are stronger for the Extra chain compared to the Carrefour chain. Results show that the Brazilian market presents some departures from both developed and other emerging countries.

Research limitations/implications

Respondents were consumers in only one Latin American market (Brazil) and shoppers of only two retail chains. Caution should therefore be exercised when generalising the results to other markets in Latin America.

Practical implications

Understanding which factors influence consumer choice of SBs in an emerging market while taking into account the presence of different operators allows retailers to launch new SB programs and implement the appropriate strategies to increase SB sales in this market.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this research lies in clarifying consumer behaviour towards SBs in an emerging Latin American market. It fills a major gap in the marketing literature and research in stressing the need to rethink the application of conventional business models to Latin America.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2013

Mbaye Fall Diallo, Jean‐Louis Chandon, Gérard Cliquet and Jean Philippe

This paper aims to investigate how consumer and image factors as well as store familiarity influence store brand (SB) purchase behaviour. SBs are now widely offered by…

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7508

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how consumer and image factors as well as store familiarity influence store brand (SB) purchase behaviour. SBs are now widely offered by European mass retailers. However, consumer behaviour toward SBs is not yet clearly understood in all European markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analysed data collected from 266 respondents and used structural equation modelling to test the main hypotheses. They then carried out ANOVA and MANOVA analyses to test the effect of store familiarity on SB purchase behaviour.

Findings

Results indicate that store image perceptions, SB price‐image, value consciousness, and SB attitude have significant and positive influence on SB purchase behaviour. Store familiarity positively influences SB choice, but not SB purchase intention. None of the socio‐demographic variables (age, gender, household income, and family size) included as control variables have an effect on SB choice.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited because it did not account for the effect of product categories on SB purchase behaviour. Consequently, results cannot be determined for different product categories. It would also be appropriate to measure SB choice in a more concrete way, such as using scanner data.

Practical implications

Findings highlight the importance of value consciousness, store image perceptions, and SB price‐image on SB purchase behaviour. They also show greater popularity of SB products among consumers, including those with high household income.

Originality/value

There is increased value to retailers in studying how consumer and image factors jointly influence SB purchase behaviour, whilst also accounting for store familiarity instead of brand familiarity.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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