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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Xue Yang, Li Yu and Xiao-Shun Zhao

The purpose of this paper is to find optimal reef parameters to minimize the maximum instantaneous opening load for a reefed parachute with geometry and environmental…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find optimal reef parameters to minimize the maximum instantaneous opening load for a reefed parachute with geometry and environmental parameters given in the model.

Design/methodology/approach

The dynamic model Drop Test Vehicle Simulation (DTVSim) is used to model the inflation and descent of the reefed parachute system. It is solved by the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method, and the opening load values are thereby obtained. A parallel genetic algorithm (GA) code is developed to optimize the reefed parachute. A penalty scheme is used to have the maximum dynamic pressure restricted within a certain range.

Findings

The simulation results from DTVSim fit well with experimental data from drop tests, showing that the simulator has high accuracy. The one-stage and two-stage reefed parachute systems are optimized by GA and their maximum opening loads are decreased by 43 and 25 per cent, respectively. With the optimal reef parameters, two of the peaks in the opening load curve are almost equal. The velocity, loiter time and flight path angle of the parachute system all change, but these changes have no negative effect on the parachute’s operational performance.

Originality/value

An optimization method for reefed parachute design is proposed for the first time. This methodology can be used in the preliminary design phase for a reefed parachute system and significantly improve design efficiency.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Fatimah De’nan, Nor Salwani Hashim, Xing Yong Sua and Pui Yee Lock

Due to economic development, tapered members are commonly applied in steel frames, namely, industrial halls, warehouses, exhibition centres, etc. In the design of…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to economic development, tapered members are commonly applied in steel frames, namely, industrial halls, warehouses, exhibition centres, etc. In the design of cantilever steel beam structures in cities building design, tapering is introduced at the web profile to achieve utmost economy and suit the bending moment distributions. The cross-sectional shape of the beam is varied linearly to the moment gradient to achieve the target of higher efficiency with lower cost.

Design/methodology/approach

The shear deformation pattern and efficiency of the tapered steel section with perforation were investigated using finite element analysis. In addition, I-beam with web opening is studied numerically via LUSAS software for different parameters of tapering ratio, perforation shape and perforation size and perforation layout.

Findings

The highest contributing parameters for the highest shear buckling capacity and efficiency of the section were due to the small opening size and tapering ratio. Whilst the variation of perforation layout and spacing give a major effect on the shear strength and efficiency of the tapered steel section with perforation. Besides that, the highest efficiency model is found when the section is designed with 0.4 D diamond perforation in Layout 3 under a tapering ratio of 0.3. The critical shear buckling load and efficiency is reduced 14.39% and 13.91%, respectively, when perforations are added onto the tapered steel sections.

Originality/value

The tapered steel section with perforation has lower critical shear buckling load and efficiency compared to the tapered section without perforation but obtains a higher critical shear buckling load and efficiency compared to the uniform section without perforation.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 May 2022

Fatimah De'nan and Nor Salwani Hashim

The purpose of this work is to perform the finite element analysis (FEA) for the numerical discretization of sections with different arrangements of Web openings to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work is to perform the finite element analysis (FEA) for the numerical discretization of sections with different arrangements of Web openings to investigate the torsion behavior. Typical hexagonal and circular Web opening sections are extensively used in steel construction due to economic development in building design. However, the use of sections with different arrangements of Web opening had improved the performance of the section with Web opening in terms of structural behavior which leads to economic design compared to typical I-beam.

Design/methodology/approach

The accuracy of FE results allows extensive numerical analysis of stress concentration magnitude for sections with Web openings, concentrating on the sizes and positions of the Web opening. Five shapes and three sizes of Web opening are used in this work. The shapes involved are c-hexagon, hexagon, octagon, circular and square, whereas the sizes of the Web opening involved are 0.67 D, 0.75 D and 0.80 D where D is the height of the Web. Two types of models for 200 × 100 × 8×6 mm steel section involved which is Model 1, where the section with 50 mm edge and 150 mm center-to-center distance and Model 2, where the section with 100 mm edge and 200 mm center-to-center distance.

Findings

It was found that these configurations affect the section with various shapes of Web openings sizes (0.67 D, 0.75 D, and 0.80 D). This also includes the spacing distances, with 50 mm edge and 150 mm center-to-center distance and also a section with 100 mm edge and 200 mm center-to-center distance. Through the FEA results of Model 1 and Model 2, it is found that 50% reduction in horizontal member length in hexagon Web opening, from 50 mm to 20 mm, caused increment about 30%–53% stress concentration in Web for c-hexagon. However, for a stress analysis of c-hexagon, geometry resulted in a lower stress concentration in the Web than other Web opening.

Originality/value

Additionally, the work emphasized the efficiency of Web opening shapes by using an appropriate Web opening radius in section with c-hexagon, hexagon, octagon, square and circular shapes. The final results show the contribution of appropriate Web opening radius to increase the section torsional capacity. It is observed that the torsional capacity at certain loading condition and its angle of twist is analysed.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2022

Mojtaba Labibzadeh, Mohsen Bagheri, Abdolghafour Khademalrasoul and Khandaker M.A. Hossain

This paper aims to study, the effects of opening shape, size and position as well as the aspect (height-to-length) ratio on the shear capacity, stiffness, ductility and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study, the effects of opening shape, size and position as well as the aspect (height-to-length) ratio on the shear capacity, stiffness, ductility and energy dissipation capacity of triple-skin profiled steel-concrete composite shear wall (TSCSW) and investigate and compare them to those of concrete-stiffened steel plate shear walls (CSPSW). Two kinds of opening, circular and square, with different sizes and positions and two aspect ratios of 1:1 and 3:1 are considered in the simulations.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents a novel TSCSW and compares its behavior with the existing CSPSW under the effect of monotonic and cyclic loadings. TSCSW is composed of three corrugated steel plates filled with concrete. The two external side plates are connected to the concrete core by means of several intermediate fasteners and the third one is an inner steel plate embedded within the concrete panel. The internal plate is a buckling restrained plate surrounded by concrete. This is the main superiority of TSCSW over other kinds of existing composite shear walls.

Findings

The results show that the shear capacity and the energy dissipation capacity of the proposed composite wall, TSCSW, are respectively about 16 and 12% higher than those of CSPSW when there is no opening. If an opening is considered in the wall, as the size of the opening is increased, the shear capacity, stiffness, ductility and absorbed energy of the two walls are decreased similarly. The destructive effect of square openings on the performance of the walls is more than that of circular openings.

Originality/value

This is an original work.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 May 2022

Fatimah De´nan, Nor Salwani Hashim and Amarpreet Kaur Mahinder Singh

Due to the enormous increase in economic development, structural steel material gives an advantage for the construction of stadiums, factories, bridges and cities building…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the enormous increase in economic development, structural steel material gives an advantage for the construction of stadiums, factories, bridges and cities building design. The purpose of this study is to investigate the behaviour of bending, buckling and torsion for I-beam steel section with and without web opening using non-linear finite element analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The control model was simulated via LUSAS software with the four main parameters which included opening size, layout, shape and orientation. The analysis used a constant beam span which is 3.5 m while the edge distance from the centre of the opening to the edge of the beam is kept constant at 250 mm at each end.

Findings

The analysis results show that the optimum opening size obtained is 0.65 D while optimum layout of opening is Layout 1 with nine web openings. Under bending behaviour, steel section with octagon shapes of web opening shows the highest yield load, yield moment and thus highest structural efficiency as compared to other shapes of openings. Besides, square shape of web opening has the highest structural efficiency under buckling behaviour. The lower buckling load and buckling moment contribute to the higher structural efficiency.

Originality/value

Further, the square web opening with counter clockwise has the highest structural efficiency under torsion behaviour.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 July 2009

Hamidreza Arabshahi and Vahid Lotfi

The purpose of this paper is to obtain an insight into the effects of sliding and/or joint opening at the contraction, perimeter and concrete lift joints on the nonlinear…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to obtain an insight into the effects of sliding and/or joint opening at the contraction, perimeter and concrete lift joints on the nonlinear seismic response of arch dams.

Design/methodology/approach

The seismic behavior of a typical thin double curvature arch dam is studied by a nonlinear finite element program developed by the authors. Joints are modeled with the use of zero thickness interface elements. Various constitutive relationships are implemented to account for sliding and opening along the joints. Effects of joint sliding parameters and foundation rock flexibility are also considered in the analyses.

Findings

The findings provide information about dynamic stress distribution through the dam body and stability of the dam as a whole and also the local stability of the most critical concrete blocks in the dam body.

Practical implications

Useful information for designing new arch dams or seismic evaluation of constructed dams.

Originality/value

This paper takes into account the stability of concrete blocks in the dam body as well as stability of the structure as a whole. Except for contraction joints, perimeter and concrete lift joints are also modeled. Practical as well as detailed models of sliding are provided for the analyses. The paper offers practical help to design and dam engineers.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Yong Tian and Tian Li

The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel type of full‐size flight control iron bird based on a passive electronic hydraulic servo loading system.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel type of full‐size flight control iron bird based on a passive electronic hydraulic servo loading system.

Design/methodology/approach

On the basis of mathematical modeling of passive loading system math model, the detailed design process of the flight control iron bird is presented. Subsequently, the system digital simulation and physical verification are also given.

Findings

Experimental results show that the proposed approach can reduce the redundant forces and improve the system dynamic and force‐tracking accuracy.

Practical implications

This newly‐developed flight control iron bird system has been successfully applied in the flight control system design of some fighters.

Originality/value

The proposed approach for flight control iron bird is new and significant for the design of fighter flight control systems.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1959

THE opening months of the last war were conducted in a very leisurely fashion because the expected disasters had not befallen us. Not until our armies were rescued from…

Abstract

THE opening months of the last war were conducted in a very leisurely fashion because the expected disasters had not befallen us. Not until our armies were rescued from the beaches of Dunkirk did the stark realities of the situation percolate into the public mind. Once the facts were understood the whole country was galvanised into activity.

Details

Work Study, vol. 8 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Sayed Behzad Talaeitaba, Hamed Esmaeili and Mohammad Ebrahim Torki

Steel shear walls have recently received exclusive remark. Respective of most building code requirements, design of shear wall vertical boundary elements (VBEs) and local…

Abstract

Purpose

Steel shear walls have recently received exclusive remark. Respective of most building code requirements, design of shear wall vertical boundary elements (VBEs) and local boundary elements (LBEs) against web yielding triggers exaggerated stiffness. The extent of stiffness reduction effects in boundary elements thus calls for more exhaustive investigation. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

To this end, FEM-based push-over curves demonstrating base shear vs roof displacement, and von Mises plastic strains were scrutinized in half-scale and full-size models. Analyses were in perfect conformity with experimental data.

Findings

With reference to the AISC requirement, up to 35 percent decrease in the VBE moments of inertia could be imparted in higher levels without the ultimate load capacity nor displacement to failure being reduced. Also considered was open shear walls with reduced or minimum-design LBEs, the latter being used in continuous or abridged form. LBEs could be used with a moment of inertia 80 percent smaller than required if only used in a continuous form. The effect due to opening geometry was negligible on loading capacity but distinguished on the post-yielding buckling-induced softening.

Practical implications

Light-weight design of low- to medium-level steel structures against earthquake loads.

Originality/value

With respect to continuous walls, the results are more comprehensive than those existing in the literature in that they combine the effects due to scale and orientation (horizontal or vertical) of boundary elements. The results for open shear walls are not only comprehensive but also original in a sense that they account for the influences induced by the opening type (door or window), orientation (horizontal or vertical), and design (full-length or abridged) of boundary elements, in reduced form, on the lateral stiffness of the frame.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 January 2022

Irindu Upasiri, Chaminda Konthesingha, Anura Nanayakkara, Keerthan Poologanathan, Gatheeshgar Perampalam and Dilini Perera

Light-Gauge Steel Frame (LSF) structures are popular in building construction due to their lightweight, easy erecting and constructability characteristics. However, due to…

Abstract

Purpose

Light-Gauge Steel Frame (LSF) structures are popular in building construction due to their lightweight, easy erecting and constructability characteristics. However, due to steel lipped channel sections negative fire performance, cavity insulation materials are utilized in the LSF configuration to enhance its fire performance. The applicability of lightweight concrete filling as cavity insulation in LSF and its effect on the fire performance of LSF are investigated under realistic design fire exposure, and results are compared with standard fire exposure.

Design/methodology/approach

A Finite Element model (FEM) was developed to simulate the fire performance of Light Gauge Steel Frame (LSF) walls exposed to realistic design fires. The model was developed utilising Abaqus subroutine to incorporate temperature-dependent properties of the material based on the heating and cooling phases of the realistic design fire temperature. The developed model was validated with the available experimental results and incorporated into a parametric study to evaluate the fire performance of conventional LSF walls compared to LSF walls with lightweight concrete filling under standard and realistic fire exposures.

Findings

Novel FEM was developed incorporating temperature and phase (heating and cooling) dependent material properties in simulating the fire performance of structures exposed to realistic design fires. The validated FEM was utilised in the parametric study, and results exhibited that the LSF walls with lightweight concrete have shown better fire performance under insulation and load-bearing criteria in Eurocode parametric fire exposure. Foamed Concrete (FC) of 1,000 kg/m3 density showed best fire performance among lightweight concrete filling, followed by FC of 650 kg/m3 and Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) 600 kg/m3.

Research limitations/implications

The developed FEM is capable of investigating the insulation and load-bearing fire ratings of LSF walls. However, with the availability of the elevated temperature mechanical properties of the LSF wall, materials developed model could be further extended to simulate the complete fire behaviour.

Practical implications

LSF structures are popular in building construction due to their lightweight, easy erecting and constructability characteristics. However, due to steel-lipped channel sections negative fire performance, cavity insulation materials are utilised in the LSF configuration to enhance its fire performance. The lightweight concrete filling in LSF is a novel idea that could be practically implemented in the construction, which would enhance both fire performance and the mechanical performance of LSF walls.

Originality/value

Limited studies have investigated the fire performance of structural elements exposed to realistic design fires. Numerical models developed in those studies have considered a similar approach as models developed to simulate standard fire exposure. However, due to the heating phase and the cooling phase of the realistic design fires, the numerical model should incorporate both temperature and phase (heating and cooling phase) dependent properties, which was incorporated in this study and validated with the experimental results. Further lightweight concrete filling in LSF is a novel technique in which fire performance was investigated in this study.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

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