Search results

1 – 10 of 10
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Luis Alfonso Dau, Elizabeth M. Moore and Max Abrahms

This chapter examines the impact of national membership in international organizations on female entrepreneurship. Drawing on the institution-based view from global…

Abstract

This chapter examines the impact of national membership in international organizations on female entrepreneurship. Drawing on the institution-based view from global strategy and civil society theory from international relations, we show how international organizations can promote entrepreneurship opportunities for women with respect to the United Nations’ sustainable development goals (SDGs). This research has both practical and social implications. From a practical perspective, it provides important insights for policy makers and entrepreneurs. Policy makers can use the findings to understand how the international organizations that countries join affect entrepreneurship, particularly the United Nation’s SDGs Entrepreneurs can also use the findings to advocate mutually beneficial conditions for host environments, particularly those dedicated to female empowerment. A sample of 44 countries, 5 years of data, and 130 country-year observations finds robust support for our assertions.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Abstract

Details

Entrepreneurship and the Sustainable Development Goals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-375-9

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Abstract

Details

Entrepreneurship and the Sustainable Development Goals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-375-9

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 11 September 2015

Jennifer C. Gibbs

Scholars often suggest that violent extremism or terrorism – “the threatened or actual use of illegal force and violence to attain a political, economic, religious or…

Abstract

Purpose

Scholars often suggest that violent extremism or terrorism – “the threatened or actual use of illegal force and violence to attain a political, economic, religious or social goal through fear, coercion or intimidation” (LaFree, G., & Dugan, L. (2007). Introducing the Global Terrorism Database. Terrorism and Political Violence, 19, 181–204, 184) – is a battle for legitimacy. However, the ambiguous definition of legitimacy often makes its application to counterterrorism measures difficult at best. The purpose of this chapter is to define legitimacy to connect policies designed to counter violent extremism.

Methodology/approach

The main impediment in the study of the influence of legitimacy on terrorism is the debate over the meaning and measurement of legitimacy. This debate is reviewed, and a recent resolution is presented, grouping the many conceptualizations of legitimacy into three broad categories and identifying empirical indicators for each. These categories are then used to distinguish counterterrorism policies that can be used to boost legitimacy.

Originality/value

This chapter organizes counterterrorism policies into a recently developed framework as a tool for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers.

Details

Terrorism and Counterterrorism Today
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-191-0

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

David C. Hofmann

Despite the recognition of the importance of leaders for the formation and ongoing success of social and political movements, the study of leadership in terrorist groups…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the recognition of the importance of leaders for the formation and ongoing success of social and political movements, the study of leadership in terrorist groups remains underdeveloped. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to stimulate additional research into terrorist leadership in three main ways: by providing a broad overview of the theoretical perspectives that scholars have used to examine terrorist leadership, by critically reviewing the current state of the academic literature on terrorist leadership, and by presenting various ways in which future research on terrorist leadership can be improved.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper takes a conceptual and critical approach to reviewing the scholarly literature on terrorist leadership, and draws upon the author’s expertise with the wider multidisciplinary literature on leadership to make methodological and conceptual recommendations to improve related future research.

Findings

There is a paucity of empirical and theoretical research devoted to understanding important social and strategic aspects of terrorist leadership, and existing scholarly research is largely conducted in isolation with differing methodological and epistemological starting points. This has hampered efforts to measure, operationalize, and understand key concepts involving leadership in terrorist groups.

Practical implications

This paper provides several methodological and conceptual recommendations by which future research on terrorist leadership can be improved from insights taken from the wider scholarly literature on leadership. By virtue of being published in a criminology journal, this paper helps disseminate and expose key concepts in the study of terrorism to related disciplines.

Originality/value

This paper provides a general overview of the strengths and weaknesses of the study of terrorist leadership to scholars and students interested in the topic. It provides a foundational discussion of how the current literature on terrorist conceives of and utilizes the concept of leadership. It also provides methodological and conceptual recommendations to improve future research on terrorist leadership.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 21 June 2014

Damiano Palano

The aim of the chapter is to outline a framework for a cultural analysis of terrorism. It is based on an analogy between the logic that characterizes terrorism and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the chapter is to outline a framework for a cultural analysis of terrorism. It is based on an analogy between the logic that characterizes terrorism and the logic that characterizes the “worlds” of artistic and cultural production.

Design methodology/approach

This chapter critically examines some explanations of the logic of terrorism which respectively assign a central role to individual psychology, the rational choice of the group and values. It is therefore based on secondary sources.

Findings

The chapter argues that the logic of terrorism can be fully understood only as a result of the “cultural” construction of collective and individual identities.

Research limitations/implication

The chapter provides a framework for a cultural analysis of terrorism.

Originality/value of the chapter

The chapter borrows the concept of a “political world” and makes of it a central tool to explain the set of symbolic products that characterizes terrorism.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 1 September 2015

Elizabeth Tompkins

Though the coexistence of nonviolent and violent groups within a single movement is a common phenomenon in maximalist campaigns (e.g., regime change, anti-occupation), the…

Abstract

Though the coexistence of nonviolent and violent groups within a single movement is a common phenomenon in maximalist campaigns (e.g., regime change, anti-occupation), the effects of this coexistence remain understudied. Focusing on primarily nonviolent movements with a simultaneous “radical flank” pursuing the same goals, this study builds on previous, inconclusive literature which narrowly accounts for limited and often case-specific radical flank effects. After conducting a series of large-N regression analyses using a subset of the NAVCO 2.0 dataset, this study finds that the presence of a radical flank (1) increases both the likelihood and degree of repression by the state and (2) is most significantly linked with decreased mobilization post-repression – yet, (3) is not necessarily detrimental to overall campaign progress.

Details

Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-359-4

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 31 January 2020

Hartoyo Hartoyo, Haryanto Sindung, Fahmi Teuku and Sunarto Sunarto

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of socio-demographic factors on ethnic tolerance (ET) and religious tolerance (RT) as well as the participation of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of socio-demographic factors on ethnic tolerance (ET) and religious tolerance (RT) as well as the participation of the local community in peacebuilding in post-ethnic violent conflicts in a multi-cultural society.

Design/methodology/approach

This research was conducted in the rural areas of Indonesia, on the basis of an empirical study that was performed in Lampung, a province at the southern tip of Sumatra. Data were collected through a survey of 500 respondents from five districts susceptible to ethnic conflicts. From each district, two villages that experienced ethnic conflicts were chosen and from each village, 50 respondents were randomly selected. To strengthen the explanation of quantitative data, in-depth interviews were also conducted with another 50 residents, five informants from each of ten villages. Informants comprised community leaders or traditional leaders, local police officers, local military officers and district government officials.

Findings

First, the degree of tolerance is not specifically concentrated in the socio-demographic characteristics. Second, ET affects RT. Third, local community participation in peacebuilding in post-ethnic violent conflicts is not influenced by the socio-demographic characteristics but is influenced by ET and RT. The socio-cultural approach is the main strategy for peacebuilding in post-ethnic (and religious) conflicts in multi-cultural societies. The weakness of inter-ethnic relations soon improves in the post-peace period through the reconstruction of social and cultural factors to strengthen social cohesion and social capital at the local community level by involving various stakeholders

Originality/value

This paper is a valuable source of information regarding current research on the role of local communities in strengthening and building peace in post-ethnic violent conflicts in multi-cultural societies.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 October 2019

Hamid Mohtadi and Bryan Weber

The proliferation of terrorism worldwide raises the risk that terrorist strategies could evolve from conventional methods (e.g. suicide attacks) to biological, chemical…

Abstract

Purpose

The proliferation of terrorism worldwide raises the risk that terrorist strategies could evolve from conventional methods (e.g. suicide attacks) to biological, chemical and even radioactive and nuclear attacks (commonly abbreviated as CBRN) which are potentially much more dangerous. The authors make three contributions toward a better understanding of this risk and how it responds to counterterrorism measures.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop a game that captures the terrorists’ potential strategic substitution between conventional and CBRN-type attacks; the authors calibrate the parameters of the game to real data using a novel calibration method and a partially unique dataset; they estimate the heavy-tailed distribution of attack severity and thus the probability of a successful attack, the underlying effort to launch an attack and the intrinsic difficulty of launching different types of attacks.

Findings

The authors find that in equilibrium, CBRN attacks, though less likely and more difficult to execute, are more deadly. In the end, the trade-off between, on one hand, the greater difficulty of carrying out a CBRN attack, and on the other, the greater deadliness of such an attack, points to a level of optimal counterterrorism spending by governments that weighs toward defending against CBRN attacks. The authors discuss these results and compare them with the actual level of counterterrorism spending by the US Government.

Originality/value

The framework of the game allows for substitution between the conventional and CBRN weapon types. These aspects of this paper, together with the unique calibration methodology, and the use of some unique terrorism data for the first time, are what distinguish this work from similar game theoretic papers in this area.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Nanthakan Woodham, Surasak Taneepanichskul, Ratana Somrongthong and Nanta Auamkul

Hypertension is a common disease among elderly. Adherence to antihypertensive medication is a key predictor of optimal blood pressure control that prevents the risk of…

Abstract

Purpose

Hypertension is a common disease among elderly. Adherence to antihypertensive medication is a key predictor of optimal blood pressure control that prevents the risk of cardiovascular disease and potentially death. The purpose of this paper is to assess adherence to antihypertension and identify associated factors among the elderly in a rural area, Buengkan province, Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

A health facilities based cross-sectional study was conducted in Buengkan district. A simple random sampling method was used to select 408 participants. A structured questionnaire adapted from the World Health Organization STEPwise approach was used to collect data. The medication adherence level was identified by pill count with percentage ⩾70 defined as good adherence. Descriptive and summary statistics were used. Bivariate analysis was done using Pearson’s χ2 test, and multivariable analyses were also carried out.

Findings

A total of 408 (143 males and 265 females) elderly hypertension patients with uncontrolled blood pressure participated in this study. Most of the participants were found to have lower adherence to medication treatment (86.8 percent), whereas the remaining ones (13.2 percent) were found to have good adherence. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that having a daughter as a care taker (adjust odd ratio=7.99, 95% confidence interval: 1.23–51.778) was significantly associated with high medical adherence.

Originality/value

Hypertension medication adherence among elderly patients with uncontrolled blood pressure was poor. Having a care taker, especially a daughter, is a key to improve adherence. Effective strategy to improve adherence should focus on and involve family participation into the program.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

Keywords

1 – 10 of 10