Decision analysis in management science employs concepts from economics such as utility functions and indifference curves. A utility function U models the “satisfaction”…
Decision analysis in management science employs concepts from economics such as utility functions and indifference curves. A utility function U models the “satisfaction” that a customer obtains from logistics service. Here U depends on two attributes (lead time, fill rate) whose values more directly represent customer service. The shipper can, at additional cost, improve either or both of these attributes. Constructs and maximizes various utility functions U given a total budget B for distribution service. Finds that without increasing the budget overall logistics service can often be improved from the customer’s point of view. Whether U is additive or multiplicative, a customer’s utility resulting from the optimal lead time and fill rate is typically 20 per cent higher than when those attribute levels are set intuitively (without reference to customer preferences and tradeoffs expressed by U). Gives some introduction to decision analysis (certainty equivalent, risk aversion, …) to aid in understanding the functional forms employed for U and methods of solution, rendering the paper more self‐contained.
A study has been made of the effect of controlled variations in indexing vocabulary size on retrieval performance using the Cranfield 200 and 1400 test collections. The…
A study has been made of the effect of controlled variations in indexing vocabulary size on retrieval performance using the Cranfield 200 and 1400 test collections. The vocabularies considered are sets of variable‐length character strings chosen from the fronts of document and query terms so as to occur with approximate equifrequency. Sets containing between 120 and 720 members were tested both using an application of the Cluster Hypothesis and in a series of linear associative retrieval experiments. The effectiveness of the smaller sets is low but the larger ones exhibit retrieval characteristics comparable to those of words.
Drawing on Bandwidth Fidelity Theory (Cronbach, 1970; Cronbach & Gleser, 1965), this chapter argues for more specificity with regard to conceptualizing and measuring…
Drawing on Bandwidth Fidelity Theory (Cronbach, 1970; Cronbach & Gleser, 1965), this chapter argues for more specificity with regard to conceptualizing and measuring variables in the field of behavioral ethics. We provide an example of how this might be accomplished, by building on recent work on organizational support that emphasizes more specific facets of perceived organizational support (POS). We introduce the concept of perceived organizational support for ethics (POS-E) and test its predictive power on a sample of 4,315 employees from manufacturing and technology firms. We find support for our assertions that ethics-specific support is a better predictor of ethics-related outcomes (e.g., pressure to violate ethical standards, preparedness to handle ethical violations) and general support (POS) is a better predictor of more general organizational outcomes (i.e., job satisfaction). Theoretical and practical implications of these results and the importance of moving toward more specific versus general constructs in the field of behavioral ethics are discussed.
The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the preferences and ideology of the FTC’s leaders, developments in the field of economics, and the tenor of the times. The over-riding current role is to provide well considered, unbiased economic advice regarding antitrust and consumer protection law enforcement cases to the legal staff and the Commission. The second role, which long ago was primary, is to provide reports on investigations of various industries to the public and public officials. This role was more recently called research or “policy R&D”. A third role is to advocate for competition and markets both domestically and internationally. As a practical matter, the provision of economic advice to the FTC and to the legal staff has required that the economists wear “two hats,” helping the legal staff investigate cases and provide evidence to support law enforcement cases while also providing advice to the legal bureaus and to the Commission on which cases to pursue (thus providing “a second set of eyes” to evaluate cases). There is sometimes a tension in those functions because building a case is not the same as evaluating a case. Economists and the Bureau of Economics have provided such services to the FTC for over 100 years proving that a sub-organization can survive while playing roles that sometimes conflict. Such a life is not, however, always easy or fun.
This paper examines the housing and support needs of older homeless people when they are resettled. Evidence is from a longitudinal study of the resettlement of 64 older…
This paper examines the housing and support needs of older homeless people when they are resettled. Evidence is from a longitudinal study of the resettlement of 64 older homeless people, which monitored their progress for two years after they were rehoused. The subjects were rehoused in various types of accommodation: independent and sheltered flats, shared houses and residential care homes. At the end of 24 months, 31% had either abandoned their accommodation or been evicted. Several housing factors had an impact on settledness and tenancy sustainment: the condition of the tenancies, problems with co‐tenants and the responses of housing workers to the clients' problems and needs. A review of supported housing for older homeless people is required, including the role of residential homes for people with mental health and alcohol problems.
Catheter related blood stream infection (CRBSI) remains an important complication of central venous catheters(CVCs). Educational programmes have been associated with CRBSI…
Catheter related blood stream infection (CRBSI) remains an important complication of central venous catheters(CVCs). Educational programmes have been associated with CRBSI reduction but evidence in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) patients is limited, despite an increased risk of CRBSI. The effect of educational processes were evaluated and the value of different methods of expression of CRBSI incidence were assessed.
Study was performed in a 525‐bed tertiary university hospital over 12 years. A multidisciplinary TPN committee was created to examine CRBSI episodes and a parallel education programme was set up and maintained. Prospectively collected data were analysed from 1,392 patients in whom 2,565 CVCs were used over 15,397 CVC days. CRBSI incidence was expressed as CRBSI episodes per 1,000 CVC days, percentage patients or percentage CVCs infected.
CRBSI incidence fell from 33 to 7 episodes per 1,000 CVC days (p<0.01). Percentage of infected CVCs fell from 17 per cent to 5 per cent(p <0.05) and proportion of patients affected fell from 27 per cent to 7 per cent(p <0.01). The corresponding slopes of the lines expressing fall in CRBSI rate were −1.3‐0.63 and −1.4 respectively.
A sustained educational programme was associated with a significant fall in CRBSI in TPN patients. An incidence of 5‐7 episodes per 1,000 CVC days, a figure comparable with non‐TPN CVCs, was achievable.
Each method of expression of CRBSI incidence proved valid in this setting and contributed to the educational programme.
The value of this study is that it demonstrates how implementing and sustaining an education programme can achieve reduced rates of infection. No published study utilising all methods of expressing CRBSI incidence could be found.
The purpose of this paper is to examine how keeping the records of social networking sites (SNS) communication for secondary analysis institutes a new type of memory…
The purpose of this paper is to examine how keeping the records of social networking sites (SNS) communication for secondary analysis institutes a new type of memory practice, one that seeks both to capture shared public memories and form new cultural understandings.
Using a framework of documentary and memory practices the study conducts a qualitative content analysis of SNS communications collected from Facebook, GooglePlus and Twitter during a national event. It combines a content analysis of the communications with the analysis of their materiality and form to investigate potential contributions of SNS to social and cultural memory including their subsequent custodianship.
The study finds that the message architecture and metadata of different social networks is comparable and collectively evidences differing aspects of social events to document their unique discourse. Findings demonstrate the contribution SNS is making to social memory and a framework for understanding how SNS in being incorporated into cultural memory practice is presented.
This is one of the few studies that analyses a range of messages from differing SNS in order to understand their impact on cultural memory and the documentary practices of memory institutions.
This chapter explores the question of where and how leaders in the library field gain the knowledge, skills, and ability to lead and manage people. The authors report…
This chapter explores the question of where and how leaders in the library field gain the knowledge, skills, and ability to lead and manage people. The authors report empirical evidence to answer this question based on the results of the third stage of an ongoing study—a study which examines the academic preparation of professional librarians who have become directors of libraries. The results of a survey inquiring into the formal training received by practicing library directors are detailed. Among other findings, 55.1% of the library directors surveyed and observed that graduate library school did not prepare them to become library directors. There is some evidence that a shift of perception regarding the need for traditional management training has begun to occur in library schools. The authors contend that this trend needs to accelerate if the information profession intends to prepare library directors to assume leadership roles in the future. This chapter briefly reviews the research findings from stage one and two research, which provided the foundation for the current study. As a result of this research a fourth stage of research is planned which will use in person in-depth interviews of library directors. The influence of leadership on organizational results has been explored within the broader management literature. There is clearly a relationship between leadership and results. What is unclear is how and where these leaders gain the knowledge, skills, and ability to lead and manage.
The response to the call for chapters about mergers, acquisitions, collaborations, partnerships, and joint ventures proved to be rich and resulted in an unprecedented number of proposals. Furthermore, the range of proposals illustrated both variety in scope and a broad range of topics. As a result, the material accepted for publication was split into two volumes. This volume includes those chapters deemed broadest in nature, while Volume 37, to be published later this year, will present material of a narrower and more focused nature and mostly in the form of case studies at the operational level. At a time when the volatile nature of the world economy calls for new approaches to business, these volumes provide an interesting panorama from the nonprofit sector of libraries and information services about the world of mergers and acquisitions (M&A’s) as well as the less riskier, but equally dramatic, activities of collaborations, partnerships, and joint ventures.