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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2020

James Walker, Dave Towey, Matthew Pike, Georgios Kapogiannis, Ahmed Elamin and Ran Wei

It is possible for civil engineering (CE) students to graduate from a degree programme without gaining experience on a construction site. The implementation of virtual field trips…

Abstract

Purpose

It is possible for civil engineering (CE) students to graduate from a degree programme without gaining experience on a construction site. The implementation of virtual field trips using virtual reality (VR) in CE education is a development that can address this phenomenon and help facilitate the consolidation of abstract theories into tangible competences. This project aims to solve a fundamental CE education problem: once a structure has been completed, it is often impossible to see how it was built; hence, how can you demonstrate the construction process to a student?

Design/methodology/approach

This research used the opportunity of a new campus library development to record its construction sequence. This was achieved by visiting the site eight times to take panoramic stereoscopic photos of the construction process. By its nature, using VR as a didactic tool facilitates experiential learning, but this project also incorporates discovery learning and situated cognition to develop students’ understanding of the construction process.

Findings

The use of VR in education is becoming increasingly common, but the explicit pedagogy used in these environments is rarely obvious or stated. This project draws upon current VR education discussions and explores the development of a VR environment with a pedagogical context.

Originality/value

The development of the VR resource draws upon the pedagogical frameworks of discovery learning (Bruner, 1961) and situated cognition (Lave and Wenger, 1991). A further unique aspect of this research is the use of stereoscopic cameras to capture the library’s construction over time.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Sport, Gender and Mega-Events
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-937-6

Book part
Publication date: 27 January 2022

Lucy Piggott

Within this chapter I explore how national policy that influences gender equity in English sport governance has developed over time. This includes a discussion on the impact of…

Abstract

Within this chapter I explore how national policy that influences gender equity in English sport governance has developed over time. This includes a discussion on the impact of domestic equal treatment legislation and women and sport activism on the development of gender-related governance policy within the sector. I draw upon Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice to aid analysis of the effectiveness of top-down policy in creating transformational organisational change in the sector. I conclude that the extent to which sport governance policy has created transformational change within national governing bodies (NGBs) is uncertain. Some short-term success has been seen with increased average female representation across the boards of NGBs, but internalisation of the value of equitable, diverse and inclusive governance appears to be lacking.

Details

Gender Equity in UK Sport Leadership and Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-207-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 27 January 2022

Annelies Knoppers

In this chapter, I use a critical sociological lens to look at ways sport organisations and scholars could think about and practice gender equity in institutional contexts in the…

Abstract

In this chapter, I use a critical sociological lens to look at ways sport organisations and scholars could think about and practice gender equity in institutional contexts in the United Kingdom. Sport clubs or organisations shape the participation of those involved in the sport and those working in and for these organisations as volunteer, coach, manager, referee, director, board member, etc. Differences in organisational forms and settings inform ways sport organisations think about sport, gender, race, abilities, sexuality and class relations. These ways of thinking may enhance and/or resist the use of sport equitable practices. Organisations are constructions, however, and not fixed objects but always in flux and becoming. In this chapter, I use a critical/queer perspective to make visible and question organisational processes that may contribute to the exclusion of women and minorities in sport governance. I specifically focus on the normative embodiment of leadership, dominant heteronormative practices and diversity as an organisational value. I suggest several ways in which attention to these processes could be part of a critical research agenda that focuses on initiatives that promote gender equity. I end with a few examples of what such an approach might look like.

Details

Gender Equity in UK Sport Leadership and Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-207-9

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 August 2023

María Luisa Esteban Salvador, Emilia Pereira Fernandes, Tiziana Di Cimbrini, Charlie Smith and Gonca Güngör Göksu

This study aims to explore the impact of board size, board gender diversity and federation age on the likelihood of having a female chair in National Sports Federations (NSF).

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the impact of board size, board gender diversity and federation age on the likelihood of having a female chair in National Sports Federations (NSF).

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative methodology compares 300 sports boards in five countries (Italy, Portugal, Spain, Turkey and the UK), using data collected from NSF’s websites.

Findings

The board size and federation age have no significant impact on having a female board chair when the countries and the percentage of female directors are included in the model. When the number of women is measured in absolute value rather than in relative terms, the only variable that predicts a woman chair is the country. When the model does not include country differences, the percentage of female directors is key in predicting a chairwoman, and when the number of women is used as a variable instead of the percentage, a board’s smaller size increases the odds of having a chairwoman.

Research limitations/implications

There are some limitations to this study which we believe provide useful directions for future research. Firstly, the authors have not considered the role of gender typing in sports activities which explains the extent that women participate in specific sports (Sobal and Milgrim, 2019) and the related perception of such sports in society. The social representation of sports activities classified as masculine, feminine or gender-neutral can hypothetically influence women’s access to that specific federations’s leadership. The authors included the country factor only partially, as a control variable, as the social representation of sports usually goes beyond national boundaries.

Practical implications

This study has implications for sport policymakers and stakeholders, and for institutions such as the IOC or the European Union that implement equality policies. If the aim is to increase female presence in the highest position of a sports board and to achieve gender equality more generally, other policies need to be implemented alongside gender quotas for the sports boards, namely, those specifically related to the recruitment and selection of the sports board chairs (Mikkonen et al., 2021). For example, given the implications of critical mass and its ability to increase more female’s engagement then the role of existing chairs acting as mentors and taking initiative in this objective may be warranted. Furthermore, attention should be paid to the existing gender portfolio of each board and its subsequent influence on recruiting a female chair, regardless of the organization’s age. Knoppers et al. (2021) concluded that resistance to gender balance by board members is often related to discriminatory discourses against women. The normalization of the discourses of meritocracy, neoliberalism, silence/passivity about the responsibility of structures and an artificial defence of diversity emphasise that equality should not only be determined by women (Knoppers et al., 2021).

Social implications

When countries are included in the model, the results suggest that the social representation of a female board member is different from that of a female board chair.

Originality/value

The originality of the study is that it shows the factors that constrain women taking up a chair position on NSFs. Theoretically, it contributes to existing literature by demonstrating how a critical mass of females on boards may also extend to the higher and most powerful position of chair.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Matthew Gough

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact in one local authority of Making Safeguarding Personal (MSP) upon the recording of outcomes in safeguarding interventions. To…

1471

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact in one local authority of Making Safeguarding Personal (MSP) upon the recording of outcomes in safeguarding interventions. To determine to what extent person centred outcomes were in evidence.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis of data provided by the local authority across adult safeguarding teams informed by a critical theory approach.

Findings

There is a need for cultural and system change to fully embed MSP principles within local authority safeguarding. This case study identified that practitioner recording was inconsistent with the need for greater recognition of person centred approaches within adult safeguarding. Views of the service user are constructed and moderated by the assessing professional and the user voice is seldom evident in recording of safeguarding interventions.

Research limitations/implications

This study was wholly reliant upon the data provided rather than primary investigations with practitioners and service users. The focus on recorded data permitted variance and recorded data were open to worker interpretation. MSP. The starting premise of the methodology by adopting a critical perspective sought to elevate the perspective of marginalised service user groups. This may have unduly framed the practitioner provider from a deficit position.

Practical implications

The need to ensure MSP approaches are embedded fully in all aspects of local authority safeguarding. There is a need for recording to greater reflect principles of empowerment with the wishes of service users, their narratives and actual words providing greater weight to assessment.

Social implications

The power shifts apparent in the principles supporting The Care Act needed to be embedded in safeguarding to support marginalised adults.

Originality/value

MSP is a relatively new development for safeguarding adults and the evidence base is building. This paper focuses on the recorded outputs of safeguarding interventions which complements work already produced which has focused on system and strategic changes.

Details

The Journal of Adult Protection, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-8203

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 January 2021

Jekaterina Rogaten and Bart Rienties

In the last five years, there has been an increased interest across the globe, and in the United Kingdom in particular, to define, conceptualise and measure learning gains. The…

Abstract

In the last five years, there has been an increased interest across the globe, and in the United Kingdom in particular, to define, conceptualise and measure learning gains. The concept of learning gains, briefly summarised as the improvement in knowledge, skills, work-readiness and personal development made by students during their time spent in higher education, has been hailed by some as an opportunity to measure ‘excellence’ in teaching. This chapter will review some of the common definitions and the methods employed in research on learning gains. Secondly, we will provide a critical evaluation of the computational aspects of learning gains (e.g., raw gain, normalised gain). Finally, we will critically reflect upon the lessons learnt and what is not yet known in terms of learning gains.

Details

Learning Gain in Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-280-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 August 2020

Jennifer Elfenbein

Problematic attributes of providing development aid in International Service-Learning (ISL) placements exist with its paternalistic implications. Broadening the discussion of ISL…

Abstract

Problematic attributes of providing development aid in International Service-Learning (ISL) placements exist with its paternalistic implications. Broadening the discussion of ISL by shifting the focus toward prioritizing the incorporation of goals of cross-cultural learning and fostering cultural humility addresses these problematic attributes. Approaching ISL placements with a learning mindset inverts the service-learning model by emphasizing learning over helping. Additionally, cultivating a deeper self-awareness and learning from the host communities prior to offering service encourages cultural humility, enhances the ability to remain open to different perspectives, and sustains engagement as a lifelong learner. A framework for developing international education experiences with a systems-oriented approach is proposed: one that acknowledges the interdependent relationships with others in global social and economic structures. The proposed framework applies Milton Bennett’s Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity and Vanessa de Oliveira Andreotti’s HEADS UP educational tool for critical engagement in global social justice issues. Transformative learning theory guides the process of perspective transformation and invites students to critically reflect on their own values, assumptions, and cultural beliefs. The intent is to establish a model for ISL placements which invites respectful collaboration across cultural differences and imbalances in power relations.

Details

Improving Classroom Engagement and International Development Programs: International Perspectives on Humanizing Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-473-6

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Gender Equity in UK Sport Leadership and Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-207-9

Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Maura J. Mills and Leanne M. Tortez

We review the state of the literature concerning work–family conflict in the military, focusing on service members’ parenting roles and overall family and child well-being. This…

Abstract

We review the state of the literature concerning work–family conflict in the military, focusing on service members’ parenting roles and overall family and child well-being. This includes recognition that for many women service members, parenting considerations often arise long before a child is born, thereby further complicating work–family conflict considerations in regard to gender-specific conflict factors such as pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, and breastfeeding. Subsequently, we consider more gender-invariant conflict factors, such as the nature of the work itself as causing conflict for the service member as parent (e.g., nontraditional hours, long separations, and child care challenges) as well as for the child (e.g., irregular contact with parent, fear for parent’s safety, and frequent relocations), and the ramifications of such conflict on service member and child well-being. Finally, we review formalized support resources that are in place to mitigate negative effects of such conflict, and make recommendations to facilitate progress in research and practice moving forward.

Details

Occupational Stress and Well-Being in Military Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-184-7

Keywords

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