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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Cyrus Ahalt, Craig Haney, Sarah Rios, Matthew P. Fox, David Farabee and Brie Williams

Although the reform of solitary confinement is underway in many jurisdictions around world, isolation remains in widespread use in many jails and prisons. The purpose of…

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Abstract

Purpose

Although the reform of solitary confinement is underway in many jurisdictions around world, isolation remains in widespread use in many jails and prisons. The purpose of this paper is to discuss opportunities for reform in the USA that could also be applied globally.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the evidence on solitary confinement policies and practices in the USA to develop recommendations for reform with global application.

Findings

Focusing on this evidence, the authors argue that solitary confinement is overused and recommend a multi-level approach available to correctional systems worldwide including: immediately limiting solitary confinement to only those cases in which a violent behavioral infraction has been committed for which safety cannot otherwise be achieved, ensuring the briefest terms of isolation needed to achieve legitimate and immediate correctional goals, prohibiting its use entirely for some populations, regularly reviewing all isolated prisoners for as-soon-as-possible return to general population, including the immediate return of those showing mental and physical health risk factors, assisting individuals who are transitioning out of isolation (either to the general population or to the community), and partnering with medical, public health, and criminal justice experts to develop evidence-based alternatives to solitary confinement for nearly all prisoners.

Originality/value

This paper provides an overview of the evidence supporting an overhaul of solitary confinement policy in the USA and globally where solitary confinement remains in wide use and offers recommendations for immediate steps that can be taken toward achieving evidence-based solitary confinement reform.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

Abstract

Details

The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Carolyn MacCann, Gerald Matthews, Moshe Zeidner and Richard D. Roberts

This article provides a review and conceptual comparison between self‐report and performance‐based measures of emotional intelligence. Analyses of reliability…

1324

Abstract

This article provides a review and conceptual comparison between self‐report and performance‐based measures of emotional intelligence. Analyses of reliability, psychometric properties, and various forms of validity lead to the conclusion that self‐report techniques measure a dispositional construct, that may have some predictive validity, but which is highly correlated with personality and independent of intelligence. Although seemingly more valid, performance‐based measures have certain limitations, especially when scored with reference to consensual norms, which leads to problems of skew and restriction of range. Scaling procedures may partially ameliorate these scoring weaknesses. Alternative approaches to scoring, such as expert judgement, also suffer problems since the nature of the requisite expertise is unclear. Use of experimental paradigms for studying individual differences in information‐processing may, however, inform expertise. Other difficulties for performance‐based measures include limited predictive and operational validity, restricting practical utility in organizational settings. Further research appears necessary before tests of E1 are suitable for making real‐life decisions about individuals.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

Book part
Publication date: 7 July 2015

Jim A. McCleskey

This chapter examines EI, presents a history of EI including the various models, and a discussion of the three streams approach to classifying EI literature. The author…

Abstract

This chapter examines EI, presents a history of EI including the various models, and a discussion of the three streams approach to classifying EI literature. The author advocates for the efficacy of the Stream One Ability Model (SOAM) of EI citing previous authors and literature. The commonly used SOAM instruments are discussed in light of recent studies. The discussion turns to alternate tests of the SOAM of EI including Situational Judgment Tests (SJTs). Recommendations include an analysis of SOAM instruments, a new approach to measurement, and increased use of SJTs to capture the four-branch ability model of EI.

Details

New Ways of Studying Emotions in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-220-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Robin Mackenzie

In this article the author proposes to traverse various views on money in order to contend that while antiquated notions of its materiality continue to bedevil English…

Abstract

In this article the author proposes to traverse various views on money in order to contend that while antiquated notions of its materiality continue to bedevil English legal structures, the law will fail to keep up with current commercial practices, and, equally seriously, fail to detect, prevent or punish coming criminal practices as well. The thrust of the argument is that how money is perceived, and what is conceived of as constituting it, together determine how laws deal with the cultural and commercial need for consensus on what might function as a medium of exchange and a store of value. As a consequence, if the perception of money is locked into its historically contingent aspects, legal structures will become increasingly marginalised by the superior resources and sophistication of contemporary organised crime.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Galit Meisler, Eran Vigoda-Gadot and Amos Drory

This chapter builds on previous research that conceptualized organizational politics as an organizational stressor. After reviewing the studies that integrated the…

Abstract

This chapter builds on previous research that conceptualized organizational politics as an organizational stressor. After reviewing the studies that integrated the occupational stress literature with the organizational politics literature, it discusses the negative implications of the use of intimidation and pressure by supervisors, implications that have generally been overlooked. Specifically, the chapter presents a conceptual model positing that the use of intimidation and pressure by supervisors creates stress in their subordinates. This stress, in turn, affects subordinates’ well-being, evident in higher levels of job dissatisfaction, job burnout, and turnover intentions. The stress also reduces the effectiveness of the organization, reflected in a high absenteeism rate, poorer task performance, and a decline in organizational citizenship behavior. The model also maintains that individual differences in emotional intelligence and political skill mitigate the stress experienced by subordinates, resulting from the use of intimidation and pressure by their supervisors. In acknowledging the destructive implications of such behavior in terms of employees’ well-being and the productivity of the organization, the chapter raises doubts about the wisdom of using it, and advises supervisors to rethink its use as a motivational tool. Implications of this chapter, as well as future research directions, are discussed.

Details

Power, Politics, and Political Skill in Job Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-066-2

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 24 November 2020

Chanel Fischetti, Thalia Nguyen, Rame Bashir, Matthew Whited, Proma Mazumder, Soheil Saadat, John Moeller, Shadi Lahham and John C. Fox

The objective of this study was to determine if exposure to a short-term ultrasound basic biology and anatomy course can promote interest in health careers and other…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study was to determine if exposure to a short-term ultrasound basic biology and anatomy course can promote interest in health careers and other science-related endeavors among DHH students.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a single-site, prospective observational study of DHH high school students at a Southern California high school. All participants took a pre-test survey prior to the course. Participants then took part in three teaching sessions which taught basic anatomy using point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS). Following instruction, a post-test survey was performed to determine if students had an increased interest in medicine, science and biology (p = 0.151).

Findings

28 students were enrolled in the study, with an equal distribution of boys and girls. Initially, subjects reported their interest in medicine at an average of 2.8 ± 1.10. The reported interest in science was 3.0 ± 1.13 and for biology was 3.0 ± 1.19. The change in participants' interest was not statistically significant for medicine (p = 0.791), science (p = 0.225) and biology.

Practical implications

While our data did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference in students' interest in STEM fields after the training course, there were several students who were interested in more hands-on shadow experience after the course. Regardless, this study demonstrates persistent barriers that exist for a person who is deaf or hard of hearing to engage in the STEM fields. Future studies are needed to determine the level of instructional activities that may impact the careers of these students.

Originality/value

Point of care ultrasound has been shown to be an effective teaching modality in medical education. However, to date, no studies have been done to assess the utility of ultrasound in teaching the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (DHH) population.

Details

Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-7604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

Adrienne Muir and Sarah Shenton

The disaster plan is promoted as a central part of disaster management. Six case studies of UK libraries and archives were used to investigate the development and use of…

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Abstract

The disaster plan is promoted as a central part of disaster management. Six case studies of UK libraries and archives were used to investigate the development and use of disaster plans. During a disaster, the key in any response is leadership, an experienced team of staff with knowledge of the collections and on‐site conservation expertise. The most useful part of the plan for disaster response is its contact lists. However, the plan is an important policy and training document. It requires continued managerial commitment and should be supported by an organisational culture of disaster awareness and prevention. Organisational issues are the major constraint on the effectiveness of disaster planning and response. There is a need to investigate current levels of planning in the UK in order to determine what still needs to be done in terms of awareness raising. Methods of testing the disaster plan and co‐operation in disaster management also require further research.

Details

Library Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2015

Michael P. Leiter, Emily Peck and Stephanie Gumuchian

Workplace incivility has been identified as a specific form of social mistreatment causing distress despite its low intensity. Research on workplace incivility has touched…

Abstract

Workplace incivility has been identified as a specific form of social mistreatment causing distress despite its low intensity. Research on workplace incivility has touched on a variety of personal and contextual factors associated with incivility’s prevalence including research on both antecedents and outcomes. The research has been especially concerned with identifying a wide range of negative consequences of incivility, including various occupational, interpersonal, and health-related implications. Theoretical explorations have considered links of incivility to sexism and racism, and its reflection of attachment styles, as well as its inherent connection with the stressor-emotion model of counterproductive work behavior (Spector & Fox, 2005). The power of incivility to elicit distress has been attributed to its capacity to signal riskiness of social situations that thwart core social motives (i.e., self-control). Intervention research has been relatively rare, but progress is evident.

Details

Mistreatment in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-117-0

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Advances in Librarianship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12024-617-5

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