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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Sofia Lundberg and Mats A. Bergman

The purpose of this paper is to analyze how local and central authorities choose between lowest price and more complex scoring rules when they design supplier-selection…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze how local and central authorities choose between lowest price and more complex scoring rules when they design supplier-selection mechanisms for public procurements. Five hypotheses are tested: a high level of cost uncertainty and highly non-verifiable quality makes the use of the lowest-price supplier-selection method less likely. Organizational habits and transaction-cost considerations influence the choice of mechanism. Strong quality concerns make complex rules more likely.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis departures from normative theory (rational choice) and is based on the regression analysis and survey data comprising a gross sample of 40 contracting authorities and detailed information about 651 procurements.

Findings

More complex scoring rules are used more often when the authority is uncertain about costs and about delivered quality. Authority effects are also found to directly and indirectly influence the choice of supplier-selection method, suggesting that tendering design is partly driven by local habits and institutional inertia.

Practical implications

The authors argue that, from a normative point of view, lowest price is an adequate method when the degree of uncertainty is low, for example, because the procured products are standardized and since quality can be verified. When there is significant cost uncertainty, it is better to use the so-called economically most advantageous tender (EMAT) method. (Preferably this should be done by assigning monetary values to different quality levels.) If there is significant uncertainty concerning delivered quality, the contracting authority should retain a degree of discretion, so as to be able to reward good-quality performance in observable but non-verifiable quality dimensions; options to extend the contract and subjective assessments of quality are two possibilities. The main findings are that EMAT and more complex scoring rules are used more often when the contracting authorities report that they experience substantial uncertainty concerning delivered quality and actual costs and that these factors tend to decrease the weight given to price, in line with the predictions. However, the authors also find that this result is mainly driven by variations between authorities, rather than by between-products variation for the same authority. This is from a training of professionals and regulation perspective of policy relevance.

Social implications

Contract allocation based on habits rather than rational ground could implicate the waste of resources (tax payers money) as it adventures the matching of the preferences of the public sector (the objective, subject matter, of the procurement) and what the potential supplier offers in its tender.

Originality/value

Although the principles for supplier selection are regulated by law they give the contracting authority substantial freedom in designing the scoring rule and in choosing what quality criteria to use. The tension between different objectives and the more general question whether the choices made by authorities reflect rational decision making or institutional inertia together motivate the current study. While the design of the supplier-selection mechanism is an important consideration in procurement practice, it has attracted relatively little attention from the academic community.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

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Case study
Publication date: 29 October 2015

Joseph J. French, Michael Martin and Garth Allen

International Business, Ethics, International Legal Issues/Law, Environmental Management.

Abstract

Subject area

International Business, Ethics, International Legal Issues/Law, Environmental Management.

Study level/applicability

Upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. The case is appropriate for courses in International Law, Ethics, International Business and Strategy.

Case overview

This case is inspired by current ethical, legal, social and environmental issues that have plagued the multinational mining industry in frontier markets. The case focuses on a multitude of legal, ethical and strategic issues involving the multinational mining industry. This case describes a hypothetical assignment facing an operations manager at the fictional Minera, Inc. The assignment revolves around several dilemmas a manager must confront as he attempts to secure valuable mining licenses from the Mongolian Government while simultaneously attempting to harmonize seemingly detrimental operating practices with the organizations' stated beliefs. The case provides detailed background information on the social, economic and political climate in Mongolia, as well as the applicable laws, ethical frameworks and competitive market considerations facing multinational mining organizations.

Expected learning outcomes

This case will help students understand the complexity of international business in frontier markets; identify key international legal issues such as the foreign corrupt practices act; and recognize ethical issues and formulate economically, strategically, ethically and legally sound courses of action in complex environments.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 5 no. 6
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2019

Mats Janné and Anna Fredriksson

Although a construction logistics solution is necessary for dealing with the demands in many large urban development projects, there is a lack of research on governance…

Abstract

Purpose

Although a construction logistics solution is necessary for dealing with the demands in many large urban development projects, there is a lack of research on governance mechanisms for construction logistics solutions. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to analyse the initiation and utilisation of a construction logistics centre (CLC) from different stakeholders’ perspectives to suggest governance mechanisms for strategic, tactical and operational levels and to develop guidelines for implementing these governance mechanisms.

Design/methodology/approach

A single case research design was used. Data were collected through interviews, site visits, observations and documentation from four stakeholder groups.

Findings

There is potential for utilising CLCs in development projects, with positive effects such as consolidation effects and enhanced planning. What is evident, however, is that the design and implementation of the CLCs must be based on a comprehensive stakeholder analysis, as there are conflicting goals between stakeholders. Governance mechanisms, including flexibility in the main contractors’ working construction process, as well as clearly stated roles, responsibilities and communication must be developed to enhance this potential.

Research limitations/implications

The conflicting goals of CLCs are identified and discussed, and the results show the need for further multi-stakeholder analysis of construction logistics solutions.

Practical implications

The experiences from the studied case are developed into practical guidelines to be used in the design of construction logistics solutions in development projects.

Originality/value

This study contributes by taking a multi-stakeholder perspective on CLCs and providing guidelines to be used in the design of construction logistics solutions in development projects.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2009

Mats Å. Hallgren, Håkan Källmén, Håkan Leifman, Torbjörn Sjölund and Sven Andréasson

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the PRIME for Life risk reduction program in reducing alcohol consumption and improving knowledge and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the PRIME for Life risk reduction program in reducing alcohol consumption and improving knowledge and attitudes towards alcohol use in male Swedish military conscripts, aged 18 to 22 years.

Design/methodology/approach

A quasi‐experimental design was used in which 1,371 military conscripts from ten regimens were assigned to either a control or program intervention group. Changes in alcohol consumption, knowledge and attitudes towards alcohol use were assessed with self‐report questionnaires at baseline, and again 5 months and 20 months after the program.

Findings

Pre to post program reductions in total alcohol consumption and “high risk” consumption were reported in both the control and intervention group. There were no statistically significant group interactions over time, indicating that factors beyond the intervention alone were responsible for the reductions in alcohol consumption. Attitudes towards consumption improved significantly in both groups at five months before returning to baseline levels at 20 month follow‐up.

Originality/value

PRIME for Life is one of the most widely used alcohol and drug risk reduction programs in the United States and has recently been implemented in parts of Sweden to reduce alcohol consumption and related harm. To our knowledge, this is the first peer‐reviewed evaluation of the effectiveness of the PRIME for Life program.

Details

Health Education, vol. 109 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2019

Zinette Bergman, Yael Teschemacher, Bimal Arora, Rijit Sengupta, Klaus Michael Leisinger and Manfred Max Bergman

The Government of India dramatically altered the dynamic between business and society when it introduced the Companies Act 2013, which mandated firms to expend at least 2…

Abstract

Purpose

The Government of India dramatically altered the dynamic between business and society when it introduced the Companies Act 2013, which mandated firms to expend at least 2 per cent of average net profits on corporate responsibility (CR) programmes. This reconfiguration of social value creation may serve as a template for a closer and participatory relationship between the private sector and government in emerging economies and beyond. This paper aims to analyse how CR expectations have taken shape in the print media in India. Specifically, the authors ask the following: What are the dimensions of CR expectations in mainstream Indian newspapers?, and Why, according to the newspaper narratives, do corporations have these responsibilities?

Design/methodology/approach

In this qualitative study, the authors randomly selected and analysed 50 per cent (n = 442) of the newspaper articles that dealt explicitly with CR. The articles appeared in the top five Indian English-language newspapers and the top two Hindi-language newspapers between 1 January and 31 December 2015. Using Content Configuration Analysis (CCA), the authors developed a typology of CR expectations and analysed their associated justifications. Finally, they used CCA to analyse how this typology and its justifications connect to the two main stakeholders: the business sector and government.

Findings

The analyses reveal how the introduction of the Companies Act 2013 had a major impact on CR expectations by explicitly and legally casting the business sector as the engine of social development. The authors were able to describe how contextual and cultural dimensions frame evolving interests and societal demands towards corporations, and how difficult it may be for corporations to fulfil CR expectations that are well beyond their core business and that reach domains usually pertaining to government.

Originality/value

This study contributes an empirical exploration of media discourse on contemporary CR expectations in India and its associated notions of social value creation, and how these are shaped by various cultural and contextual influences. The authors discuss how this novel approach to CR modifies the relations between business and society, and they reflect on the opportunities and limits of this model for other emerging economies, which struggle to formulate a symbiotic relationship between business and society.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Mikael Ohrling, Sara Tolf, Karin Solberg-Carlsson and Mats Brommels

Decentralisation in health care has been proposed as a way to make services more responsive to local needs and by that improve patient care. This study analyses how the…

Abstract

Purpose

Decentralisation in health care has been proposed as a way to make services more responsive to local needs and by that improve patient care. This study analyses how the senior management team conceptualised and implemented a decentralised management model within a large public health care delivery organisation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from in-depth interviews with a senior management team were used in a directed content analysis. Underlying assumptions and activities in the decentralisation process are presented in the logic model and scrutinised in an a priori logic analysis using relevant scientific literature.

Findings

The study found support in the scientific literature for the underlying assumptions that increased responsibility will empower managers as clinical directors know their local prerequisites best and are able to adapt to patient needs. Top management should function like an air traffic control tower, trust and loyalty improve managerial capacity, increased managerial skills release creativity and engagement and a system perspective will support collaboration and learning.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge this is the first a priori logic analysis of a decentralised management model in a healthcare delivery organisation in primary and community care. It shows that the activities consist with underlying assumptions, supported by evidence, and timely planned give managers decision space and ability to use their delegated authority, not disregarding accountability and fostering necessary organisational and individual capacities to avoid suboptimisation.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2011

Mats Å. Hallgren, Torbjörn Sjölund, Håkan Kallmén and Sven Andréasson

PRIME for Life is an alcohol risk reduction program that has been used and refined in the USA for over 20 years. A Swedish version of the program has recently been adapted…

Abstract

Purpose

PRIME for Life is an alcohol risk reduction program that has been used and refined in the USA for over 20 years. A Swedish version of the program has recently been adapted for use among Swedish high‐school students (age 18‐19). The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the program on youth alcohol consumption (including high risk drinking), attitudes and knowledge about the effects of alcohol use.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a randomised controlled trial involving 23 schools and 926 students. Data collection was conducted with questionnaires focusing primarily on drinking behaviour. Participants were followed up at five and 20 months to assess changes in drinking behaviour, knowledge and attitudes towards alcohol.

Findings

No significant program effects on drinking behaviour were found. Knowledge about the effects of alcohol consumption on health increased after the intervention, as did negative attitudes towards alcohol, but these effects eroded over time.

Originality/value

Despite being widely used in the USA and Sweden, the impact of PRIME for Life is under‐reported in the literature. This is the first independent evaluation of the program focusing on high school age youth. The findings do not support the efficacy of the program as a risk reduction or behaviour change tool in a school environment.

Details

Health Education, vol. 111 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 January 2013

Rolf A. Lundin

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Jolien Grandia and Joanne Meehan

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the special issue and outline its major themes and challenges, their relevance and the research opportunities the field presents.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the special issue and outline its major themes and challenges, their relevance and the research opportunities the field presents.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews prior literature and outlines the need to view public procurement as a policy tool to introduce the contributions to this special issue.

Findings

Public procurement has been consistently used to further public policies in a wide range of fields. The collection of articles in this special issue contributes to a broader understanding of the role and potential of public procurement in delivering desired policy outcomes in society. The articles show that public procurement largely has strategic aspirations, and its potential to deliver on wider societal issues is attractive to policy makers. The issues raised in this collection of articles, however, also demonstrate that public procurement often lacks strategic maturity and critical issues, notably around how to demonstrate and evaluate its impact and “success”.

Research limitations/implications

This paper aims to stimulate interdisciplinary research into the role of public procurement as a policy tool and its ability to achieve public value.

Originality/value

This paper discusses theoretical and empirical findings that highlight the importance of public procurement for achieving public value. The special issue examines the interdisciplinary literature on public procurement and shows how it is being used to achieve public value.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

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