Search results

1 – 10 of over 4000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 November 2008

R.D. Sudduth

The primary objective of this two part study was to show theoretically how pigment cluster voids and pigment distribution can influence the critical pigment volume…

Abstract

Purpose

The primary objective of this two part study was to show theoretically how pigment cluster voids and pigment distribution can influence the critical pigment volume concentration (CPVC) and consequently the properties of a dry coating. In Part I of this study a pigment clustering model with an analytical solution has been developed that was a modification of an earlier model by Fishman, Kurtze, and Bierwagen that could only be solved numerically.

Design/methodology/approach

The original derivation of the clustering concept developed by Fishman et al. resulted in a mathematical analysis which was only able to be solved numerically and was found to be very tedious to utilize directly. In this study, a new successful derivation utilizing some of the original concepts of Fishman et al. was generated and shown to result in a practical and much more useable analytical analysis of the clustering concept. This new model was then applied directly to quantify the influence of flow agents or surfactants in a coating formulation on the CPVC as described by Asbeck.

Findings

It was found that the largest deviation from 100 per cent pigment dispersion with no pigment clusters occurred just before and just after the ultimate CPVC (UCPVC). A theoretical relationship was also found between the pigment cluster dispersion coefficient, Cq, and CPVC. This result was consistent with the experimental relationship between CPVC and the per cent flow additive as found by Asbeck. The density ratio of overall coating to the pigment density was found to go through a maximum at a global volume fraction of pigment that was slightly greater than the UCPVC as expected for a mechanical property. It was also identified that mechanical failure of most coating formulations should be apparent at either the “Lower Zero Limit” or the “Upper Zero Limit” global volume fraction pigment as defined in this study.

Research limitations/implications

While the experimental measurement of the parameters to isolate the clustering concepts introduced in this study may be difficult, it is expected that better quantitative measurement of clustering concepts will eventually prove to be very beneficial to providing improved suspension applications including coatings.

Practical implications

The theoretical relationship developed in this study between the pigment cluster dispersion coefficient, Cq, and CPVC and the experimental relationship between CPVC and the per cent flow additive found by Asbeck inferred a direct relationship between Cq and the per cent flow additive. Consequently, it was shown that the theoretical pigment cluster model developed in this study could be directly related to the experimental matrix additive composition in a coating formulation. The implication is that the measurement tool introduced in this study can provide better measurement and control of clustering in coatings and other suspension applications.

Originality/value

In this study, a new successful derivation utilizing some of the original concepts of Fishman et al. was generated and shown to result in a practical and much more useable analytical analysis of the clustering concept. This new model was then applied directly to quantify the influence of flow agents or surfactants in a coating formulation on the CPVC as described by Asbeck.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 January 2007

B. Das, S.K. Sahu and B.C. Ray

The objective of the present work is to ascertain the failure modes under different loading speeds along with change in percentage of constituents of FRP composites.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of the present work is to ascertain the failure modes under different loading speeds along with change in percentage of constituents of FRP composites.

Design/methodology/approach

This involves experimental investigation of FRP composites with woven roving fibers and matrix. Different types of composites, i.e. glass: epoxy, glass: polyester and (carbon+glass): epoxy are used in the investigation with change in percentage of constituents. The variability of fiber content of the composite is in the range of 0.55‐0.65 weight fractions. The matrix dominated property, like inter laminar shear strength (ILSS) has been studied by three point bend test using INSTRON 1195 material testing machine with increasing five cross head velocities.

Findings

The variation of ILSS of laminates of FRP composites is significant for low loading speed and is not so prominent for high speed. The variation of ILSS are observed to be dependent on the type and amount of constituents present in the composites. The laminates with carbon fiber shows higher ILSS than that of glass fiber composites. The laminates with epoxy matrix shows higher ILSS than polyester matrix composites for the same fiber. There is no significant variation of ILSS beyond loading speed 200 mm/min and this can be used for specifications of testing. Matrix resins such as polyester and epoxy are known to be highly rate sensitive. Carbon fiber are relatively rate independent and E‐glass fibers are rate sensitive. Woven roving carbon glass fiber reinforced polymer shows small rate dependence and woven roving glass fiber reinforced polymer shows significant rate sensitivity.

Originality/value

The findings are based on original experimental investigations in the laboratories of the institute and can be used for characterization of composites.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 79 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 November 2018

Shaikh Asad Ali Dilawary, Amir Motallebzadeh, Muhammad Afzal, Erdem Atar and Huseyin Cimenoglu

The purpose of the study is to examine the sliding wear performance of plasma transfer arc (PTA) deposited and laser surface melted (LSM) Mo modified Stellite 12…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to examine the sliding wear performance of plasma transfer arc (PTA) deposited and laser surface melted (LSM) Mo modified Stellite 12 hardfacings under high contact stresses (i.e. >20 GPa).

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, after structural characterization, sliding wear tests have been conducted using sphero-conical diamond indenter as the counterface with different normal loads. The wear tracks formed on the hardfacings were examined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

Findings

Both hardfacings showed severe wear (at high contact stress levels ranging from 24 to 41 GPa), which progressed by plastic deformation, although the wear resistance of LSMed hardfacings was better than the PTA hardfacings by a factor of two due to its near surface microstructure characterized as carbide-rich zone.

Originality/value

Sliding wear characterization of a promising 10 Wt.% Mo modified version of commercial Stellite 12 hardfacings (as reported previously by authors) was done in as PTA and LSMed states using nanomechanical test system. To the best of authors’ knowledge, no report is available in the open literature on such hardfacings under these testing conditions.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Timothy J. Horn, Ola L.A. Harrysson, Harvey A. West II, Jeffrey P. Little and Denis J. Marcellin-Little

The aim of this study is to describe an improved experimental substrate for the mechanical testing of patient-specific implants fabricated using direct metal additive…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to describe an improved experimental substrate for the mechanical testing of patient-specific implants fabricated using direct metal additive manufacturing processes. This method reduces variability and sample size requirements and addresses the importance of geometry at the bone/implant interface.

Design/methodology/approach

Short-fiber glass/resin materials for cortical bone and polyurethane foam materials for cancellous bone were evaluated using standard tensile coupons. A method for fabricating bone analogs with patient-specific geometries using rapid tooling is presented. Bone analogs of a canine radius were fabricated and compared to cadaveric specimens in several biomechanical tests as validation.

Findings

The analog materials exhibit a tensile modulus that falls within the range of expected values for cortical and cancellous bone. The tensile properties of the cortical bone analog vary with fiber loading. The canine radius models exhibited similar mechanical properties to the cadaveric specimens with a reduced variability.

Research limitations/implications

Additional replications involving different bone geometries, types of bone and/or implants are required for a full validation. Further, the materials used here are only intended to mimic the mechanical properties of bone on a macro scale within a relatively narrow range. These analog models have not been shown to address the complex microscopic or viscoelastic behavior of bone in the present study.

Originality/value

Scientific data on the formulation and fabrication of bone analogs are absent from the literature. The literature also lacks an experimental platform that matches patient-specific implant/bone geometries at the bone implant interface.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 May 2019

Gaurav Arora and Satpal Sharma

This paper aims to produce hybrid reinforcement for the development of aluminium matrix composites using ball-billing technique to avoid or reduce the problem of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to produce hybrid reinforcement for the development of aluminium matrix composites using ball-billing technique to avoid or reduce the problem of agglomeration of the reinforcement during casting.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present investigation, a mixture of silicon carbide (SiC) and rice husk ash (RHA) powder in equal weight percentage ratio 4:4 (1:1) was alloyed mechanically in a ball-mill at distinct milling times of 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 h. Morphological Characterization and density measurements of the ball-milled powder were carried out after different intervals of milling times.

Findings

The results revealed that the process of ball milling is a novel technique for the conversion of two or more powders in to an integer powder and reduces the problem of agglomeration also. The density measurement results revealed that an increasing trend of density initially and reduction of the density with the increase of milling time. The density value of the combined particles became comparable to the density of aluminium at the milling time of 75 h for the equal weight percentage ratio 4:4 (1:1) of SiC and RHA.

Originality/value

The manuscript highlights the research work related to the development of the reinforcement for the aluminium hybrid composites by ball milling process. The use of this process for the development of the reinforcement not only reduces the problem of the agglomeration but reduces the density mismatch of the reinforcement and matrix material also.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 August 1980

M.W. Darlington and D.W. Saunders

A Polymer Engineering Directorate and Industry Sponsored Programme in the Department of Materials, Cranfield Institute of Technology.

Abstract

A Polymer Engineering Directorate and Industry Sponsored Programme in the Department of Materials, Cranfield Institute of Technology.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Shiuh-Chuan Her and Shou-Jan Liu

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with exceptional mechanical, thermal and electrical properties are considered to be ideal for reinforcing high-performance structures. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with exceptional mechanical, thermal and electrical properties are considered to be ideal for reinforcing high-performance structures. The interfacial stresses between the CNTs and surrounding matrix are important phenomena which critically govern the mechanical properties of CNTs-reinforced nanocomposites. A number of methods have been proposed to investigate the stress transfer across the CNT/matrix interface, such as experimental measurement and molecular dynamics (MDs). Experimental tests are difficulty and expensive. MDs simulations, on the other hand, are computationally inefficient. The purpose of this paper is to present a reasonably simplified model. Incorporating the simplified model, the analytical expressions of the interface stresses including the shear stress and longitudinal normal stress are obtained.

Design/methodology/approach

The analytical model consists of two concentric cylinders, namely a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) cylinder and a matrix cylinder, as the representative volume element (RVE). The interfacial stress analysis is performed using the shear lag model for the axisymmetric RVE. Analytical solutions for the normal stresses in the SWCNT and matrix, and the interfacial shear stress across the SWCNT/matrix interface are obtained. The proposed model has a great ability to theoretical prediction of the stress transfer between the matrix and CNTs.

Findings

In order to demonstrate the simulation capabilities of the proposed model, parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects of the volume fraction of SWCNT and matrix modulus on the stress transfer. The axial stress in the matrix is decreasing with the increase of the volume fraction and decrease of the matrix modulus. As a result of more loads can be transferred to the SWCNT for a large volume fraction and small matrix modulus. These results show that using a large volume fraction and a small matrix modulus improves the efficiency of the stress transfer from the matrix to the CNTs.

Originality/value

A simple but accurate model using a simplified 2D RVE for characterizing the stress transfer in CNT-reinforced nanocomposites is presented. The predictions from the current method compare favourably with those by existing experimental, analytical and computational studies. The simple and explicit expressions of the interfacial stresses provide valuable analysis tools accessible to practical users.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 August 2010

Chetan S. Jarali and D. Roy Mahapatra

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the stress distribution in shape memory alloy (SMA) composite due to phase transformations in the fiber in view of the applied…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the stress distribution in shape memory alloy (SMA) composite due to phase transformations in the fiber in view of the applied boundary conditions on the matrix.

Design/methodology/approach

A consistent homogenization of a SMA wire‐reinforced polymer composite volume element undergoing quasi‐static deformation was performed and SMA wire‐matrix interface behaviour was presented. For the SMA wire, a one‐dimensional phenomenological constitutive model was used. Eshelby's inclusion theory was employed for homogenization. A strain averaging approach was reviewed in which the average strain was substituted back to obtain the expressions for the effective stiffness, the inelastic strain, and the average stresses in the constituent phases. In order to study the stress distribution in SMA composite and constituent phases (fiber and matrix) as a consequence of the SMA wire‐matrix interface effect, interfacial stress model was derived. Interfacial axial and shear stress distribution is characterized for forward and reverse phase transformations. Finally, the thermomechanical behaviours were computed by applying strain energy approach incorporating the interface effects.

Findings

The results presented show that due to the difference between the shear modulus of matrix and SMA wire, and because of the strain non‐uniformity at the SMA wire‐matrix interface, shear stress is developed within the matrix under the axial loading of the representative volume element (RVE). The shear stress increases more rapidly as the SMA wire radius is increased but not with increase in the length. However, the axial stress does not increase much with increase in the SMA wire radius and length. Further, the average stress equation of the RVE at the SMA wire‐matrix interface is effectively addressed. The modeling approach is successfully validated extensively for different geometric and volumetric parameters for different loading conditions. It is evident that the interface effect of SMA wire composites is SMA stiffness dominated due to the fact that the geometric parameters do not influence much the stresses as compared to the change in SMA wire stiffness.

Originality/value

The approach is based on modeling the fiber matrix interface effect using homogenization scheme. Further, the strain energy approach is applied to compute the stress‐strain response. This indicates the importance of modeling the SMA wire‐matrix interface effect, and in particular, the energy exchange between the constituent phases. The results have been compared for different geometric parameters as well as volume fractions of the constituent phases under different loading conditions.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 January 2009

R.D. Sudduth

In part I of this study a new dry coating analysis was developed relating pigment cluster voids and pigment particle distribution to the pigment cluster dispersion…

Abstract

Purpose

In part I of this study a new dry coating analysis was developed relating pigment cluster voids and pigment particle distribution to the pigment cluster dispersion coefficient, Cq, and the critical pigment volume concentration (CPVC). Part II of this study has addressed a wet coating analysis to relate pigment particle size distribution and viscosity in a coating formulation to the pigment cluster dispersion coefficient.

Design/methodology/approach

This study introduced the relationships for the wet coating by building on the dry coating evaluations introduced in part I of this study. Part II of this study showed that the CPVC for a solvent based coating can be significantly influenced by a change in the viscosity measured interaction coefficient, σ, as influenced by a change in an additive such as the surfactant concentration in the matrix or polymer phase of the coating. The CPVC was also shown to be strongly influenced by a separate analysis of the pigment particle size distribution to modify the coating viscosity.

Findings

It was pointed out recently that an increase in flow additive increased the CPVC but decreased viscosity. Consequently, it was shown theoretically in this study that viscosities compared at the same relative viscosity, η/η0, and at the same filler composition, fi, using the generalized viscosity model would require decrease in the interaction coefficient, σ, to increase the global volume fraction of filler or pigment, ΦF. This implied that a measurement of the interaction coefficient, σ, should be a direct measure of the ability of the CPVC to be modified. A minimum viscosity from the generalised viscosity model also resulted at the maximum packing fraction, which in turn was found to increase the CPVC of the coating. Consequently, part II of this study has yielded a useful relationship between the cluster dispersion coefficient, Cq, and the interaction coefficient, σ, from the generalised viscosity model.

Research limitations/implications

While the experimental measurement of the parameters to isolate the clustering concepts introduced in this study may be difficult, it is expected that better quantitative measurement of clustering concepts will eventually prove to be very beneficial to providing improved suspension applications including coatings. The close relationship introduced in this study between clustering concepts and viscosity should provide an improved ability to measure the parameters to isolate clustering in coatings and other suspension applications.

Practical implications

The theoretical relationship developed in this study between the pigment cluster dispersion coefficient, Cq, and CPVC and the theoretical and experimental relationship between CPVC and the viscosity interaction coefficient, σ, inferred a direct relationship between Cq and the viscosity interaction coefficient, σ. Consequently, it was shown that the theoretical pigment cluster model developed in this study could be directly related to the experimental matrix additive composition controlling viscosity in a coating formulation. The practical implication is that the measurement tools introduced in this study should significantly influence future suspension formulations to provide better measurement and control of clustering and viscosity in coatings and other suspension applications.

Originality/value

Part II of this study has shown how a useful relationship can be generated between the interaction coefficient, σ, from the generalised viscosity model and the pigment cluster dispersion coefficient, Cq, developed in part I of this study. In addition, this study also showed that effective control of the CPVC of a coating can be modified by judicious control of the interaction coefficient using pigment particle size distribution and/or viscosity control additives in a wet coating analysis.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Salvatore Brischetto and Erasmo Carrera

The purpose of this paper is to consider the static analysis of nanocomposite plates. Nanocomposites consist of a small amount of nanoscale reinforcements which can have…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the static analysis of nanocomposite plates. Nanocomposites consist of a small amount of nanoscale reinforcements which can have an observable effect on the macroscale properties of the composites.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present study the reinforcements considered are non‐spherical, high aspect ratio fillers, in particular nanometer‐thin platelets (clays) and nanometer‐diameter cylinders (carbon nanotubes, CNTs). These plates are considered simply supported with a bi‐sinusoidal pressure applied at the top. These conditions allow the solving of the governing equations in a closed form. Four cases are investigated: a single layered plate with CNT reinforcements in elastomeric or thermoplastic polymers, a single layered plate with CNT reinforcements in a polymeric matrix embedding carbon fibers, a sandwich plate with external skins in aluminium alloy and an internal core in silicon foam filled with CNTs and a single layered plate with clay reinforcements in a polymeric matrix. A short review of the most important results in the literature is given to determine the elastic properties of the suggested nanocomposites which will be used in the proposed static analysis. The static response of the plates is obtained by using classical two‐dimensional models such as classical lamination theory (CLT) and first order shear deformation theory (FSDT), and an advanced mixed model based on the Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF) which makes use of a layer‐wise description for both displacement and transverse stress components.

Findings

The paper has two aims: to demonstrate that the use of classical theories, originally developed for traditional plates, is inappropriate to investigate the static response of nanocomposite plates and to quantify the beneficial effect of the nanoreinforcements in terms of static response (displacements and stresses).

Originality/value

In the literature these effects are usually given only in terms of elastic properties such as Young moduli, shear moduli and Poisson ratios, and not in terms of displacements and stresses.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 4000