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Micronutrient malnutrition is a public health problem in many developing countries, especially in the poorest population segments. Fortification and other food-based…
Micronutrient malnutrition is a public health problem in many developing countries, especially in the poorest population segments. Fortification and other food-based approaches, such as using more nutritious ingredients in processing, could help to address this problem, but little is known about poor consumers’ attitudes toward nutritionally enhanced foods. The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether poor consumers in Africa would purchase foods with more nutritious ingredients and the related willingness and ability to pay.
A survey and choice experiment were conducted with 600 randomly selected households in the poorest neighborhoods of Nairobi (Kenya) and Kampala (Uganda). Participants were asked to choose between various alternatives of porridge flour with different types of nutritional attributes. The data were analyzed with mixed logit models. Porridge flour is widely consumed among the urban poor, so that the example can also provide interesting broader lessons.
Poor consumers welcome foods that are micronutrient-fortified or include new types of nutritious ingredients. However, willingness to pay for nutritional attributes is small. New ingredients that are perceived to have little effect on taste and appearance are seen more positively than ingredients that may change food products more notably.
New nutritionally enhanced foods have good potential in markets for the poor, if they build on local consumption habits and are not associated with significant price increases.
This is among the first studies to explicitly analyze poor consumers’ preferences for nutritionally enhanced foods.
Purpose – The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of controversial debates. Consequently, policy-makers are unsure whether this…
Purpose – The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of controversial debates. Consequently, policy-makers are unsure whether this technology is suitable for developing countries. This chapter reviews the scientific evidence.
Methodology/approach – Starting from a food security definition, potential pathways of how GM crops could contribute to hunger reduction are analyzed conceptually. Furthermore, studies about the socioeconomic impacts of GM crop applications are reviewed. This includes ex post studies for present applications such as insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops, as well as ex ante studies for future GM technologies such as Golden Rice and drought-tolerant varieties.
Findings – GM crops can raise agricultural productivity and thus contribute to better food availability. Especially when tailored to small farm conditions, GM crops can also cause income increases for the rural poor, entailing better access to food. Nutritionally enhanced, biofortified GM crops could reduce problems of micronutrient malnutrition in a cost-effective way.
Research limitations – The examples observable so far are still limited. Impacts also depend on the wider institutional setting. Like any technology, GM crops are not a substitute but a complement to much needed institutional and infrastructure improvement in developing countries.
Social implications – The fact that available GM crops already contribute to poverty reduction and improved food security has not been widely recognized up until now.
Value of paper – Results presented in this chapter can contribute to a more constructive public debate, in which GM crop risks are not discussed out of the context of actual and potential benefits.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on the economic performance of genetically modified (GM) cotton worldwide based on a…
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on the economic performance of genetically modified (GM) cotton worldwide based on a wide range of data and source from available literature, and second to assess yield gain and economic performance.
A systematic review was captured to provide the evidence of potential benefits of GM cotton. A country-specific analysis was conducted in order to compare economic indicators and employed meta-analysis to find out the significance of the different of GM cotton over its counterpart.
This paper depicts positive impact of commercialized GM cotton in terms of net revenue, and the benefits, especially in terms of increased yields, are greatest for the mostly farmers in developing countries who have benefitted from the spill over of technology targeted at farmers in industrialized countries.
Due to the variability of the data which came from different methodologies, it is difficult to determine the differences of the performances each individual study.
This, it is believed that results from this study can be useful for operations of all sizes as the authors think about what needs to be focussed on for long-term producers survival.
The paper clearly indicates that China is the highest cotton yield of GM cotton, the lowest cost of GM seed and the lowest cost of chemical spray compare to any other countries. Therefore, this is the fact that the adoption of GM cotton has been widely spread among the farmers across the regions in China.
The purpose of this paper is to seek to show how the implementation of different quality assurance programs (QAPs) affects international market access for horticultural…
The purpose of this paper is to seek to show how the implementation of different quality assurance programs (QAPs) affects international market access for horticultural processing firms in developing countries.
A representative survey of 50 registered firms processing horticultural produce in Vietnam was conducted. Logistic regression models are used to analyze the effects of QAPs and other firm level factors on participation in different export supply chains.
QAPs influence firms' participation in export supply chains significantly. While the implementation of internationally recognized QAPs improves access to OECD markets, national QAPs are more important for exports to non‐OECD countries.
Horticultural processing firms in developing countries can improve their access to export markets when they implement formal QAPs. There is segmentation between non‐OECD supply chains, for which national QAPs suffice, and OECD supply chains with higher food safety and quality requirements, for which international QAPs are important. Depending on the intended target markets, firms can adjust their strategies accordingly.
This study contributes empirically to the literature on private sector food regulations and developing country exports by using a unique set of firm level data from Vietnam. While analyzing the impact of QAPs on export market access, it is differentiated between national and international QAPs. Policy implications are discussed.