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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2020

Mateus Ferreira, Felipe Zambaldi and Diego de Sousa Guerra

Engagement is a construct that varies according to the subject, object and context; this has been used to justify the coexistence of a variety of construct definitions and…

Abstract

Purpose

Engagement is a construct that varies according to the subject, object and context; this has been used to justify the coexistence of a variety of construct definitions and scales. Instead of proposing a new scale, this paper aims to create a procedure for comparing scales and to use it to evaluate brand engagement measures in social media.

Design/methodology/approach

This study first defines a procedure for the selection, standardization and comparison of scales; this procedure considers both the classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT). The authors apply the procedure in a survey of 233 respondents to compare three scales for measuring consumer engagement with brands in social media.

Findings

The establishment of a procedure for scale comparison is useful in assisting researchers to choose specific measures. Results showed that the three scales have similar characteristics, but Vivek et al.’s (2014) scale is recommended when better discrimination between construct dimensions is required, Hollebeek et al.’s (2014) scale could be used as a one-dimensional scale and Dessart et al.’s (2016) reduced scale has better ability to capture information for the affective and cognitive dimensions. None of the scales were very efficient in discriminating weakly and strongly engaged individuals.

Originality/value

This study makes a substantive contribution by proposing a procedure for scale comparison that considers CTT and IRT and shows the advantages, limitations and recommendations for using three different scales of consumer engagement.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2021

Alejandro Germán Frank, Guilherme Brittes Benitez, Mateus Ferreira Lima and João Augusto Bonzanini Bernardi

Open innovation breadth (OIB) considers the diversity of external collaboration partners for innovation. The authors investigate the moderating effect of OIB on the…

Abstract

Purpose

Open innovation breadth (OIB) considers the diversity of external collaboration partners for innovation. The authors investigate the moderating effect of OIB on the relationship between industrial innovation activities (innovation inputs) and industrial innovation results (innovation outputs).

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on secondary data from the Brazilian innovation survey, representing more than 30,000 innovative companies across 55 industrial sectors.

Findings

This study’s results show that OIB has different moderating effects regarding the several innovation input–output relationships. While OIB benefits some relationships, others are hampered by the diversity of collaboration partners.

Originality/value

Few studies have addressed OIB at the macro level. Using the perspective of transaction cost economics (TCE), the authors discuss the contributions and limitations of OIB at the industry level.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2021

Guilherme Brittes Benitez, Mateus Ferreira-Lima, Néstor F. Ayala and Alejandro G. Frank

The provision of Industry 4.0 solutions demands a vast range of technology domains. To provide these solutions, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) may need the…

Abstract

Purpose

The provision of Industry 4.0 solutions demands a vast range of technology domains. To provide these solutions, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) may need the support of different supply chain actors through an inbound open innovation strategy. The authors study the contribution of four types of supply chain actors for inbound open innovation: suppliers, competitors with complementary technologies, R&D centers and customers. The authors analyze how these four actors moderate the effect of integrated Industry 4.0 solutions on three main competitive strategies: cost, focalization and differentiation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a survey on 77 SMEs from the automation sector, using OLS regression with moderating effects. They considered the integration of 15 technologies and 7 classic automation activities in the provision of Industry 4.0 solutions. The authors also studied three competitive outputs – technology cost reduction (cost), customer loyalty (focalization) and technology innovation (differentiation) – as well as four supply chain actors (moderators).

Findings

Expanding the provision of Industry 4.0 technologies increases customer loyalty and technology innovation. Collaboration with competitors (complementary technologies) leverage these results and reduce technology costs. Integration between customers and R&D centers elevates costs but R&D centers can foster long-run innovation.

Originality/value

This study is the first to empirically investigate inbound open innovation in the supply chain for technology development in the context of Industry 4.0. The authors discuss how these actors contribute to four inbound open innovation activities: technology scouting; horizontal technology collaboration; vertical technology collaboration; and technology sourcing.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2017

Przemyslaw S. Stilger, Jan Siderius and Erik M. Van Raaij

Choosing the best bid is a central step in any tendering process. If the award criterion is the economically most advantageous tender (EMAT), this involves scoring bids on…

Abstract

Choosing the best bid is a central step in any tendering process. If the award criterion is the economically most advantageous tender (EMAT), this involves scoring bids on price and quality and ranking them. Scores are calculated using a bid evaluation formula that takes as inputs price and quality, and their respective weights. The choice of formula critically affects which bid wins. We study 38 such formulas and discuss several of their aspects, such as how much the outcome of a tender depends on which formula is being used, relative versus absolute scoring, ranking paradox, iso-utility curves, protection against a winner with an extremely high price, and how a formula reflects the weights of price and quality. Based on these analyses, we summarize the (dis)advantages and risks of certain formulas and provide associated warnings when applying certain formulas in practice.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2014

Per Molander

The single-most important parameter of a public procurement system is the threshold above which the framework applies. The optimization problem consists of finding a…

Abstract

The single-most important parameter of a public procurement system is the threshold above which the framework applies. The optimization problem consists of finding a reasonable trade-off between the gains from public procurement and the administrative costs associated with procurement rules. In the present study, based on a sample of central and local government procurement operations in Sweden, an optimal threshold value in the range of 5,000—6,000 EUR is computed based on the requirement that the average gain should supersede the average cost. If a larger proportion of procurements is required to gain from the regulation imposed, a threshold value of 20,000—25,000 EUR should apply. The general conclusion is that there are strong arguments for maintaining procurement rules below the European Union threshold.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2010

Thanh Ngo

This paper examines operating performance and corporate governance of 181 companies over the period 2003- 2008 (563 firm-year observations), whose customers are…

Abstract

This paper examines operating performance and corporate governance of 181 companies over the period 2003- 2008 (563 firm-year observations), whose customers are governmental agencies, and contrasts their performance to that of companies that have no governmental customers. The sample firms are classified into firms whose customers are (1) domestic governmental agencies, (2) foreign governmental agencies, (3) state governmental agencies, or (4) different combinations of the 3 types. The results show that firms that supply domestic and/or foreign government customers have significantly higher operating income, profit margin and return on asset and lower operating expenses than firms that supply state government customers and than their matched industry peers who do not supply any government customers. These government-supplier firms have lower managerial ownership than their industry peers which suggests potential room for agency problems to develop. Firms that supply domestic and/or foreign government customers have significantly lower executive compensation than firms that supply state government customers and than their matched industry peers.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2012

Katriina Parikka-Alhola and Ari Nissinen

The “most economically advantageous tender,” as defined in the EUʼs public procurement directives, allows public purchasers to combine environmental aspects, price and…

Abstract

The “most economically advantageous tender,” as defined in the EUʼs public procurement directives, allows public purchasers to combine environmental aspects, price and other award criteria in decision making. The directives do not, however, determine how the environmental criteria should be built. Indeed, there could be different means to assess the “greenness” of competing tenders, and these various measurements of environmental impacts may lead to different assessments of the most economically advantageous tender. In this article, the determination of environmental award criteria is examined through a case study on a purchase of a goods transportation service, where the most economically advantageous tender is calculated by life cycle assessment and the environmental cost calculation method suggested by the EU, and compared to the results gained by the purchaserʼs equation. Also the contribution of the weighting for the “green” purchasing decision is discussed.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Gregory J. Gibbons and Robert G. Hansell

The aim of this study is to demonstrate the benefit of design flexibility afforded by the Arcam free‐form fabrication process in the direct manufacture of injection mould…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to demonstrate the benefit of design flexibility afforded by the Arcam free‐form fabrication process in the direct manufacture of injection mould inserts with complex cooling channel configurations and the process efficiency and quality gains achieved through using such inserts.

Design/methodology/approach

The manufacturing process of a flood cooled injection mould insert using the Arcam EBM S12 layered manufacturing process is presented. The insert is then evaluated against two other inserts (one un‐cooled and one traditionally baffle cooled (BC)) in the manufacture of test components, with the temperature of the insert and components recorded. The process conditions were adjusted (reduced cooling time) to increase the core and component temperatures to identify the operational limits of the inserts. Thermal imaging was employed to visualize the thermal distribution within the BC and flood cooled (FC) inserts.

Findings

The cooling efficiency of the FC insert was found to be significantly higher than that of the other two inserts, and the homogeneity of the heat distribution of the FC insert was more even than the BC insert. It was possible to manufacture non‐deformed components using the FC insert with zero cooling time (ejection immediately after removal of holding pressure), this was not possible with the BC insert.

Research limitations/implications

Provides a basis for the development of more efficient and thermally homogeneous inserts through the Arcam EBM process.

Practical implications

Provides a technology/process for the manufacture of highly efficient core inserts for injection moulding, offering the industry a competitive advantage through the potential for time and cost savings and higher quality components.

Originality/value

This is the first direct comparison of an Arcam EBM manufactured insert with complex cooling geometries against traditionally cooled inserts, particularly novel is the thermal imaging analysis of the cooling efficiency and distribution.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Khurram Altaf, Ahmad Majdi Abdul Rani and Vijay R. Raghavan

The purpose of this paper is to present a technique of fabricating profiled conformal cooling channels (PCCC) in an aluminium filled epoxy mould using rapid prototyping…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a technique of fabricating profiled conformal cooling channels (PCCC) in an aluminium filled epoxy mould using rapid prototyping (RP) and rapid tooling (RT) techniques and to compare the cooling times for the moulds with circular and profiled channels experimentally. The cooling channels in injection mould tools have a circular cross section. In a PCCC, the cross sectional shape is so designed that the flat face surface of the channel facing the cavity follows the profile of the cavity. These types of channels can be manufactured through RP and RT techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

A part to be moulded was designed and modelled. Two moulds were then designed with the part cavity, one having a circular channel and the second with a profiled channel, both having the same cross sectional area for coolant flow. The channel patterns were designed with supports according to their position regarding height and distance from the cavity as designed earlier. Both channels have the same distance from the cavity wall. RP patterns were produced for both channels and part using the Thermojet 3D printer. The cooling channel and the moulded part patterns were then assembled as designed in the moulds. Moulding frames were fabricated with aluminium plates and the pattern was placed in the frames. Epoxy was poured on the pattern and then cured. The moulded part and the channel patterns embedded inside epoxy were melted out during the final curing cycle, leaving behind the circular‐ and profiled‐cooling channels in the moulds. For the cooling time measurement, injection moulding was done with moulds with circular and profiled channels. Moulded part temperature will be recorded by embedding thermocouples within the mould cavities.

Findings

A technique for the manufacture of cooling channels of different profiles in epoxy moulds was presented. Experimental analysis for temperature measurement for the moulded part with injection moulding process showed that PCCC mould has less cooling time then mould with circular channels.

Research limitations/implications

The technique presented is based on the metal‐filled epoxy materials used in RT and was obtained using a specific test part. Epoxy tooling can be a useful alternative of metallic mould to produce injection mould tools. A limitation for the epoxy moulds is that they have a limited life as compared with metallic moulds.

Originality/value

This is a new technique of manufacturing moulds with cooling channels using RP/RT techniques. Moulds with different channel cross sections can be manufactured using this technique.

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Anurag Bagalkot, Dirk Pons, Don Clucas and Digby Symons

Polymer rapid tooling (PRT) inserts can be used as injection moulding (IM) cavities for prototyping and low volume production but lack the robustness of metal inserts…

Abstract

Purpose

Polymer rapid tooling (PRT) inserts can be used as injection moulding (IM) cavities for prototyping and low volume production but lack the robustness of metal inserts. Metal inserts can withstand high injection pressure and temperature required, whereas PRT inserts may fail under similar parameters. The current method of parameter setting starts with using the highest pressure setting on the machine and then fine-tuning to optimize the process parameters. This method needs modification, as high injection pressures and temperatures can damage the PRT inserts. There is a need for a methodical process to determine the upper limits of moulding parameters that can be used without damaging the PRT inserts.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study analysis was performed to investigate the causes of failure in a PRT insert. From this, a candidate set-up process was developed to avoid start-up failure and possibly prolong tool life. This was then tested on a second mould, which successfully avoided start-up failure and moulded 54 parts before becoming unusable due to safety issues.

Findings

Process parameters that are critical for tool life are identified as mould temperature, injection pressure, injection speed, hold pressure and cooling time.

Originality/value

This paper presents a novel method for setting IM process parameters for PRT inserts. This has the potential to prevent failure at start up when using PRT inserts and possibly extend the operating life of the PRT inserts.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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