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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Julie McLeod

The purpose of this paper is to canvass debates arising from encounters between architectural and educational history and to introduce a themed section of four papers…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to canvass debates arising from encounters between architectural and educational history and to introduce a themed section of four papers exploring aspects of the history of school design and the spatial arrangements of Australian schooling across the twentieth century.

Design/methodology/approach –

This is an interpretive introductory essay that characterizes trends in historical and sociological studies of school space and materialities, and synthesizes the arguments and contributions of the four companion papers.

Findings

A case is made for greater exchange among educational, architectural and social historians and key insights and findings from the four papers concerning school space, design and educational ideas are summarized. Themes of community, citizenship and progressive education are highlighted.

Originality/value

The value of the paper lies in introducing the context and scholarly debates framing a collection of four papers that seek to open up new avenues for investigating the history of modern schooling through studying intersections between school space and design and educational purposes and aspiration.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Helen Proctor and Kellie Burns

Abstract

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

Article
Publication date: 14 October 2009

Associate and Vick

Visual representations of teachers and teachers’ work over the past century and a half, in both professional literature and popular media, commonly construct teachers…

Abstract

Visual representations of teachers and teachers’ work over the past century and a half, in both professional literature and popular media, commonly construct teachers’ work as teacher‐centred, and built around specific technologies that privilege the teacher as the active, dominant and legitimate principal agent in the educational process. This article analyses a set of photographs that represent an ‘alternative’ educational approach to normalised mainstream schooling, to explore the ways such practices might enact pedagogy within different social relations. Butler’s discussions of performativity and Foucault’s concept of technologies of self, offer a theoretical framework for understanding the educative and political work such visual representations of teachers work might perform, in the construction of capacities to imagine what teachers’ work looks like, with implications for capacities to enact teaching. The photographs analysed present a pedagogy in which the teacher is less visibly central and less overtly directive in relation to children’s learning than in normalised pedagogy. Thus, in important respects, they offer material from which to construct a different vision of what teachers’ work looks like, and, consequently, to enact teachers’ work differently. In this article I explore a set of photographs of Montessori methods at Blackfriars School in Sydney in the early twentieth century. I do so in order to establish whether such photographs offer a representation of teaching that differs significantly from conventional ‘normalised’ understandings of teachers’ work. This in turn is intended to inform one part of a transformative agenda to address problematic aspects of contemporary schooling.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 October 2009

Denise Whitehouse

This article explores the little understood practice of school interior design and the manner in which school interiors give form to ideas about what the work of children…

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Abstract

This article explores the little understood practice of school interior design and the manner in which school interiors give form to ideas about what the work of children and teachers could and should look like. Its focus is a perceived link between the concepts of school work made material in the design of new twenty‐first century learning environments and those expressed in the design of Modernist progressive schools such as Richard Neutra’s Corona Ave, Elementary School, California. The article’s impetus comes from current interest in the inter‐relationship between the design of physical learning environments and pedagogy reform as governments in Australia and internationally, work to transform teaching and learning practices through innovative school building and refurbishment projects. Government campaigns, for example the UK’s Schools for the Future Program and Australia’s Victorian Schools Plan, use a promotional rhetoric that calls for the final dismantling of the cellular classroom with its industrial model of work so that ‘different pedagogical approaches and the different ways that children learn [can] be represented in the design of new learning environments’, in buildings and interiors designed to support contemporary constructivist‐inspired pedagogies.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 October 2009

Kate Rousmaniere

This article, one of the keynote addresses at the joint ANZHES conference in December 2008, explores a concept that I call the Great Divide, by which I mean the cultural…

Abstract

This article, one of the keynote addresses at the joint ANZHES conference in December 2008, explores a concept that I call the Great Divide, by which I mean the cultural division between principals and teachers, and between principals and students. Drawing on visual imagery, historical reports, and cultural studies of American schools, I argue that the Great Divide is a historical construction of both administrative practices and representational culture that has led to misunderstandings of the complexity of the school principal’s middle managerial work in the school organisation.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 January 2022

Emmanuel Eze, Rob Gleasure and Ciara Heavin

The implementation of mobile health (mHealth) in developing countries seems to be stuck in a pattern of successive pilot studies that struggle for mainstream…

Abstract

Purpose

The implementation of mobile health (mHealth) in developing countries seems to be stuck in a pattern of successive pilot studies that struggle for mainstream implementation. This study addresses the research question: what existing health-related structures, properties and practices are presented by rural areas of developing countries that might inhibit the implementation of mHealth initiatives?

Design/methodology/approach

This study was conducted using a socio-material approach, based on an exploratory case study in West Africa. Interviews and participant observation were used to gather data. A thematic analysis identified important social and material agencies, practices and imbrications which may limit the effectiveness of mHealth apps in the region.

Findings

Findings show that, while urban healthcare is highly structured, best practice-led, rural healthcare relies on peer-based knowledge sharing, and community support. This has implications for the enacted materiality of mobile technologies. While urban actors see mHealth as a tool for automation and the enforcement of responsible healthcare best practice, rural actors see mHealth as a tool for greater interconnectivity and independent, decentralised care.

Research limitations/implications

This study has two significant limitations. First, the study focussed on a region where technology-enabled guideline-driven treatment is the main mHealth concern. Second, consistent with the exploratory nature of this study, the qualitative methodology and the single-case design, the study makes no claim to statistical generalisability.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to adopt a socio-material view that considers existing structures and practices that may influence the widespread adoption and assimilation of a new mHealth app. This helps identify contextual challenges that are limiting the potential of mHealth to improve outcomes in rural areas of developing countries.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 35 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Kay Whitehead

The purpose of this paper is to explore Australian educators’ work with “other people’s children” (OPCs) (Delpit, 2006) from the informal education market of the 1840s to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore Australian educators’ work with “other people’s children” (OPCs) (Delpit, 2006) from the informal education market of the 1840s to the mass education market in contemporary times.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is structured as a narrative about the expansion of the educational state and the concomitant development of technologies of inclusion and exclusion. Snapshots of various educators’ work with “OPCs” are woven into the narrative.

Findings

Notwithstanding contemporary efforts to “confront educational disadvantage” and an ever increasing array of technologies with which to differentiate students, OPCs remain on the margins of Australian education.

Originality/value

This paper is a unique look at Australian educators’ work with “OPCs” over the past 175 years.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Marta Brunelli and Juri Meda

The purpose of this paper is to explore the evolution and use of the school desk in unified Italy as a multifunctional and highly efficient tool, which was required not…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the evolution and use of the school desk in unified Italy as a multifunctional and highly efficient tool, which was required not only to efficiently support in-class activities, to facilitate the classroom management and finally to maintain a correct body posture in order to preserve pupils’ health, but also to accomplish the additional task of working as real “gymnastic equipment”, i.e. suitable for performing various gymnastic exercises inside the classroom.

Design/methodology/approach

The assumption upon which this paper rests is that school desks have always been signifiers charged with multiple meanings related to the evolution of curriculum, pedagogic ideas and daily school practices, which have often been forgotten, abandoned or, for some reasons, underrepresented in the official history of education as well as in the collective memory of school. In order to rebuild this forgotten history, and retrace the possible theoretical-pedagogical basis underlying such practice, the authors have systematically reviewed the Italian manuals on gymnastics between desks from the 1870s to the 1970s, retraced sources documenting this practice in the daily school life (government rules, school programmes, school hygiene prescriptions, iconographic sources, teachers and school managers’ testimonies) and finally, compared with other foreign practices (such as “calisthenics”).

Findings

The convergence between many differentiated sources has demonstrated the longevity of this school practice, which was not only the fruit of educational theories of gymnastic teachers but was also determined by the backwardness and logistic inadequacies of many Italian schools. The paper reveals how this gymnastic practice, after establishing itself in the post-Unification Italian schools, continued almost uninterrupted until the Second World War and even until the 1970s, evidencing how gymnastic teachers, hygienists, educationalists and lawmakers continued, over almost a century, to scientifically legitimise (from the top downwards) an educational practice that was actually driven from the bottom upwards, i.e. determined by an endemic lack of adequate spaces and tools for physical education in Italian schools.

Originality/value

For the very first time, the special source of Italian manuals and booklets on gymnastics between desks has been located, analysed and systematically reviewed for the period 1870s-1970s, and then cross-checked against differentiated sources. This study actually represents the first step of a research which must be still further developed. Undoubtedly, the “new” source represented by the manuals of “gymnastics between school desks” offered a first original perspective from which to explore the use of this furniture in the school of the past, thereby enabling historians of education to shed the first light on a school practice that has been overlooked or forgotten, and still hidden within the “black box of schooling”.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Fiona Spotswood, Triin Vihalemm, Marko Uibu and Leene Korp

In this study, the authors offer a practice theory framing of school physical activity transition with conceptual and managerial contributions to whole school approaches (WSAs).

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, the authors offer a practice theory framing of school physical activity transition with conceptual and managerial contributions to whole school approaches (WSAs).

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a literature overview of the limitations of WSA, ecological and systems theorisation and a practice theory framing of physical activity, the authors introduce a model that identifies signs of practice transition and conceptualises the relationship between signs and practice reconfigurations. To exemplify insights from the model, the authors provide illustrations from three cases from the national Estonian “Schools in Motion” programme.

Findings

The signs of practitioner effort, resistance and habituation indicate how practice ecosystem transition is unfolding across a spectrum from practice differentiation to routinisation. Several signs of transition, like resistance, indicate that reconfigured practices are becoming established. Also, there are signs of habituation that seemingly undermine the value of the programme but should instead be celebrated as valuable evidence for the normalisation of new practices.

Practical implications

The article provides a model for WSA programme managers to recognise signs of transition and plan appropriate managerial activities.

Originality/value

The practice theory framing of school physical activity transition advances from extant theorizations of WSAs that have failed to account for the dynamic ways that socio-cultural change in complex school settings can unfold. A model, based on a practice ontology and concepts from theories of practice, is proposed. This recognises signs of transition and can help with the dynamic and reflexive management of transition that retains the purpose of systemic whole school change.

Details

Health Education, vol. 121 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2022

Mohamed Abdel Aziz Hegazy and Samar Salama

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of qualitative materiality factors on auditors’ assessment of materiality and the determination of the type of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of qualitative materiality factors on auditors’ assessment of materiality and the determination of the type of the auditors’ reports. This paper also analyzes whether differences in personal characteristics of auditors can influence their use of qualitative materiality factors in assessing material misstatements.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire and experimental case studies were undertaken to determine whether differences in personal characteristics of auditors can influence their degree of reliance on qualitative factors in assessing the materiality of detected misstatements. Descriptive and statistical tests were used to analyze the data collected.

Findings

The results of this paper show that qualitative materiality factors strongly influence the auditor’s materiality judgments. However, no significant differences were found regarding the effects of auditors’ personal characteristics on the degree to which they rely on the qualitative factors in their materiality judgments. Also, in certain situations, auditors considered factors other than the income for assessing certain misstatements as material and consequently modified their audit reports.

Originality/value

This paper examines the influence of qualitative factors on auditors’ materiality judgments and develops a list of qualitative factors to be considered by auditors when assessing materiality. It also concludes that the nature of misstatement is the least important qualitative factor considered by auditors when assessing materiality of detected misstatements and that the existence of more explicit or standardized qualitative materiality guidelines would lead to a more uniform judgment among auditors.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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