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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2003

Ke‐Zhang Chen and Xin‐An Feng

In order to represent, analyze, optimize, and manufacture a component made of multi‐heterogeneous materials for high‐tech applications, a computer model of the…

Abstract

In order to represent, analyze, optimize, and manufacture a component made of multi‐heterogeneous materials for high‐tech applications, a computer model of the heterogeneous component needs to be built first. Heterogeneous materials include composite, functionally graded materials, and heterogeneous materials with a periodic microstructure. Current modeling techniques focus only on capturing the geometric information and cannot satisfy the requirements from modeling the components made of multi‐heterogeneous materials. This paper develops a modeling method, which can be implemented by employing the functions of current CAD graphic software and can obtain the model including both the material information (about its microstructures and constituent composition) and the geometry information without the problems arising from too many data.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 14 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Xiaojun Wu, Weijun Liu and Michael Yu Wang

The representation of Heterogeneous Object (HO) is divided into two categories: Data model (DM) and material evaluation paradigm (MEP). A hybrid methodology with geometry…

Abstract

The representation of Heterogeneous Object (HO) is divided into two categories: Data model (DM) and material evaluation paradigm (MEP). A hybrid methodology with geometry model and volumetric dataset to represent heterogeneous properties is proposed in this paper. Geometry model of an object can guarantee the accuracy of the final HO slices; and volumetric dataset lends the flexible manipulability and other advantages to HO representation. Two MEPs, namely distance field (DF) based and Fixed Reference Features & Active Grading Source(s) (FRF&AGS) are presented to facilitate the process of HO representation according to the designer)s input parameters. The DM can be modified interactively with users until the final satisfactory result is obtained. In this paper, a scheme of HO slicing is described. In this method, we utilize the slices contour of geometrical model as constraint to reconstruct the HO slices, which can theoretically achieve the same accuracy with the geometrical shape. Some examples of Heterogeneous object represented with our scheme are provided.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2010

Robert Hamilton, Donald MacKenzie and Hongjun Li

The friction stir welding (FSW) process comprises several highly coupled (and non‐linear) physical phenomena: large plastic deformation, material flow transportation…

3292

Abstract

Purpose

The friction stir welding (FSW) process comprises several highly coupled (and non‐linear) physical phenomena: large plastic deformation, material flow transportation, mechanical stirring of the tool, tool‐workpiece surface interaction, dynamic structural evolution, heat generation from friction and plastic deformation. This paper aims to present an advanced finite element (FE) model encapsulating this complex behaviour and various aspects associated with the FE model such as contact modelling, material model and meshing techniques are to be discussed in detail.

Design/methodology/approach

The numerical model is continuum solid mechanics‐based, fully thermo‐mechanically coupled and has successfully simulated the FSW process including plunging, dwelling and welding stages.

Findings

The development of several field variables are quantified by the model: temperature, stress, strain. Material movement is visualized by defining tracer particles at the locations of interest. The numerically computed material flow patterns are in very good agreement with the general findings from experiments.

Originality/value

The model is, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the most advanced simulation of FSW published in the literature.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1994

N. Brännberg and J. Mackerle

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE)applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metalforming, non‐metal forming and powder…

1402

Abstract

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metal forming, non‐metal forming and powder metallurgy are briefly discussed. The range of applications of finite elements on the subjects is extremely wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore the aim of the paper is to give FE users only an encyclopaedic view of the different possibilities that exist today in the various fields mentioned above. An appendix included at the end of the paper presents a bibliography on finite element applications in material processing for the last five years, and more than 1100 references are listed.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

Jaroslav Mackerle

This paper gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied to the analysis of ceramics and glass materials. The bibliography at the end of the…

2083

Abstract

This paper gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied to the analysis of ceramics and glass materials. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations on the subject that were published between 1977‐1998. The following topics are included: ceramics material and mechanical properties in general, ceramic coatings and joining problems, ceramic composites, ferrites, piezoceramics, ceramic tools and machining, material processing simulations, fracture mechanics and damage, applications of ceramic/composites in engineering; glassmaterial and mechanical properties in general, glass fiber composites, material processing simulations, fracture mechanics and damage, and applications of glasses in engineering.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

M. Grujicic, J.S. Snipes, R. Galgalikar, S. Ramaswami, R. Yavari, C.-F. Yen, B.A. Cheeseman and J.S. Montgomery

The purpose of this paper is to develop multi-physics computational model for the conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW) joining process has been improved with respect…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop multi-physics computational model for the conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW) joining process has been improved with respect to its predictive capabilities regarding the spatial distribution of the mechanical properties (strength, in particular) within the weld.

Design/methodology/approach

The improved GMAW process model is next applied to the case of butt-welding of MIL A46100 (a prototypical high-hardness armor-grade martensitic steel) workpieces using filler-metal electrodes made of the same material. A critical assessment is conducted of the basic foundation of the model, including its five modules, each dedicated to handling a specific aspect of the GMAW process, i.e.: first, electro-dynamics of the welding-gun; second, radiation/convection controlled heat transfer from the electric arc to the workpiece and mass transfer from the filler-metal consumable electrode to the weld; third, prediction of the temporal evolution and the spatial distribution of thermal and mechanical fields within the weld region during the GMAW joining process; fourth, the resulting temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the material microstructure throughout the weld region; and fifth, spatial distribution of the as-welded material mechanical properties.

Findings

The predictions of the improved GMAW process model pertaining to the spatial distribution of the material microstructure and properties within the MIL A46100 butt-weld are found to be consistent with general expectations and prior observations.

Originality/value

To explain microstructure/property relationships within different portions of the weld, advanced physical-metallurgy concepts and principles are identified, and their governing equations parameterized and applied within a post-processing data-reduction procedure.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 January 2021

Royal Madan and Shubhankar Bhowmick

Functionally graded materials are a special class of composites in which material are graded either continuously or layered wise depending upon its applications. With such…

Abstract

Purpose

Functionally graded materials are a special class of composites in which material are graded either continuously or layered wise depending upon its applications. With such variations of materials, the properties of structure vary either lengthwise or thickness wise. This paper aims to investigate models for effective estimation of material properties, as it is necessary for industries to identify the properties of composites or functionally graded materials (FGM’s) before manufacturing and also to develop novel material combinations.

Design/methodology/approach

Available models were compared for different material combinations and tested with experimental data for properties such as Young’s modulus, density, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and thermal conductivity. Combinations of metal–ceramic and metal–metal were selected such that their ratios cover a wide range of materials.

Findings

This study reveals different models will be required depending on the material used and properties to be identified.

Practical implications

The results of the present work will help researchers in the effective modeling of composites or FGM’s for any analysis.

Originality/value

This paper presents a comparison and review of various analytical methods with experimental data graphically to find out the best suitable method. For the first time, the Halpin-Tsai model was extended in the analysis of the CTE which shows good approximations.

Article
Publication date: 15 November 2011

Mica Grujicic and W.C. Bell

The purpose of this paper is to analyze, computationally, the kinematic response (including large‐scale rotation and deformation, buckling, plastic yielding, failure…

467

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze, computationally, the kinematic response (including large‐scale rotation and deformation, buckling, plastic yielding, failure initiation, fracture and fragmentation) of a pick‐up truck to the detonation of a landmine (shallow‐buried in one of six different soils, i.e. either sand, clay‐laden sand or sandy gravel, each in either dry or water‐saturated conditions, and detonated underneath the vehicle) using ANSYS/Autodyn, a general‐purpose transient non‐linear dynamics analysis software.

Design/methodology/approach

The computational analysis, using ANSYS/Autodyn, a general‐purpose transient non‐linear dynamics analysis software, included the interactions of the gaseous detonation products and the sand ejecta with the vehicle and the transient non‐linear dynamics response of the vehicle.

Findings

The results obtained clearly show the differences in the blast loads resulting from the landmine detonation in dry and saturated sand, as well as the associated kinematic response of the vehicle. It was also found that the low frequency content of the blast loads which can match the whole‐vehicle eigen modes is quite small so that resonance plays a minor role in the kinematic/ballistic response of the vehicle. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that mine blast analytical loading functions which are often used in transient non‐linear dynamic analyses have limited value when used in the analyses of a complete vehicle.

Originality/value

This is the first time that the kinematic response of a pick‐up truck to the detonation of a shallow‐buried landmine (using a full‐scale/complete model) has been analyzed computationally.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Jaroslav Mackerle

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metal forming, non‐metal forming, powder…

3913

Abstract

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metal forming, non‐metal forming, powder metallurgy and composite material processing are briefly discussed. The range of applications of finite elements on these subjects is extremely wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore the aim of the paper is to give FE researchers/users only an encyclopaedic view of the different possibilities that exist today in the various fields mentioned above. An appendix included at the end of the paper presents a bibliography on finite element applications in material processing for 1994‐1996, where 1,370 references are listed. This bibliography is an updating of the paper written by Brannberg and Mackerle which has been published in Engineering Computations, Vol. 11 No. 5, 1994, pp. 413‐55.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Mica Grujicic, Jennifer Snipes, S Ramaswami, Vasudeva Avuthu, Chian-Fong Yen and Bryan Cheeseman

Traditionally, an armor-grade composite is based on a two-dimensional (2D) architecture of its fiber reinforcements. However, various experimental investigations have…

Abstract

Purpose

Traditionally, an armor-grade composite is based on a two-dimensional (2D) architecture of its fiber reinforcements. However, various experimental investigations have shown that armor-grade composites based on 2D-reinforcement architectures tend to display inferior through-the-thickness mechanical properties, compromising their ballistic performance. To overcome this problem, armor-grade composites based on three-dimensional (3D) fiber-reinforcement architectures have recently been investigated experimentally. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present work, continuum-level material models are derived, parameterized and validated for armor-grade composite materials, having four (two 2D and two 3D) prototypical reinforcement architectures based on oriented ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene fibers. To properly and accurately account for the effect of the reinforcement architecture, the appropriate unit cells (within which the constituent materials and their morphologies are represented explicitly) are constructed and subjected to a series of virtual mechanical tests (VMTs). The results obtained are used within a post-processing analysis to derive and parameterize the corresponding homogenized-material models. One of these models (specifically, the one for 0°/90° cross-collimated fiber architecture) was directly validated by comparing its predictions with the experimental counterparts. The other models are validated by examining their physical soundness and details of their predictions. Lastly, the models are integrated as user-material subroutines, and linked with a commercial finite-element package, in order to carry out a transient non-linear dynamics analysis of ballistic transverse impact of armor-grade composite-material panels with different reinforcement architectures.

Findings

The results obtained clearly revealed the role the reinforcement architecture plays in the overall ballistic limit of the armor panel, as well as in its structural and damage/failure response.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present work is the first reported attempt to assess, computationally, the utility and effectiveness of 3D fiber-reinforcement architectures for ballistic-impact applications.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 132000