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Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2007

Georgios D. Sideridis

Goal orientations and classroom goal structures proved to be highly predictive of classroom-related behaviors and academic achievement. The purpose of the present study…

Abstract

Goal orientations and classroom goal structures proved to be highly predictive of classroom-related behaviors and academic achievement. The purpose of the present study was to predict students’ classroom behaviors from goal orientations and classroom goal structures and compare those predictions across students with and without learning problems. Participants were 209 typical students and 18 students with learning difficulties/disabilities (LD). Individual goal orientations and perceptions of classrooms’ goal structures were assessed using self-reports. Student behaviors were assessed over five consecutive days during school hours. Using Multilevel Random Coefficient Modeling (MRCM) procedures, results indicated that mastery approach goals and a mastery goal structure were positive predictors of positive affect, student engagement and students’ perceptions of reinforcement from teachers. Mastery avoidance goals were a negative predictor of positive affective states and a positive predictor of both negative affective states and perceptions of punishment. Last, performance approach goals and a performance goal structure exerted deleterious effects on students’ positive classroom behaviors, particularly for students with LD. When matching mastery goals with a mastery goal structure, effects were significantly more pronounced, and in the desired direction, compared to the matching of performance goals with a performance goal structure. Implications of the findings for practice are discussed.

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International Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-503-1

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Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2010

Chris S. Hulleman and Corwin Senko

Achievement goal theory traces people's behaviors, thoughts, and emotions in achievement situations to the broad goals they pursue in that activity, whether in education…

Abstract

Achievement goal theory traces people's behaviors, thoughts, and emotions in achievement situations to the broad goals they pursue in that activity, whether in education, sports, work, or other achievement domains (Dweck, 1986; Maehr & Midgley, 1991; Nicholls, 1984). Two goals have featured prominently: mastery goals (also sometimes called learning goals) and performance goals (also called ego goals or ability validation goals). Both goals concern the pursuit of competence and the assessment of one's own skill level, yet they do so in distinct ways. People pursuing a mastery goal strive to develop their skill or expertise, while those pursuing a performance goal instead strive to demonstrate and validate their existing skill, typically by outperforming peers. As such, those pursuing mastery goals typically use self-referential standards to define success versus failure, while those pursuing performance goals instead use normative standards to define success versus failure.

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The Decade Ahead: Theoretical Perspectives on Motivation and Achievement
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-111-5

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2020

Reza Ashari Nasution, Devi Arnita, Linda Sendy Lediana Rusnandi, Elis Qodariah, Priyantono Rudito and Mardi Fretdi Natalina Sinaga

Our research objective here is to contribute theoretically and empirically to providing a gap model of digital mastery development in a company. The gap model will be a…

Abstract

Purpose

Our research objective here is to contribute theoretically and empirically to providing a gap model of digital mastery development in a company. The gap model will be a reference for the companies to develop their digital mastery.

Design/methodology/approach

To gain deeper insights into the study, a mixed method of qualitative and quantitative was performed. The level of digital mastery of the organization was determined using quantitative techniques through a self-assessment questionnaire. Meanwhile, digital mastery at the individual level was measured by a qualitative method using an open-ended (essay format) survey questions.

Findings

The findings show a stark difference between the organization and individual regarding their digital mastery level. At the end of the paper, the authors suggest some remedies that will help those companies narrowing the gap and fulfill the agenda of their digital transformation.

Research limitations/implications

Further research should analyze more industries or companies, conducting case studies to discover more detailed findings as to where the gaps are located or conducting digital readiness and leadership skills at the individual level to discover the direction of development of digital technology in a company. We expect this research can be replicated in other countries, so that wider general insights into the development of digital technology may be obtained.

Practical implications

Upper-area companies are indicated by their execution of partial digital initiative in the company which results in the lack of socialization of the ongoing digital activities into the individual level. Companies, especially Top Management, need to develop more knowledge about digital application and transformation to every individual in the company. Meanwhile, lower-area companies should improve their engagement across all organization members. The companies should be able to take advantage of their existing employees who possess knowledge in digital application and transformation and generated various artifacts to motivate other employees to jointly transform the organization into a Digital Master.

Originality/value

Our study compares the perception toward digital mastery at the organization and individual levels. Both levels are different and need to be compared, as suggested by Schuchmann and Seufert (2015) and Hinings et al. (2018). Comparison at both levels does not exist at the time of this study. Accordingly, what problems and challenges are faced by companies undergoing a digital transformation will largely remain unknown.

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Journal of Management Development, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2018

Maxwell Okwudili Ede and Uwakwe Okereke Igbokwe

The purpose of this paper is fivefold: to identify the various results of previous empirical studies on the effect of mastery learning and students achievement in Nigeria…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is fivefold: to identify the various results of previous empirical studies on the effect of mastery learning and students achievement in Nigeria schools; determine the effect size for each of the studies examined; determine the mean effect size of the overall studies examined; find out the mean effect size of studies that examined the effect of gender on academic achievement in mastery learning strategy; and determine the mean effect size of studies that examined the effect of school locations on academic achievements using mastery learning strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted survey research design using the ex post facto procedure. This study being meta-analytical used already existing data (research results). The sample of research reports included both published and unpublished research reports on the effects of mastery learning on students’ academic achievements in Nigeria between 1980 and 2016. The study adopted a purposive sampling technique in selecting the sample. This was to ensure that studies: were centered on mastery learning and students’ academic achievements; were carried out in Nigeria; appeared in published and unpublished literature between 1980 and 2016; have the statistical values of the research results of each independent variable to be considered (e.g. t-test values, χ2 values and correlation values).

Findings

The study revealed that the mean effect size for all the studies was 0.536, indicating a positive mean effect size. The strategy, thus, has a significant effect on students’ achievements. School location, also, did not mediate in the use of the strategy.

Practical implications

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made: teachers should use this teaching strategy to enhance students’ achievements in difficult concepts in different subject areas. Since the result of this study has shown that the strategy has positive and large effect size, government and school proprietors should, with the collaboration of higher institutions concerned with teacher education, endeavor to organize seminars and workshops to serving teachers to enable them embrace effectively the principles and processes of implementing the strategy in the classroom. Since the result of this study has established the size of the effect of mastery learning strategy on the academic achievements, subsequent researchers should no longer direct their efforts in determining its effects on academic achievements but on the ways of improving the use of the strategy in teaching at all levels of education.

Originality/value

Available literature has shown that though most previous research findings revealed that mastery learning approach has an effect on academic achievements of students, no efforts have been made toward resolving the inconsistencies of those results by integrating them and establishing the extent of the effect of the strategy on academic achievements. This study, therefore, was designed to fill these gaps created by the non-existence of integrated studies on effects of mastery learning and academic achievements of students in Nigerian schools.

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Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Zhou Jiang, Paul J. Gollan and Gordon Brooks

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether and how two individual value orientations – Doing (the tendency to commit to goals and hold a strong work ethic) and Mastery

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether and how two individual value orientations – Doing (the tendency to commit to goals and hold a strong work ethic) and Mastery (an orientation toward seeking control over outside forces) – moderate: the relationship between organizational justice and affective organizational commitment, and the mediation role of organizational trust in this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected data from 706 employees working in 65 universities across China, South Korea, and Australia. Multi-group confirmatory factor analyses were employed to examine the cross-cultural equivalence of the measures. Hierarchical regressions were performed to test moderating effects of the two cultural value orientations.

Findings

Results from the full sample showed that Doing and Mastery moderated the distributive justice-commitment relationship and the procedural justice-trust relationship. Comparisons between countries demonstrated limited cross-cultural differences.

Practical implications

The present study adds to the understanding of the impact of individual and cultural differences on the relationship between justice and commitment, helping managers understand how employees’ reactions to justice are influenced by cultural value orientations.

Originality/value

This study is a pioneer in empirically integrating the value orientation framework (e.g. Doing and Mastery orientations) and justice research in a cross-cultural context based in the Asia Pacific region. It also advances cross-cultural justice research through using a mediation-moderation combination.

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Cross Cultural Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

G.P. Manish and Daniel Sutter

The purpose of this paper is to argue that entrepreneurs are motivated not only by the desire to maximize profits but also by the desire for mastery. It then attempts to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue that entrepreneurs are motivated not only by the desire to maximize profits but also by the desire for mastery. It then attempts to analyze the implications of mastery seeking for the economics and politics of government privileges and favors for businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the existing psychological literature on mastery as motivation the paper first attempts to conceptualize how the desire for mastery manifests itself in the context of entrepreneurship. Next, it attempts to clarify the implications of this for the existing literature on the effects of government policies promoting cronyism.

Findings

The paper argues that in business mastery involves producing a good product or service, and validation of the performance occurs via the choices of sovereign consumers. Mastery is thus achieved through participation in a process of competition that is free from government favors. Given that crony polices can disrupt the consumer choice process and consequently the validation of performance, they can therefore affect the types of individuals who become entrepreneurs, with a high level of government intervention pushing success seekers to pursue mastery in other life endeavors, with adverse implications for innovation and growth in the economy.

Originality/value

The exploration of implications of a plausible but underexplored motive for entrepreneurs and the interaction between this motive and the effects of various policies fostering cronyism or rent seeking are potential contributions of the paper.

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Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2010

Anders Dysvik and Bård Kuvaas

Mastery goals and intrinsic motivation have separately been found to predict employee turnover and turnover intention, respectively. The purpose of the present study was…

Abstract

Purpose

Mastery goals and intrinsic motivation have separately been found to predict employee turnover and turnover intention, respectively. The purpose of the present study was to examine their relative and combined influence on turnover intention in terms of a direct model and a moderated model.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross‐sectional survey was conducted among employees representing more than 400 organizations from a wide range of industrial sectors. The theoretical or subject scope of the paper was to integrate motivational antecedents for employee turnover.

Findings

When assessed jointly, intrinsic motivation was the strongest predictor of turnover intention. Mastery‐approach goals were positively related to turnover intention, but this relationship was moderated by intrinsic motivation. The relationship between mastery‐approach goals and turnover intention was only positive for employees low in intrinsic motivation.

Research limitations/implications

The two most important limitations are the cross‐sectional nature of the study and the reliance on self‐reported questionnaire data. Consequently, experimental and/or longitudinal studies are needed to examine causality issues.

Practical implications

The results suggest that intrinsic motivation holds a salient role for predicting turnover intention. For managers and organizations, then, emphasis should be placed on facilitating work environments supportive of intrinsic motivation in order to maintain employees' turnover intention at low levels.

Originality/value

The most interesting finding is that intrinsic motivation held a substantially stronger relationship with turnover intention than that of mastery‐approach goals. In addition, support for the buffering role of intrinsic motivation was found, as mastery‐approach goals were unrelated to turnover intention when intrinsic motivation was high.

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Personnel Review, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2011

Maureen Casile, Kristine F. Hoover and Deborah A. O'Neil

The purpose of this paper is to expand the understanding of outcomes of service‐learning/community engagement. The current study explored the efficacy of service‐learning…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to expand the understanding of outcomes of service‐learning/community engagement. The current study explored the efficacy of service‐learning as a pedagogical tool to support content mastery by undergraduates in a management class.

Design/methodology/approach

The study involved a classroom experiment with 120 students randomly assigned to complete a service‐learning or a research project as a class requirement. Data regarding mastery of course content was collected through a multiple‐choice assessment at the end of the course, and analyzed using statistical methods.

Findings

Results showed that service‐learning can be a better mechanism for student mastery of course concepts than a traditional research project. However, the benefits of service‐learning appeared to accrue disproportionately to women.

Research limitations/implications

Results suggest that educators should incorporate service‐learning into their classrooms to enhance content mastery, and that future research should examine the specific elements of service‐learning that contribute to both female and male students' learning. The findings are limited to traditional undergraduate students in a face‐to‐face management course.

Originality/value

This research study directly addresses some of the tensions between service‐learning/student‐community engagement and traditional university education. Service‐learning has been shown to support student development of socially valuable outcomes. Inclusion of service‐learning in college curricula can be particularly challenging, when a desire for ethical development must be balanced with course content mastery. According to the findings of the current study, service‐learning produces both service to the community and service to the students, as an effective pedagogical tool for content mastery.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 53 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Robert C. Ankony and Thomas M. Kelley

This study examines the impact of perceived community alienation on levels of self‐reported mastery and motivation for proactive law enforcement for 272 police officers…

Abstract

This study examines the impact of perceived community alienation on levels of self‐reported mastery and motivation for proactive law enforcement for 272 police officers from 11 law enforcement agencies in a large Southeast Michigan County. Also, it investigates the impact of three highly publicized “anti‐police” judicial verdicts (i.e. Rodney King, Malice Green, and O.J. Simpson) on the predicted alienation‐mastery‐proactive enforcement relationship. Results support the study’s major hypothesis that, as officers’ perceived level of alienation increases, they will report less mastery, and express less willingness for proactive enforcement efforts. One regression model confirms the study’s second hypothesis that the inverse relationship between alienation and motivation for proactive enforcement increases significantly following the “anti‐police” judicial verdicts.

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Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2014

Julia Crouse Waddell, Caitlin McLaughlin, Robert LaRose, Nora Rifon and Christina Wirth-Hawkins

The purpose of this research was to utilize protection motivation theory, which states that individuals will take actions to protect themselves from threats when they have…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research was to utilize protection motivation theory, which states that individuals will take actions to protect themselves from threats when they have both knowledge of actions that will protect them from the threat and the motivation to do so, to develop a better way of training adolescents to be safe on the Internet.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilized an experimental approach in a high school environment to test its hypotheses. Participants were split into two groups: a group who received a tutorial about how to stay safe on the Internet (an enactive mastery tutorial that allowed students to actually try out the skills they were learning) and a group who did not receive the training. Participants were then asked about their intentions to engage in protective behaviors, their perceived ability to do so, and the likelihood that these protective behaviors would help them to stay safer on the Internet.

Findings

The findings indicated that an enactive mastery training program increased intentions to engage in safe online behavior in the future, offering a foundation for the development of future theory-based online safety interventions.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted in a small geographic region in schools that agreed to utilize a class period to test the enactive mastery tutorial, which limits its external validity. Furthermore, this study only measured intentions to engage in protective behaviors, not actual behaviors.

Practical implications

This research provides a guideline for an effective way of increasing the likelihood that adolescents will engage in protective behaviors online, which has great practical applications for teachers, administrators, PSA advertisers, etc.

Originality/value

This chapter provides a framework for creating programs to help adolescents engage in safer behavior. Furthermore, it introduces the idea of involvement to the protection motivation theory literature, which is a valuable variable to consider when determining how to create an effective campaign to change behavior.

Details

Communication and Information Technologies Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-629-3

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