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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2008

Christie Alisa Maddock and Massimiliano Vasile

The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology and experimental results on using global optimization algorithms to determine the optimal orbit, based on the mission…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology and experimental results on using global optimization algorithms to determine the optimal orbit, based on the mission requirements, for a set of spacecraft flying in formation with an asteroid.

Design/methodology/approach

A behavioral‐based hybrid global optimization approach is used to first characterize the solution space and find families of orbits that are a fixed distance away from the asteroid. The same optimization approach is then used to find the set of Pareto optimal solutions that minimize both the distance from the asteroid and the variation of the Sun‐spacecraft‐asteroid angle. Two sample missions to asteroids, representing constrained single and multi‐objective problems, were selected to test the applicability of using an in‐house hybrid stochastic‐deterministic global optimization algorithm (Evolutionary Programming and Interval Computation (EPIC)) to find optimal orbits for a spacecraft flying in formation with an orbit. The Near Earth Asteroid 99942 Apophis (2004 MN4) is used as the case study due to a fly‐by of Earth in 2029 leading to two potential impacts in 2036 or 2037. Two black‐box optimization problems that model the orbital dynamics of the spacecraft were developed.

Findings

It was found for the two missions under test, that the optimized orbits fall into various distinct families, which can be used to design multi‐spacecraft missions with similar orbital characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

The global optimization software, EPIC, was very effective at finding sets of orbits which met the required mission objectives and constraints for a formation of spacecraft in proximity of an asteroid. The hybridization of the stochastic search with the deterministic domain decomposition can greatly improve the intrinsic stochastic nature of the multi‐agent search process without the excessive computational cost of a full grid search. The stability of the discovered families of formation orbit is subject to the gravity perturbation of the asteroid and to the solar pressure. Their control, therefore, requires further investigation.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to both the field of space mission design for close‐proximity orbits and to the field of global optimization. In particular, suggests a common formulation for single and multi‐objective problems and a robust and effective hybrid search method based on behaviorism. This approach provides an effective way to identify families of optimal formation orbits.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Hou Liqiang, Cai Yuanli, Zhang Rongzhi, Li Hengnian and Li Jisheng

A multi-disciplinary robust design optimization method for micro Mars entry probe (no more than 0.8 m in diameter) is proposed. The purpose of this paper is to design a…

Abstract

Purpose

A multi-disciplinary robust design optimization method for micro Mars entry probe (no more than 0.8 m in diameter) is proposed. The purpose of this paper is to design a Mars entry probe, not only the geometric configuration, but the trajectory and thermal protection system (TPS). In the design optimization, the uncertainties of atmospheric and aerodynamic parameters are taken into account. The probability distribution information of the uncertainties are supposed to be unknown in the design. To ensure accuracy levels, time-consuming numerical models are coupled in the optimization. Multi-fidelity approach is designed for model management to balance the computational cost and accuracy.

Design/methodology/approach

Uncertainties which cannot defined by usual Gaussian probability distribution are modeled with degree of belief, and optimized through with multiple-objective optimization method. The optimization objectives are set to be the thermal performance of the probe TPS and the corresponding belief values. Robust Pareto front is obtained by an improved multi-objective density estimator algorithm. Multi-fidelity management is performed with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) surrogate model. Analytical model is used first, and then with the improvement of accuracy, rather complex numerical models are activated. ANN updates the database during the optimization, and makes the solutions finally converge to a high-level accuracy.

Findings

The optimization method provides a way for conducting complex design optimization involving multi-discipline and multi-fidelity models. Uncertainty effects are analyzed and optimized through multi-disciplinary robust design. Because of the micro size, and uncertain impacts of aerodynamic and atmospheric parameters, simulation results show the performance trade-off by the uncertainties. Therefore an effective robust design is necessary for micro entry probe, particularly when details of model parameter are not available.

Originality/value

The optimization is performed through a new developed multi-objective density estimator algorithm. Affinity propagation algorithm partitions adaptively the samples by passing and analyzing messages between data points. Local principle component techniques are employed to resample and reproduce new individuals in each cluster. A strategy similar to NSGA-II selects data with better performance, and converges to the Pareto front. Models with different fidelity levels are incorporated in the multi-disciplinary design via ANN surrogate model. Database of aerodynamic coefficients is updated in an online manner. The computational time is greatly reduced while keeping nearly the same accuracy level of high fidelity model.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Michiel H. Straathof, Giampietro Carpentieri and Michel J.L. van Tooren

An aerodynamic shape optimization algorithm is presented, which includes all aspects of the design process: parameterization, flow computation and optimization. The…

Abstract

Purpose

An aerodynamic shape optimization algorithm is presented, which includes all aspects of the design process: parameterization, flow computation and optimization. The purpose of this paper is to show that the Class‐Shape‐Refinement‐Transformation method in combination with an Euler/adjoint solver provides an efficient and intuitive way of optimizing aircraft shapes.

Design/methodology/approach

The Class‐Shape‐Transformation method was used to parameterize the aircraft shape and the flow was computed using an in‐house Euler code. An adjoint solver implemented into the Euler code was used to compute the required gradients and a trust‐region reflective algorithm was employed to perform the actual optimization.

Findings

The results of two aerodynamic shape optimization test cases are presented. Both cases used a blended‐wing‐body reference geometry as their initial input. It was shown that using a two‐step approach, a considerable improvement of the lift‐to‐drag ratio in the order of 20‐30 per cent could be achieved. The work presented in this paper proves that the CSRT method is a very intuitive and effective way of parameterizating aircraft shapes. It was also shown that using an adjoint algorithm provides the computational efficiency necessary to perform true three‐dimensional shape optimization.

Originality/value

The novelty of the algorithm lies in the use of the Class‐Shape‐Refinement‐Transformation method for parameterization and its coupling to the Euler and adjoint codes.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Marc Guénot, Ingrid Lepot, Caroline Sainvitu, Jordan Goblet and Rajan Filomeno Coelho

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel contribution to adaptive sampling strategies for non‐intrusive reduced order models based on Proper Orthogonal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel contribution to adaptive sampling strategies for non‐intrusive reduced order models based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). These strategies aim at reducing the cost of optimization by improving the efficiency and accuracy of POD data‐fitting surrogate models to be used in an online surrogate‐assisted optimization framework for industrial design.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of the strategies on the model accuracy is investigated considering the snapshot scaling, the design of experiment size and the truncation level of the POD basis and compared to a state‐of‐the‐art radial basis function network surrogate model on objectives and constraints. The selected test case is a Mach number and angle of attack domain exploration of the well‐known RAE2822 airfoil. Preliminary airfoil shape optimization results are also shown.

Findings

The numerical results demonstrate the potential of the capture/recapture schemes proposed for adequately filling the parametric space and maximizing the surrogates relevance at minimum computational cost.

Originality/value

The proposed approaches help in building POD‐based surrogate models more efficiently.

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Jyri Leskinen, Hong Wang and Jacques Périaux

The purpose of this paper is to compare the efficiency of four different algorithmic parallelization methods for inverse shape design flow problems.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the efficiency of four different algorithmic parallelization methods for inverse shape design flow problems.

Design/methodology/approach

The included algorithms are: a parallelized differential evolution algorithm; island‐model differential evolution with multiple subpopulations; Nash differential evolution with geometry decomposition using competitive Nash games; and the new Global Nash Game Coalition Algorithm (GNGCA) which combines domain and geometry decomposition into a “distributed one‐shot” method. The methods are compared using selected academic reconstruction problems using a different number of simultaneous processes.

Findings

The results demonstrate that the geometry decomposition approach can be used to improve algorithmic convergence. Additional improvements were achieved using the novel distributed one‐shot method.

Originality/value

This paper is a part of series of articles involving the GNGCA method. Further tests implemented for more complex problems are needed to study the efficiency of the approaches in more realistic cases.

Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Carlos S. Betancor-Martín, J. Sosa, Juan A. Montiel-Nelson and Aurelio Vega-Martínez

Nowadays, in order to improve current applications, industry incorporates to their solution approaches artificial intelligence techniques and methodologies like Fuzzy…

Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays, in order to improve current applications, industry incorporates to their solution approaches artificial intelligence techniques and methodologies like Fuzzy Logic, neural networks and/or genetic algorithms (GA). Artificial intelligence techniques complement classical methodologies and include concepts that simulate the way humans solve problems or how processes work in nature. In this work, the Fuzzy Logic system cancels the effects of load perturbances in an energy plant, by implementing a secondary controller which complements the main controller. The purpose of this paper is to use GA to tune this new secondary controller. The authors particularize the proposal for three specific applications: control the angular speed and position of a Direct Current (DC) motor and control the output voltage of a DC/DC buck converter.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use GA for tuning a Proportional-Integral Fuzzy Controller (PI-Fuzzy). The proposal defines a new objective function in comparison with literature approaches. The main key in the new objective function is combining the best features of Integral Square Error (ISE) function and taking out the overshoot response.

Findings

In order to demonstrate the proposed methodology based on GA tuning a PI-Fuzzy, the authors apply the literature benchmark to the solution. The results are compared with the following techniques: Robust control, continuous PID control, discrete PID control, Optimal Control, Fuzzy Control and Artificial Neural Network based control. Comparisons are presented in terms of setting time and overshot.

Originality/value

Results demonstrate that ISE or integral of absolute value of error function do not provide the desired response. Achieved results demonstrate the usefulness of the proposal to eliminate the overshoot of the traditional behaviour without lost any of the main features of the literature methodologies.

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Hong Wang, Jyri Leskinen, Dong‐Seop Lee and Jacques Périaux

The purpose of this paper is to investigate an active flow control technique called Shock Control Bump (SCB) for drag reduction using evolutionary algorithms.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate an active flow control technique called Shock Control Bump (SCB) for drag reduction using evolutionary algorithms.

Design/methodology/approach

A hierarchical genetic algorithm (HGA) consisting of multi‐fidelity models in three hierarchical topological layers is explored to speed up the design optimization process. The top layer consists of a single sub‐population operating on a precise model. On the middle layer, two sub‐populations operate on a model of intermediate accuracy. The bottom layer, consisting of four sub‐populations (two for each middle layer populations), operates on a coarse model. It is well‐known that genetic algorithms (GAs) are different from deterministic optimization tools in mimicking biological evolution based on Darwinian principle. In HGAs process, each population is handled by GA and the best genetic information obtained in the second or third layer migrates to the first or second layer for refinement.

Findings

The method was validated on a real life optimization problem consisting of two‐dimensional SCB design optimization installed on a natural laminar flow airfoil (RAE5243). Numerical results show that HGA is more efficient and achieves more drag reduction compared to a single population based GA.

Originality/value

Although the idea of HGA approach is not new, the novelty of this paper is to combine it with mesh/meshless methods and multi‐fidelity flow analyzers. To take the full benefit of using hierarchical topology, the following conditions are implemented: the first layer uses a precise meshless Euler solver with fine cloud of points, the second layer uses a hybrid mesh/meshless Euler solver with intermediate mesh/clouds of points, the third layer uses a less fine mesh with Euler solver to explore efficiently the search space with large mutation span.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

José Alexandre Matelli, Jonny C. Silva and Edson Bazzo

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to analyze the computational complexity of the cogeneration design problem; to present an expert system to solve the proposed…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to analyze the computational complexity of the cogeneration design problem; to present an expert system to solve the proposed problem, comparing such an approach with the traditional searching methods available.

Design/methodology/approach

The complexity of the cogeneration problem is analyzed through the transformation of the well-known knapsack problem. Both problems are formulated as decision problems and it is proven that the cogeneration problem is np-complete. Thus, several searching approaches, such as population heuristics and dynamic programming, could be used to solve the problem. Alternatively, a knowledge-based approach is proposed by presenting an expert system and its knowledge representation scheme.

Findings

The expert system is executed considering two case-studies. First, a cogeneration plant should meet power, steam, chilled water and hot water demands. The expert system presented two different solutions based on high complexity thermodynamic cycles. In the second case-study the plant should meet just power and steam demands. The system presents three different solutions, and one of them was never considered before by our consultant expert.

Originality/value

The expert system approach is not a “blind” method, i.e. it generates solutions based on actual engineering knowledge instead of the searching strategies from traditional methods. It means that the system is able to explain its choices, making available the design rationale for each solution. This is the main advantage of the expert system approach over the traditional search methods. On the other hand, the expert system quite likely does not provide an actual optimal solution. All it can provide is one or more acceptable solutions.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

A.S. Zymaris, D.I. Papadimitriou, E.M. Papoutsis‐Kiachagias, K.C. Giannakoglou and C. Othmer

The purpose of this paper is to propose the use of the continuous adjoint method as a tool to identify the appropriate location and “type” (suction or blowing) of steady…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose the use of the continuous adjoint method as a tool to identify the appropriate location and “type” (suction or blowing) of steady jets used in active flow control systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The method is based on continuous adjoint and covers both internal and external aerodynamics. The adjoint equations, including the adjoint to the SpalartAllmaras turbulence model and their boundary conditions are formulated. At the cost of solving the flow and adjoint equations just once, the sensitivity derivatives of the objective function with respect to hypothetical (normal) jet velocities at all wall nodes are computed. Comparisons of the computed sensitivities with finite differences and parametric studies to assess the present method are included.

Findings

Though the sensitivities are computed for zero jet velocities, they adequately support decision making on: the recommended location of jet(s), at boundary nodes with high absolute valued sensitivities; and the selection between suction or blowing jets, based on the sign of the computed sensitivities. Regarding adjoint methods, two important findings of this work are: the role of the adjoint pressure which proves to be an excellent sensor in flow control problems; and the prediction accuracy of the proposed adjoint method compared to the commonly made assumption of “frozen turbulence”.

Originality/value

First use of the continuous adjoint method using full differentiation of the turbulence model, in flow control optimization. A low‐cost design tool for recommending some of the most important jet characteristics.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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