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Article
Publication date: 25 March 2021

Bhayu Rhama

This study aims to identify whether halal tourism, as advocated by Mastercard-Crescent Rating guidelines on halal tourism can be considered as supporting sustainable tourism.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify whether halal tourism, as advocated by Mastercard-Crescent Rating guidelines on halal tourism can be considered as supporting sustainable tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

Three Mastercard-CrescentRating 2019 Reports which are Global Muslim Travel Index, Indonesia Muslim Travel Index and Halal Travel Frontier were evaluated using a qualitative method supports by NVivo software to analyze text and images. Eight indicators (number of tourists, main motivations, main values, interaction with the community, interaction with the environment, most possible destinations, infrastructure and visitor monitorings) are used to classify halal tourism items into mass tourism (traditional, experiential and sensational) and non-mass (alternative) tourism. The qualitative analysis is supported by correlation analysis of GMTI scores with environmental performance index and the global sustainable competitiveness index scores.

Findings

The results showed that halal tourism has unique characters compared with mass and non-mass tourism types. However, halal tourism advocated by CrescentRating unlikely shows similarity with non-mass tourism. It tends to be traditional mass tourism, especially on the perspective of the type of activity, interactions with the environment and local communities, as well as the main values.

Originality/value

Previous research suggested the needs of halal tourism and its relations to sustainability. This research fills the gap by showing the halal tourism, in the perspective of Mastercard-CrescentRating is not prioritized toward sustainable tourism by qualitative and quantitative evidences. This study contributes to the knowledge of sustainability from Islamic perspectives and practices and provides a way to the theory of Islamic sustainable tourism. It also suggests improvements to halal tourism guidelines such as the transparency and guarantees that the profit will be used for social welfare, promotion of sustainability using Qur’anic verses and promotion on environmental and social empowerment activities.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Shruti Arora and Anukrati Sharma

The chapter aims to identify the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the overtourism with two intermediate forms of tourism (i.e. mass tourism and alternative tourism while…

Abstract

The chapter aims to identify the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the overtourism with two intermediate forms of tourism (i.e. mass tourism and alternative tourism while representing the potential of alternative tourism). For this, secondary research was adopted in which secondary data were collected through an inclusive literature review. This review consists of tourism journals, newspaper articles, blogs, World Health Organization statistics, governmental data and website materials. In early 2020, the rapidly spreading Covid-19 (coronavirus) pandemic has wreaked global disaster. With no vaccine and limited medical capacity to treat the disease is a big challenge to the world. International, national and regional travel restrictions immediately affected the tourism industry. Even war, economic downturn, terrorist attack and various other diseases are all futile to cause an absolute decline in overall (international and domestic) tourism like Covid-19. This virus has enormous impacts on the tourism industry as the most crowded tourist destinations or overtourism in the world are deserted due to shut borders, no domestic or international flights or transport systems, and mix up to deal with the biggest impact in the history of the world – Covid-19. Overtourism means an extreme number of tourists at a specific destination at a particular point of time, or the excessive spread of people at various tourist spots has led to a situation known as overtourism. Due to Covid-19, the economic consequences on many destinations will be harsh, but some destinations suffering from overtourism might feel short-term relief, but it is a big hit in the long run. Overtourism will take a back seat during the crisis. Now post-Covid-19, people will be very particular while choosing their holiday destinations; likewise, there will be a shift from mass tourism to alternative tourism. Only a few people will wish a return to overtourism.

Details

Overtourism as Destination Risk
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-707-2

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Book part
Publication date: 14 September 2020

Ian Yeoman and Una McMahon-Beattie

Abstract

Details

The Overtourism Debate
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-487-8

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Nurhayat Iflazoglu and Ipek Itir Can

While the number of tourists worldwide is expected to reach 1.8 billion people by 2030, tourism destinations try to meet demand for increasing tourism. However, some…

Abstract

While the number of tourists worldwide is expected to reach 1.8 billion people by 2030, tourism destinations try to meet demand for increasing tourism. However, some tourism destinations are experiencing a maturity period of destination life cycle intensively. During these mature periods, while they meet the demand above their tourism carrying capacity, they encounter some problematic issues. In tourist destinations such as Venice, Barcelona and Paris, the negative feelings developed by the local people towards overtourism or tourists result in serious problems like negative destination images, tourism phobia, etc. In these destinations, to prevent the negative consequences of overtourism, destination stakeholders should develop solutions to these problems. There are many solution techniques for the problems which cause overtourism. One of them is the different tourism types which have been developed as an alternative to mass tourism. These alternative tourism types can be handled as a method for solving problems revealed through excess demand in tourism destinations at risk. For example, some tourism destinations which have both beach tourism and nature-based tourism types can bring nature-based tourism activities to the forefront with promotion and marketing activities and therefore, the tourism demand could be balanced between these tourism types. In this context, firstly, comprehensive literature review of overtourism and alternative tourism will be conducted in this study. And then the different types of tourism such as ecotourism, cultural tourism and responsible tourism will be discussed in detail and their relation in reducing the negative consequences of overtourism will be investigated theoretically via secondary data. Therefore, alternative tourism potentials will be investigated and tried to present the managerial suggestions for the development of different alternative types of tourism. As a result, it has been seen that, alternative tourism not only contributes to the growth of tourism in both popular and remote destinations but also makes sure that destinations get their fair share in income distribution of the country.

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Asli D.A. Tasci, Alan Fyall and Kyle Maurice Woosnam

This study aims to uncover socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral characteristics of sustainable consumers as a means to advance the demand for sustainability…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to uncover socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral characteristics of sustainable consumers as a means to advance the demand for sustainability practices by the tourism and hospitality industry. Socio-demographic and psychographic variables were tested for their influence on an individual’s self-assessment as a sustainable consumer, which was then tested for its influence on behavioral outcomes in the form of environmental and social sustainability concerns, objects of sustainability concerns, subjects considered responsible for sustainability and tourism choice vis-à-vis mass vs alternative forms of tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

Because of the paucity of a well-established and robust theory on the characteristics of sustainable consumers, both content analysis of the literature and quantitative analysis of survey data were used to identify the socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral characteristics of consumers. Plausible variables identified in the literature were filtered through principal component analysis and ordinary least squares regression analysis to fine-tune the variables a priori to develop a suitable model, which was subjected to partial least squares-structural equation modeling to further trim variables a posteriori by testing their reliability and validity.

Findings

Understanding who sustainable consumers are and what they are likely to believe and do is imperative for increasing sustainable practices by the industry. The study shows that people who consider themselves to be sustainable consumers are likely to have higher levels of ethical views, be more feminine and more liberal in personality, demonstrate concern with environmental and social sustainability issues, consider all pertinent parties responsible for sustainability and chose alternative forms of tourism over mass tourism. The study implies that general American consumers have the potential to buy into sustainability practices.

Originality/value

Despite researchers’ sporadic attempts to describe different characteristics of sustainable consumers and sustainable tourism consumers, past research has not substantiated a comprehensive description of who is a sustainable consumer in terms of socio-demographics, psychographics and behavioral characteristics. The literature on sustainable consumer characteristics is scarce and atheoretical; thus, the current study sets the stage for the development of this area of work across all sectors of the global tourism and hospitality industry. The model test results provide a clear profile of sustainable tourism consumers in socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral domains for the industry to respond to.

可持续旅游消费者:社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为的特征

摘要

研究目的

本研究旨在揭示可持续消费者的社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为的特征, 并以此作为推动旅游业和款待业对可持续发展实践需求的一种手段。本研究首先测试了两个变量:社会人口学特征和心理变数特征对个人作为可持续消费者的自我评估的影响; 然后测试了其对消费者行为性后果的影响, 包括对环境和社会可持续性问题的关注, 关注的主题, 对可持续性问题责任性的关注, 以及针对大众和其他旅游形式选择的比较。

研究设计/方法论/方案

由于缺乏关于可持续消费者特征的公认理论, 本研究采用了对相关文献内容的定性分析和对调查数据的定量分析来识别消费者的社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为特征。在建立合适的模型之前, 研究通过采用主成分分析(PCA)和普通最小二乘法(OLS)回归分析, 首先对文献中已识别的合理变量进行过滤和调整。继而基于偏最小二乘-结构方程建模(PLS- SEM)对可靠性和有效性的测试, 来进一步确定后验变量。

研究发现

了解可持续消费者的界定, 以及他们的信念和行为对于行业增加可持续性实践至关重要。该研究表明, 当人们认为自己是可持续消费者时, 他们便可能具有更高水平的道德观念, 具有更加女性化和自由的个性, 表现出对环境和社会可持续性问题的关注, 对可持续发展责任性的考虑更全面, 以及对其他旅游形式选择的偏爱。本篇研究的结果显示出普通美国消费者具有实践可持续性行为的潜力。

独创性/价值

尽管以往的研究曾零星地尝试描述可持续消费者和可持续旅游消费者的不同特征, 但并未从社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为特征这几个方面去全面地界定和证明可持续消费者。文献中依然缺乏关于对可持续消费者特征更加理论性地讨论。因此, 本研究旨在为全球旅游业和款待业的各个领域对于可持续旅游的讨论和发展奠定基础。模型测试的结果也为行业提供了一个关于可持续旅游消费者的社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为特征的理论框架, 以供行业响应。

El consumidor de turismo sostenible: Características sociodemográficas, psicográficas, y de comportamiento

Propósito

Este estudio busca revelar las características sociodemográficas, psicográficas, y de comportamiento de los consumidores responsables para promover la demanda de prácticas de sostenibilidad en la industria del turismo y la hospitalidad. Se evaluaron variables sociodemográficas y psicográficas para determinar su influencia sobre la autoevaluación de un individuo como consumidor responsable, que después se evaluó para determinar su influencia en resultados conductuales, específicamente preocupaciones de sostenibilidad medioambiental y social, objectos de preocupaciones de sostenibilidad, sujetos considerados responsables de la sostenibilidad, y la elección de turismo de masas versus turismo alternativo.

Diseño/metodología/método

Debido a la falta de teoría robusta y bien establecida sobre las características de los consumidores responsables, un análisis de contenidos de la literatura y un análisis cuantitativo de datos obtenidos a través de una encuesta se utilizaron para identificar las características sociodemográficas, psicográficas, y de comportamiento de los consumidores. Las variables plausibles identificadas en la literatura fueron filtradas a través de un análisis de componentes principales (ACP) y un análisis de regresión por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios (MCO) para afinar a priori las variables para el desarrollo de un modelo adecuado, el cual fue evaluado utilizando un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales por el método de mínimos cuadrados parciales (PLS-SEM por sus siglas en inglés) que permitió seguir afinando las variables a posteriori por medio de la evaluación de su confiabilidad y validez.

Resultados

Entender quiénes son los consumidores responsables y qué son propensos a creer y hacer es imperativo para aumentar las prácticas sostenibles en la industria. El estudio demuestra que las personas que se consideran consumidores responsables son más propensas a tener niveles más altos de opiniones éticas, a tener personalidades más femeninas y liberales, a demostrar preocupación por los problemas de sostenibilidad medioambiental y social, a considerar a todas las partes pertinentes como responsables de la sostenibilidad, y a escoger formas alternativas de turismo en vez de turismo de masas. El estudio sugiere que los consumidores americanos en general tienen el potencial de apoyar prácticas sostenibles.

Originalidad/valor

A pesar de los intentos esporádicos de otros investigadores para describir las diferentes características del consumidor responsable y de los consumidores de turismo sostenible, las investigaciones anteriores no han generado una descripción completa de quién es un consumidor responsable en términos de sus características sociodemográficas, psicográficas, y de comportamiento. La literatura sobre las características del consumidor responsable es escasa y sin bases teóricas; por lo tanto, este estudio sienta las bases para el desarrollo de esta área de investigación en todos los sectores de la industria global del turismo y la hospitalidad. Los resultados de la evaluación del modelo proporcionan un perfil claro de los consumidores de turismo sostenible en los ámbitos sociodemográficos, psicográficos, y de comportamiento para que la industria responda.

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2021

Ecem Ince and Ali Ozturen

Local government has a significant role to play in securing sustainable destination development. This paper aims to identify the strengths, weaknesses and challenges of…

Abstract

Purpose

Local government has a significant role to play in securing sustainable destination development. This paper aims to identify the strengths, weaknesses and challenges of municipalities in North Cyprus as they aspire to become sustainable Cittaslow tourism destinations.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research approach was used to observe the perceptions of municipalities as they transition to become sustainable Cittaslow tourism destinations. The data have been obtained through in-depth interviews with the mayors of the municipalities that are members of the international Cittaslow network.

Findings

The results of the study show how alternative forms of tourism could help to improve the local economy. Also, the reasons for challenges and weaknesses are explained by the limited economic conditions of countries, high demand for mass tourism and lack of awareness about the importance of being a Cittaslow member.

Practical implications

This study reflects on the critical points in relation to the destination’s management at the local level. It also provides empirical indicators for achieving sustainable tourism development in North Cyprus.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the tourism literature by addressing municipalities' roles in the sustainability of tourism destinations in developing countries, more specifically in North Cyprus. A review of the literature reveals that there are very few prior studies of the role of municipalities in sustainable Cittaslow tourism.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Nihat Doğanalp and Aytuğ Arslan

Introduction: Performance evaluations are a critical tool in evaluating tourism development of countries where the tourism industry provides a significant share of the…

Abstract

Introduction: Performance evaluations are a critical tool in evaluating tourism development of countries where the tourism industry provides a significant share of the GDP. One of the measures used in performance evaluation of the financial decision-making units is economic efficiency. Aim: This study aims at measuring tourism-related technical efficiency performance of six European countries: Spain, Greece, Turkey, France, Italy, and Portugal. Method: Tourism revenue and visitor numbers are referenced as output variables. Within the model, the natural and sociocultural index and substructure index were formed. Data envelopment analysis was applied for these datasets. Results: Considering tourism revenues, Spain, Italy and Greece managed to use their natural and cultural resources efficiently. In contrast to these countries, inefficiency level scores were measured for Turkey, Portugal and France. In the model based upon the number of visitors, all other countries apart from Turkey and Portugal achieved the most efficient score. As for substructure index, the score of decreasing returns to scale for the countries of Italy and Spain in terms of tourist numbers is noteworthy. Conclusion: The implementation of efficient tourism policies and strategies hold great importance in terms of tourism efficiency. Implications: Even though Portugal and Turkey are rich in both natural and cultural assets, low scores seem to stem from failure to realize their potentials. Strategies should be developed to diversify tourist products. Originality of the Paper: This study differs from other studies in the literature with regard to the composition of the wide input components.

Details

Contemporary Issues in Social Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-931-3

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Anna Farmaki, Panayiotis Constanti, Irene Yiasemi and Phidias Karis

This paper aims to provide an overview of the approaches that industry stakeholders follow towards responsible tourism in Cyprus and to address the challenges that…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an overview of the approaches that industry stakeholders follow towards responsible tourism in Cyprus and to address the challenges that responsible tourism management faces in a mass tourism destination.

Design/methodology/approach

In doing so, the paper discusses the concept of responsible tourism and its application in the hospitality and tourism industry. A qualitative research approach was followed whereby roundtable discussions between industry leaders and hospitality educators were initiated in order to identify key challenges. In addition, secondary research was performed with relevant data presented in the paper being previously collected by the CSTI (Cyprus Sustainable Tourism Initiative).

Findings

Findings reveal that responsible tourism adoption in Cyprus is minimal. Several challenges have been identified as barriers to adoption and successful implementation including poor understanding of the concept, lack of awareness, limited budget, lack of coordination of activities and the absence of an integrated system to ensure cooperation and of a monitoring mechanism.

Practical implications

The paper will be of immense value to industry practitioners as it represents a holistic understanding of the challenges facing hospitality and tourism industry stakeholders in terms of the implementation of responsible tourism practice. Propositions are made regarding the maximisation of the benefits of responsible tourism.

Originality/value

The paper draws on sustainability issues in an attempt to shed light on the role of responsible tourism in the hospitality and tourism industry in Cyprus and consequently advances knowledge on responsible tourism management offering value to academics practitioners and students alike.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Ian Boxill

This paper argues that tourism development in Belize should avoid going the traditional mass tourism route of most Caribbean destinations. Instead, it suggests that Belize…

Abstract

This paper argues that tourism development in Belize should avoid going the traditional mass tourism route of most Caribbean destinations. Instead, it suggests that Belize is at the appropriate stage in its development to forge an alternative model, which draws and builds on its geographical location, history, culture and ecology. In making this case, the paper identifies a number of limiting and facilitating factors to tourism development. These facilitating factors recommend the alternative model. Specifically, the alternative model includes nature, education and community tourism; and a type of cruise tourism that is linked to education and culture. For this effort to succeed, the paper recommends that government and civil society work together to develop the country’s human resources and to structure a strategy to achieve the goals.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2019

Sandra Ricart, Anna Ribas, David Pavón, Ariadna Gabarda-Mallorquí and Dolors Roset

The purpose of this paper is to identify the tourism potential of natural and cultural heritage in historical irrigation canals by promoting social learning and providing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the tourism potential of natural and cultural heritage in historical irrigation canals by promoting social learning and providing digital tools to local and visitors.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is based on the EUWATHER project (JPI – Cultural Heritage, HERITAGE PLUS Joint Call 2015), through which new opportunities for eco-tourism and outdoor recreation as a driver for sustainable development of historical irrigation canals are provided. A case study from North-Eastern Spain, the Lower Ter area (in the Costa Brava), is analyzed. Heritage inventories and digital itineraries including the tangible and intangible cultural history of waterscape heritage have been co-designed with local communities and key stakeholders. Online data sets and Spatial Data Infrastructure (webpage and mobile app) are provided.

Findings

The project provides a manual for developing digital waterways heritage tours. For the case study, up to 118 heritage objects have been selected from 8 natural and cultural heritage categories according to their tourism potential. Three itineraries have been proposed to promote the tourism potential existing in the hinterland of the Costa Brava region.

Practical implications

The methods section and the main results obtained for the case study will be useful for professionals working in heritage institutions, rural development and sustainable tourism agencies.

Originality/value

The project provides two geo-based technologies: a digital platform (www.waterwaysexplorer.com) and a mobile app (Izi.travel) in which external users are able to collect relevant data and construct tourism itineraries from minor waterways with consolidated natural and cultural heritage. A Tool Box is provided for practitioners in order to help local communities and tourist organizations to create their own itineraries along minor waterways.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

Keywords

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