Declares that diffusion (a term employed to describe the process whereby an innovation or a new idea or practice spreads through a social system over time) is a summary term used to embrace studies which trace the process of diffusion, the process of adoption and the patterns of influence involved. Acknowledges that even allowing for low involvement of marketing research in diffusion, marketing management's interest in this area can be guided and controlled. States that information is diffused through some form of communication channel – these may be one of two types: vertical channels, which exist if ‘there is a meaningful difference in the interests, social status, demographic or economic characteristics of the communication units’; and horizontal channels, which occur where communications flows among members of groups with similar interests and characteristics – these groups may be work groups, social groups, etc. Investigates sources of information and influence – in particular the two basic ones of: impersonal sources via the mass media; and personal sources involving the opinion leader in a two‐step flow of communication. Closes by discussing the implications of the two‐step flow for marketing in depth, with recommendations.
The area of communication with its multistrand, interdisciplinary webbing presents a challenge to the bibliographer seeking to develop a collection. Describes a project at…
The area of communication with its multistrand, interdisciplinary webbing presents a challenge to the bibliographer seeking to develop a collection. Describes a project at the University of Alabama in which a subject‐special policy was written to address the complex issues involved in collection, the format selected for use and the collegial working relationship between representatives from the College of Communication and the university subject bibliographer. Details the outcome of this investigation along with a description of the policy which outlines parameters for six fields of study — advertising, public relations, telecommunication, film, speech communication, and journalism.
This paper considers the implications of mass communications theory on public relations (PR) evaluation and briefly reviews mass communication effects, persuasion, and…
This paper considers the implications of mass communications theory on public relations (PR) evaluation and briefly reviews mass communication effects, persuasion, and cognition, attitude and behaviour change theories. The implications for evaluation are then examined. Reliance on domino models is shown to be too simplistic. It is suggested that claims of PR behavioural effects may be unrealistic and it is argued that more moderate and/or alternative goals are needed if preordained failure is to be avoided. Evaluation results must be interpreted cautiously so that further significance that is not supported by theory is not assumed. This paper shows how the concept of PR evaluation could be widened to include formative evaluation and broad environmental monitoring, which are especially important in identifying and understanding why and how communication works, what its effects are, what factors restrict or facilitate effectiveness and under what conditions success can be maximised.
This paper reports research on the impact of mass communication and the passage of time on consumer satisfaction and loyalty in a high‐involvement service setting. The…
This paper reports research on the impact of mass communication and the passage of time on consumer satisfaction and loyalty in a high‐involvement service setting. The study was based on a survey of two groups of individuals. A short‐time lag group consisted of individuals who were surveyed immediately after receiving a service and one year later. A long‐time lag group consisted of individuals who were surveyed immediately after they received a service and two years later. Satisfaction and loyalty decreased from the initial time of the service encounter for both the short‐time and long‐time groups. While satisfaction and loyalty declined over time for both groups, the results revealed no difference in the change in satisfaction between the two groups. In addition, exposure to mass communication did not influence the change in satisfaction and intention to return over time.
The purpose of this paper is to extend marketing knowledge into perceived risk in online transactions beyond the current positivistic, hypotheses‐driven research by…
The purpose of this paper is to extend marketing knowledge into perceived risk in online transactions beyond the current positivistic, hypotheses‐driven research by providing qualitative insights into how individuals construct their accounts of perceived risk online. Additionally, the study reported in this paper aims to explore how communication sources influence both these subjective constructions and individuals' behavioural experiences with transaction activity on the web.
The study was developed within a grounded theory method. Ten in‐depth interviews were conducted which were analysed using constant comparison of incidents procedures to provide rich descriptions of the interviewees' subjective perceptions and lived experiences with online transaction activity.
The findings provide insights into how the human element is present in individuals' perceptions and constructions of their accounts of the risk involved online. The findings also identify the influence of mass communication sources on the construction of these accounts. The study provides insights into whether change agent communication sources, such as marketers or web designers, influence consumers' behaviours towards online transaction activity through mediating their perceptions of the risks involved. The study also reveals how social communication networks influence the interviewees' decisions to use the web for transaction activities, in particular online purchasing, and how the group in this study might act as a communication source to influence others.
While the findings cannot be generalised to the internet population overall, the sample used was able to provide relevant information regarding the phenomenon of interest. Future research should continue to examine perceived risk and the influence of communications sources, such as e‐mail, discussion groups and virtual communities.
The value of the paper lies in permitting the participants to account for perceived risk for themselves. The findings explore what this means at increasing levels of personal relevance and the influence of communication sources to create, sustain or mediate perceptions of this phenomenon.
Owing to the strong position of traditional marketing communications (especially advertising) research and consumer marketing related theories in the general field of…
Owing to the strong position of traditional marketing communications (especially advertising) research and consumer marketing related theories in the general field of marketing, the prevailing concepts of communication can be labeled as “mass communicative” in current marketing discourse as a whole. However, along with the rise of various “relational approaches” in marketing, the focus of marketing research seems to shift from products and firms as a central unit of analysis to people, organizations and the social processes that bind actors together in ongoing relationships. In these interactive relationship/network contexts, the nature of communication is hardly mass communicative. This article aims at presenting a theoretical framework on the role of communication in business relationships and networks. The interaction/network approach to marketing means moving from the current perspective of marketing’s mass‐communicative effects and consequent communicative behaviors of organizations to the “lower level” of interpersonal communication processes occurring within business relationships and networks.
Computer‐mediated communication (CMC) is becoming firmly embedded into library work through the use of electronic mail, and it is likely that computer‐supported…
Computer‐mediated communication (CMC) is becoming firmly embedded into library work through the use of electronic mail, and it is likely that computer‐supported collaborative working, using e‐mail and other forms of computer‐conferencing and groupware products, will have a key role to play in the development of integrated digital libraries across sectoral, national and international boundaries. This review paper draws on a literature survey which was undertaken as part of British Library funded research into the use of e‐mail in academic libraries between 1995‐1997. It aims to provide a digest of some influential perspectives from the literature which are likely to be of relevance to managers, team leaders and systems staff in information services who are interested in optimising the use of text‐based CMC across and between library organisations, and within teams.
This paper examines the evolution of two separate fields, which are essentially concerned with the same issues but are framed by different academic and professional…
This paper examines the evolution of two separate fields, which are essentially concerned with the same issues but are framed by different academic and professional disciplines and practice. It appears that public affairs management researchers often fail to take into account parallel literature from the discipline of public relations — even when purporting to offer an interdisciplinary approach. Equally, the public relations literature frequently fails to speak the language of business management and narrowly defines such key business activities as marketing, policy and strategy. In this paper, the authors present evidence prescribing the differing evolution of public affairs and public relations. They compare and contrast public affairs and public relations in terms of their definitions, scholarship, survey evidence, leading writers, academic and professional associations and educational programme content. They conclude by offering several suggestions for closing the gap between the two areas.
The nations of the world are linked together by increasingly fast, efficient and sophisticated means of communication. Satellites, cable, and other telecommunication…
The nations of the world are linked together by increasingly fast, efficient and sophisticated means of communication. Satellites, cable, and other telecommunication methods are used to implement this mass communication. The mass media forms, radio, television, newspapers, magazines, film, etc., have influenced not only their resident population, they have the potential to influence all of us. The reference sources in this article are concerned with this global aspect.
This research aims to investigate how critical media coverage of an organisation affects its employees. The authors expect the effects to be similar to the way media…
This research aims to investigate how critical media coverage of an organisation affects its employees. The authors expect the effects to be similar to the way media coverage about an individual would affect this person, termed “reciprocal effects”.
Drawing on a framework for the analysis of reciprocal effects of mass media by Kepplinger and qualitative interviews among employees of 14 different organisations undergoing a crisis, the authors develop an employee-model of reciprocal effects for the context of organisational crises.
This qualitative research shows that employees are affected by media coverage on a critical issue about their employer. Mass media are an important source of information for employees in critical situations. The data indicate interpersonal conversations with colleagues are also important for obtaining information and coping with the situation. Employees show emotional reactions, such as helplessness or shame, and a tendency to defend their employer. The better employees feel informed by their organisation's internal communication, the better they know how to cope with the situation. The data indicate that the effects vary with the employees' level of organisational identification.
The findings imply that open and constant internal communication with employees during a crisis fosters reactions that stabilise the organisation in critical situations.
The study presented here is the first systematic analysis of the impact of media coverage of an organisation on its employees.