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Article
Publication date: 6 October 2021

Masoud Karami and Jintong Tang

This paper aims to investigate the mediating role of founders/managers’ logic of control in transforming experiential knowledge and human capital into successful…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the mediating role of founders/managers’ logic of control in transforming experiential knowledge and human capital into successful international performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a quantitative methodology, this study used hierarchical regression analysis to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Drawing upon effectuation theory, the study proposed and found empirical evidence for the logic of control as an important mechanism that transforms experiential knowledge and human capital into international performance.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the international entrepreneurship (IE) research by investigating how the application of logic of control by SME founders/managers enables them to make use of their experiential knowledge and human capital as important intangible means to achieve successful international performance. The study tested the model in New Zealand wherein SMEs play a central role in economic development and depend heavily on international markets for survival and growth.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2021

Rubina Romanello, Masoud Karami, Stephan Gerschewski, Natasha Evers and Cici Xiao He

The purpose of the study is to investigate the international opportunity development process of born global firms embedded in two different institutional contexts: China…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to investigate the international opportunity development process of born global firms embedded in two different institutional contexts: China, an emerging economy and Italy, a developed country. Drawing on the entrepreneurial opportunity literature and institutional theory, this study explores and draws insights into how home country institutions of born globals can influence the international opportunity development process of the firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a qualitative case study approach with in-depth, semi-structured interviews of six born global companies from China and Italy. In doing so, this study uses a flexible pattern matching design, which is consistent with the qualitative research design of the paper.

Findings

The findings of the study indicate that home institutions play an influential, yet differential role in the international opportunity development processes of Chinese and Italian born global firms. While the Italian firms shape their opportunities mainly through product innovation, their Chinese counterparts develop opportunities primarily through networks embedded in their home institutional context.

Originality/value

The key contributions of the paper relate to an integrated analysis of the international opportunity development process of born globals in China and Italy based on institutional theory, which has received limited attention in the international entrepreneurship literature. In addition, the study advances the similarities and differences in the international opportunity development process in two different countries, thus providing valuable insights for policymakers and practitioners to enter international markets successfully.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Masoud Karami, Omid Olfati and Alan J. Dubinsky

By reviewing Iranian cultural values, this paper aims to identify Iranian cultural values that underlie consumers’ buying behaviours.

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1288

Abstract

Purpose

By reviewing Iranian cultural values, this paper aims to identify Iranian cultural values that underlie consumers’ buying behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is an exploratory research; data are analysed through both exploratory and confirmatory factors analyses.

Findings

Based on research findings, 20 values can be subsumed under seven meaningful dimensions: cosmopolitanism, innovation, convenience, youthfulness, partiality, other-directedness and faithfulness. Cosmopolitanism was found to be the most influential value affecting consumer buying behaviour; faithfulness was the least important dimension.

Research limitations/implications

This research is based on quantitative data; using qualitative research or mixed method will enrich the findings. In addition, study findings are not generalisable to different aspects of cultural values and consumption in Iran. Therefore, future work should explore how cultural values influence their buying behaviour in Iran as one of major Islamic countries.

Practical implications

From a practical marketing perspective, firms interested in pursuing Iranian markets should consider modern cultural values in their product decisions and marketing communications to foster Iranian consumers’ attention and ultimately their purchase decisions.

Originality/value

The authors believe that this research can arouse sales and marketing managers to be alert for considering Iranian cultural values in their marketing mix decisions. This research also has managerial and research implications for designing and formulating promotion strategy in managing firms’ marketing communication.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2021

James M. Crick, Masoud Karami and Dave Crick

Certain small businesses do not possess the assets needed to implement a performance-enhancing entrepreneurial marketing orientation (opportunity-driven behaviours…

Abstract

Purpose

Certain small businesses do not possess the assets needed to implement a performance-enhancing entrepreneurial marketing orientation (opportunity-driven behaviours focussed on creating value for customers). Although some entrepreneurs cooperate with their competitors (coopetition) to achieve their day-to-day and long-term goals, it is unclear whether these partnerships are advantageous in this capacity. Thus, grounded in the resource-based view, the purpose of this investigation is to examine whether coopetition positively moderates the relationship between an entrepreneurial marketing orientation and financial performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey responses were obtained from 184 small tourism and hospitality organisations in New Zealand. Following a series of robustness checks, covariance-based structural equation modelling was used to test the elements of the conceptual model.

Findings

Unique insights illustrate an entrepreneurial marketing orientation yielding a negative and significant link with financial performance. Nevertheless, this result was potentially related to the entrepreneurial marketing-oriented opportunities that owner-managers pursued within the context of their sector; in particular, situations when employing an individualistic business model constrained certain decision-makers' ability to pursue “growth-oriented” objectives. However, coopetition produced a positive and significant moderating effect, enabling owner-managers to pursue opportunities via collaborative business models facilitating mutually beneficial performance outcomes.

Practical implications

Owner-managers of under-resourced small firms should be careful when implementing entrepreneurial marketing strategies utilising an individualistic business model. For example, they might pursue opportunities that are not viable and/or become over-loaded with market intelligence that they cannot handle. By collaborating with competitors, owner-managers can learn improved ways to operate within their industries, alongside being equipped with new resources and capabilities. In doing so, coopetition can help overcome some of the potential performance-limiting issues owner-managers face by being under-resourced, namely, via employing a collaborative business model.

Originality/value

This current study contributes to the extant literature by evaluating the complexities of entrepreneurial marketing practices. That is, although earlier research has focussed on the performance-driving outcomes of an entrepreneurial marketing orientation, prior studies typically overlook certain moderating factors that could influence this association. By examining the interaction between an entrepreneurial marketing orientation and coopetition on financial performance, new evidence has emerged on how owner-managers of small firms can utilise interfirm collaboration to succeed within their markets, as opposed to struggling to cope with the challenges of an individualistic business model. Specifically, an entrepreneurial marketing orientation is likely to enhance financial performance when under-resourced companies effectively collaborate with their competitors.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Masoud Karami, Mohamad Mehdi Maleki and Alan J. Dubinsky

The purpose of the study is to explore the impact of cultural values on perceptions of service encounter quality by examining the potentially mediating role of service…

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1877

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to explore the impact of cultural values on perceptions of service encounter quality by examining the potentially mediating role of service encounter expectations.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was designed to collect data from 30 cosmetic clinic patients in Tehran, Iran. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the convergent and discriminant validity of the scales. Moreover, path modeling and bootstrapping were implemented using Smartpls 2.0 (M3) software to analyze the collected data and to assess the research model (Figure 1).

Findings

Cultural values have a significant impact on both expectations and perceptions of service encounter quality. Moreover, findings show that expectations of service encounter quality have an impact on perceptions of service encounter quality. The mediating role of service encounter expectations was confirmed.

Research limitations/implications

There are additional issues that should be addressed about different aspects of service encounters in developing countries. Moreover, subcultures provide attractive context for service quality perception research; subcultures comprise a large consumer market having its own cultural values that future research could examine.

Practical implications

Healthcare service providers should understand the cultural values of patients that may differ by social demographic characteristics. Providing a service that enhances patient cultural values might enhance success in the plastic surgery market, because such surgery may assist one in gaining recognition and improving their relationships with others. Clinic managers should consider Iran as a developing country, with its considerable young population having modern self-oriented demands, should be a desirable market for cosmetics and beauty care products.

Originality/value

Using the concept of Schwartz’s basic human values model to assess consumers’ cultural values and its impact on service encounter quality was the study’s main contribution. Moreover, it is among few studies conducted in the cosmetic surgery industry in a developing country’s context.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Masoud Karami, Omid Olfati and Alan J. Dubinsky

– The main purpose of this research was to investigate whether there is a relationship between religiosity and ethical behavior of salespeople.

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this research was to investigate whether there is a relationship between religiosity and ethical behavior of salespeople.

Design/methodology/approach

To investigate this association, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used; also, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were undertaken to examine a scale measuring salespeople's ethical behaviors. The context in which the study was conducted was in Iranian retail specialty stores.

Findings

The results revealed for the first time the impact of religiosity on ethical behavior of the seller, a key entity in the buyer-seller dyad, that had been virtually ignored in extant empirical work.

Research limitations/implications

The study focused solely on retail salespeople in Iran. Future research should examine the religiosity-ethical behavior nexus using other kinds of sales personnel and those practicing other kinds of religion than the Shia Muslim faith investigated here. The investigation examined the association between religiosity and ethical behavior. Future work could include additional measures of religion (e.g. religious orientation) as well other individual, cultural, and organizational factors that may have an influence on salespeople's ethical conduct.

Practical implications

Sales managers should try to convince salespeople to behave ethically. Also, sales managers should not establish unachievable sales objectives for salespeople and try to employ more religious individuals as salespeople. Multinational corporations (MNCs) should treat Shia Muslim salespersons with the utmost of respect, relying on their word. Similarly, MNCs should incorporate ethical guidelines into their training classes in order to be able to communicate conveniently with local salespeople and persuade them to act more ethically.

Originality/value

The authors believe that this research can arouse managers in retail stores to set specific plans for evaluating their ethical behaviors. This research also has managerial and research implications for designing and formulating operations strategy in providing ethical standards for sales force.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2016

Cici Xiao He and Masoud Karami

This study explains the international opportunity development of SMEs from emerging economies during institutional transition. This research enriches our understanding of…

Abstract

This study explains the international opportunity development of SMEs from emerging economies during institutional transition. This research enriches our understanding of how these firms adopt different approaches to developing international opportunities when they confront the turbulent institutional environment. We develop a phase-based framework for the evolution of transitional institution for SMEs’ internationalization and the SMEs’ internationalization process in that framework. By providing an empirical case study of a privately owned SME from China, the main finding is that SMEs from emerging economies become more entrepreneurial and proactive in developing the international opportunity during the institutional transition.

Details

Global Entrepreneurship: Past, Present & Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-483-9

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Liezel Vargas-Sevalle, Masoud Karami and Sam Spector

The hospitality and tourism industry is highly labor-intensive. It is constituted by a fast-paced, dynamic, unpredictable and unstable operating environment that requires…

Abstract

The hospitality and tourism industry is highly labor-intensive. It is constituted by a fast-paced, dynamic, unpredictable and unstable operating environment that requires an extraordinary leadership ability, and leaders may need to adopt a transformational leadership style. A plethora of theoretical and empirical studies have shown the importance of transformational leadership. However, there is still much to be learned. Meanwhile, no study to date has measured the relationship between transformational leadership, job involvement, and job satisfaction among employees in the hospitality and tourism industry in New Zealand. This study expands our understanding of transformational leadership in the specific context of hospitality and tourism.

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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2016

Abstract

Details

Global Entrepreneurship: Past, Present & Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-483-9

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Abstract

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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