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Article

Maryam Dilmaghani and Vurain Tabvuma

The purpose of this study is to compare the gender gaps in work–life balance satisfaction across occupations. Due to data limitations, the studies of work–life balance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to compare the gender gaps in work–life balance satisfaction across occupations. Due to data limitations, the studies of work–life balance satisfaction have generally relied on researcher collected data. As a result, large-scale studies encompassing all occupations in the same social and policy context are rare. In several cycles of the Canadian General Social Survey, the respondents are directly asked about their work–life balance (WLB) satisfaction. The present paper takes advantage of this unique opportunity to compare the gender gap in WLB satisfaction across occupations in Canada.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper pools four cross-sectional datasets (N = 37,335). Multivariate regression analysis is used.

Findings

Women in management and education are found to have a lower WLB satisfaction than their male counterparts. Conversely, and rather surprisingly, a WLB satisfaction advantage is found for women in transport over males in this occupation. Further investigation shows that the female WLB advantage in transport is driven by the relatively low WLB satisfaction of males in this occupation, while the opposite is true for education.

Social implications

The findings are discussed in light of the WLB policies and their increasing gender-blindness.

Originality/value

This paper is the first large-scale study which compares the gender gap in WLB satisfaction across occupations, in a given policy context.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article

Maryam Dilmaghani

The purpose of this paper is to, using several cycles of the Canadian General Social Survey (GSS) covering 2010–2015, examine the patterns of work-life balance (WLB…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to, using several cycles of the Canadian General Social Survey (GSS) covering 2010–2015, examine the patterns of work-life balance (WLB) satisfaction and work-life segmentation by sexual orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, multivariate regression analysis is used.

Findings

The analysis shows that men living with a male partner are more satisfied with their WLB than their heterosexual counterparts. No statistically significant difference is found between women who live with a female partner and their heterosexual counterparts, in WLB satisfaction. Work-life segmentation is operationalized by the odds of being at the top levels of the life satisfaction scale without being satisfied with the circumstances of one’s job. Controlling for a wide range of characteristics, working Canadians living with a same-sex partner, regardless of their genders, are found more likely to have segmented their work and life domains than their heterosexual counterparts.

Originality/value

The paper, for the first time, investigates how sexual orientation relates to WLB satisfaction and work-life segmentation. This study exploits a unique opportunity offered by the Canadian GSSs in which WLB satisfaction is directly surveyed, all the while partnered sexual minorities are identifiable.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article

Maryam Dilmaghani

The present study assesses how sibship size affects child quality as measured by educational attainment.

Abstract

Purpose

The present study assesses how sibship size affects child quality as measured by educational attainment.

Design/methodology/approach

The data are from the Canadian General Social Surveys (GSS) of 1986, 1990, 1994 and 1995. The sample is restricted to the individuals born in Canada between 1946 and 1965, that is, the baby-boom generation. In addition to controlling for parental education, the sibship size is instrumented by a non-binary variable created based on the sex composition of the sibship. While most previous studies have pooled both genders, the present paper produces by gender estimates

Findings

The OLS estimates are statistically significant, negative and moderately large for both male and female baby boomers. When the sibship size is instrumented, the estimates indicate that one additional sibling had reduced the educational attainment of male baby boomers by almost half a year. No causal effect for the sibship size is found for female baby boomers.

Originality/value

This is the first paper on the effects of sibship size on educational attainment, using Canadian data.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Article

Maryam Dilmaghani

Over the years, many upstream health policies have sought to reduce smoking across populations. While smoking has been substantially reduced, the effects of these policies…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the years, many upstream health policies have sought to reduce smoking across populations. While smoking has been substantially reduced, the effects of these policies on education-smoking gradient remain unclear. The present paper compares the education-smoking gradient among the Generation X and the millennials, who grew up with different types of upstream policies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study relies on regression analysis. The data are from the Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey of 2017, with the sample restricted to those born between 1965 and 1995.

Findings

At the zero-order, the education-smoking gradient has not significantly flattened from Generation X to millennials. And, accounting for the channels of impact of education on smoking does not substantially change this pattern.

Social implications

The implications for health inequalities associated with socioeconomic status, and tobacco consumption reduction policies, are discussed.

Originality/value

This paper is the first study of the kind using Canadian data.

Details

Health Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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Article

Maryam Dilmaghani

Using the Canadian General Social Survey of 2016, a large nationally representative dataset, the present paper compares different types of flexible work arrangements in…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the Canadian General Social Survey of 2016, a large nationally representative dataset, the present paper compares different types of flexible work arrangements in their associations with employee wellbeing and organizational outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The dataset contains 7,446 observations. Informed by the past scholarship, eight outcomes of job satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction, organizational belonging, job motivation, perceived advancement prospects, perceived job security, workplace social capital, and turnover intentions are investigated.

Findings

First, employees with both flextime and flexplace, and only flextime, have a significantly higher job and work-life balance satisfaction. Second, the possibility of working from home without any discretion over timing does not elicit positive wellbeing outcomes. Third, the results show that the combination of flexplace and flextime is synergistic. Fourth, rather unexpectedly, the positive associations of the FWAs with work-life balance satisfaction are stronger among men and women without dependent children. Finally, there are significant positive associations for the combination of flexplace and flextime, and flextime alone, with other outcomes, such as organizational belonging and job motivation, especially among men.

Practical implications

Given the nonrandom assignment of the workers into the FWAs, the results only reflect ceteris paribus correlations.

Originality/value

This is the first Canadian study of flexible work arrangements, using a large nationally representative dataset.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article

Maryam Dilmaghani

The purpose of this paper is to use data mined from Google Trends, in order to predict the unemployment rate prevailing among Canadians between 25 and 44 years of age.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use data mined from Google Trends, in order to predict the unemployment rate prevailing among Canadians between 25 and 44 years of age.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a theoretical framework, this study argues that the intensity of online leisure activities is likely to improve the predictive power of unemployment forecasting models.

Findings

Mining the corresponding data from Google Trends, the analysis indicates that prediction models including variables which reflect online leisure activities outperform those solely based on the intensity of online job search. The paper also outlines the most propitious ways of mining data from Google Trends. The implications for research and policy are discussed.

Originality/value

This paper, for the first time, augments the forecasting models with data on the intensity of online leisure activities, in order to predict the Canadian unemployment rate.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Article

Maryam Dilmaghani

Does religiosity impact wages differently for males and females? Does the impact on wage of different dimensions of religiosity, namely the importance of religion, the…

Abstract

Purpose

Does religiosity impact wages differently for males and females? Does the impact on wage of different dimensions of religiosity, namely the importance of religion, the frequency of religious practice with others and individually, differ for men and women? The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the Canadian Ethnic Diversity Survey, made public in 2004, this paper investigates whether there are evidences for a gender difference in the impact of religiosity on wage. A Mincerean wage regression is estimated using both multiple linear regression and Heckit.

Findings

Religious females are found to receive a premium over their labour earnings, through the frequency of private-prayer while the same dimension of religiosity penalizes males’ mean wage. The by-gender impact slightly widens for the subsample of employees, while it diminishes for the self-employed.

Research limitations/implications

Making use of the most comprehensive data set available and standard methodology, the paper creates stylized facts that are of interest to the scholars of a multiplicity of disciplines.

Practical implications

It advances the body of knowledge about the impact of religiosity on productivity and whether it has a by-gender component.

Social implications

The research also informs policy-makers in their decision about the appropriate level of accommodation of religiosity in the workplace.

Originality/value

The present work is the first research paper examining the by-gender impact of different dimensions of religiosity on productivity thereby wage.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Maryam Dilmaghani and Jason Dean

The relationship between religiosity and female labour market attainment has been widely investigated for the USA; however, no comparable study has been undertaken for the…

Abstract

Purpose

The relationship between religiosity and female labour market attainment has been widely investigated for the USA; however, no comparable study has been undertaken for the Canadian context. The purpose of this paper is to redress this critical oversight of the literature by examining the impact of religiosity on Canadian female labour supply, both at extensive and intensive margins.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from the Canadian Ethnic Diversity Survey, the authors consider all the measurable dimensions of religiosity, for the pooled sample, as well as by religious group. A wide array of control variables is included in the regressions to insure the reliability of the estimates.

Findings

The authors find that overall religiosity inversely relates to female labour supply in Canada. When the impact of religiosity is assessed on a by religion basis, it is revealed that Protestant females are penalized, by far the most.

Practical implications

The result is comparable with the pattern uncovered in the USA for Conservative Protestant females. Unlike what can be expected, no statistically significant difference is detected between religious-nones and Catholics, suggesting a convergence of gender ideologies.

Originality/value

The investigation reveals interesting patterns that not only contribute to the current state of literature, but also motivate future research. Fairlie and Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition techniques are also used to further explore attainment gaps among the religious groups.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Maryam Dilmaghani

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between religiosity and labour market outcomes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between religiosity and labour market outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the Ethnic Diversity Survey, the author: examines how religious belief and practice relate to earnings in Canada; considers the impact of the degree of religiosity using a composite index constructed by means of survey questions; and uses this index as an explanatory variable in the estimation of standard human capital‐earnings function.

Findings

A negative correlation between religiosity and earnings is found controlling for demographic, behavioural and human capital variables. Examining the cross‐religion differential in earnings and human capital return, Muslims' earnings are found to be significantly lower compared to the average. Muslims' wage gap is explained by their immigrant status.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to use a composite, score‐based index standing for the degree of religiosity instead of a single survey question or unique observable indicator. Second, this paper is the first to consider the interaction of the degree of religiosity and religious denomination in a human capital‐earnings equation. Third, the author considers both men and women, which previous Canadian papers did not do. Fourth, this study is the first on a high income country to consider Muslims as a distinct religious group. Fifth, the author considers the interaction of the effects of religion and of immigration.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 39 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article

Maryam Dilmaghani

The paper aims to propose an analytical framework for social influence and mathematical formulation for its main components: conformity and peer-pressure. The framework is…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to propose an analytical framework for social influence and mathematical formulation for its main components: conformity and peer-pressure. The framework is conceived to explain why certain behaviours and beliefs propagate in a society and some others disappear. It can also be used to study the emergence and the evolution of the status of the norms in terms of their adoption by the population.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is theoretical, making use of economic quantitative methods. The author proposes a new formulation for the evolutionary dynamics, increasingly borrowed by social scientists. Then, mathematically treating the equation, the author draws general conclusions in form of lemmas, which are proved.

Findings

The author's main contribution is to show that even behavioural rules and beliefs that emerge in a minority subset of the population, do not procure any benefit for the agents adopting them can under certain conditions, evolve into the consensus of a society, become a norm.

Research limitations/implications

More general conclusion (theorems and lemmas) could be stated and proved. But given that the main contribution of the paper is to the fields of social and behavioural economics, along a number of disciplines less mathematical than economics, the author kept the analysis that required fairy advance mathematics for later.

Practical implications

The paper contributes to the evolutionary game theory, evolution of preferences, and evolution of beliefs and social norms. More precisely, the equation proposed in the paper can be used in the contexts the patterns of heterogeneity in a population are affected or caused by social influence. Or in the contexts, the social institutions are susceptible to affect an agent's sense of identity (e.g. voting, fashion industry, marketing).

Originality/value

In this paper, for the first time, a mathematical formulation is proposed for the social influence and its main psychological components (conformity and status seeking). Using the above, the author proposed a new parametric fitness function for the evolutionary dynamics. The author believes the paper matters to a multidisciplinary public. It answers a question that challenged and puzzled the economists (as well other social scientists): the reasons behind the emergence and the prevalence of social norms do not positively contribute to the utility or payoff of the agents adopting them (and at times they are costly).

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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