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Open Access
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Mary S. Mangai and Michiel S. De Vries

While there is an urgent need for clean water in Ghana and Nigeria, governments lack the financial means to do much to address this need. This does not mean that improving…




While there is an urgent need for clean water in Ghana and Nigeria, governments lack the financial means to do much to address this need. This does not mean that improving access to clean water is impossible. On the contrary, this paper argued that engaging citizens through co-production, as is already being done in developed countries in the fields of care-giving, waste management, healthcare and community policing, could provide a successful strategy. The purpose of this paper is to examine how public water facilities are being managed to improve and sustain access to clean water for domestic use in rural areas in Ghana and Nigeria.


A survey interview with households and in-depth interviews with water professionals were conducted in Ghana and Nigeria to help the authors understand the practicalities of the co-production of clean water and how this is improving and maintaining access to clean water sources. The paper draws on a philosophical framework of “deep” citizen engagement to describe the merits of co-production and how it works in practice in developing countries.


Based on the interviews with officials and surveys among the population of rural areas in the two countries studied, the authors found that the two countries vary significantly in their approach to water management decisions and the extent to which citizens are involved. Ghana’s approach seems much more successful than Nigeria when it comes to maintaining boreholes for water supply with the help of the population. In Nigeria, three-quarters of the public water facilities are non-functional, while in Ghana, community involvement in maintaining public water facilities has resulted in the sustained use of boreholes and eliminated the lack of access to clean water in many communities.


This paper contributes to the practical understanding of co-production in developing countries and the potential of such co-production in improving clean water access. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no previous scientific research has studied how co-production can improve and sustain access specifically to clean water sources in developing countries, and this paper aimed to fill this gap.


International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558


Case study
Publication date: 23 June 2021

Minu Zachariah, Vyshnavi Viswananda and Jaicy George

The case can be taught to MBA/PGDM students to give them experiential learning in the course on entrepreneurship. The case can be used to specifically make the student…


Study level/applicability

The case can be taught to MBA/PGDM students to give them experiential learning in the course on entrepreneurship. The case can be used to specifically make the student understand the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in the male-dominated business sector and recognize the entrepreneurial competencies needed to run a business.

Subject area


Case overview

Shany Jalal, Promoter and Managing Director of Servicecare Pvt. Ltd., and the protagonist of the case proud owner of Servicecare Pvt. Ltd. reminisced the circumstances that drove her to start the business venture in Bangalore, India. At the age of 17, a personal setback instilled in Shany a strong desire to become self-reliant and independent. Backed with a degree in hotel management and a meager loan amount of INR 10,000 provided by her father on certain terms and conditions, Shany deep dived into the soft facility management sector business way back in the year 1999 and since then there has been no turning back. Today, Shany Jalal is proud that her venture by starting a proprietorship company “Service Care”, and later converted it into a Private Limited Company, “Servicecare Private Limited” in 2011. Shany Jalal was proud that her venture is a name to reckon with in Bangalore. She has had a team of 4,200 employees, which operates Pan India, providing top-notch corporate cleaning solutions. Her motto was not to compromise on quality and she continues to provide the highest level of service to her esteemed clients, some of them even dating back to the days of inception. Her determination powered by a strong value system is what keeps the company a cut above the rest. Being in the soft facilities management service for almost 20 years, Shany Jalal feels she has achieved her dream. Today, she is a highly successful woman entrepreneur. As she retraces her career path, she owes her success earned through years of dedication, commitment, hard work and timely intervention of some kind-hearted individuals. Since 2011, the company witnessed an average growth of 41% year on year. Though there was stiff competition from domestic and multinational property management companies, Shany sailed through. However, in the global pandemic of 2020, when her business was impacted, Shany realized that to sustain organizational growth, she had to integrate technology with service. She contemplated ways and means of integrating technology with services to meet the clients’ demands. However, Shany believes that to sustain organization growth, technology must be integrated with service. She is currently contemplating ways to introduce and integrate technology with services to efficiently and effectively meet clients’ demands.

Expected learning outcomes

1. Understand the gender issues in India and its impact on women entrepreneurs. 2. Analyse the ecosystem that supports supported women entrepreneurs in creating a new venture. 3. Identify the leadership traits and style, entrepreneurial competencies and capacities of the women entrepreneur in this case. 4. Recognize the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in the facilities management business sector. 5. Explore various options of integrating technology to improve facilities management services provided to the clients.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email to request teaching notes.

Social implications

Shany was able to face the challenges that came her way successfully with grit and courage. She was able to expand her business. Her business helped lighten the lives of many people as she provided a means of livelihood to the underprivileged. Shany was also able to motivate her husband to start a business venture and stood by him. She encouraged women to stand on their own feet especially motivating women to set up their own businesses. She is also in constant touch with other like-minded women entrepreneurs who share similar experiences in handling crises. This gives her more insight to take proper decisions.


Women entrepreneur, Facilities management services, Technology supported services

Subject code

CSS 3: Entrepreneurship.


The Case For Women, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2732-4443


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