Basic education (primary and junior secondary schooling) in China has experienced phenomenal development in the reform era from the late 1970s. The most important reform…
Basic education (primary and junior secondary schooling) in China has experienced phenomenal development in the reform era from the late 1970s. The most important reform policies; namely, decentralization of governance and diversification of finance, have been translated into an unprecedented scale of resource mobilization for schooling expansion. This article examines China’s education finance reform and basic education development. It analyzes international aid and assistance, particularly major basic education projects financed by the World Bank and other international organizations. The article argues that China is not necessarily “in the driving seat” in cooperation with the World Bank, and that the bank does not play purely “a pivotal positive role” in helping develop Chinese basic education. In spite of its huge aid and assistance in China, the bank, to a certain extent, also contributes to the formation of China’s bifurcated schooling system.
This article compares people from different countries according to their job related attitudes and ethical values based on empirical data from 15 countries. The results…
This article compares people from different countries according to their job related attitudes and ethical values based on empirical data from 15 countries. The results indicate that countries with a socialist past have to deal with the satisfaction of needs at a lower level than traditional capitalist countries and this consequently influences attitudes and expectations toward society, organisations and work. Attitudes toward society and facets of job satisfaction predict ethical values differently in countries with a different history as well. In traditional capitalist countries ethical values were influenced by attitudes toward society and almost not connected with facets of job satisfaction. In former socialist countries facets of job satisfaction better predicted ethical values of employees than in traditional capitalist countries.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the limitations and emerging trends of Six Sigma through an empirical study. Six Sigma is one of the most powerful business…
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the limitations and emerging trends of Six Sigma through an empirical study. Six Sigma is one of the most powerful business process improvement strategies used by numerous World Class corporations for over three decades. A handful of existing publications address some limitations and potential trends of Six Sigma, yet there are no empirical studies investigating the fundamental limitations and emerging trends of Six Sigma.
The authors developed an online survey instrument based on the existing literature addressing the above. In this study, 61 Six Sigma Master Black Belts and Black Belts from large manufacturing companies and 25 academics who are familiar with the Six Sigma topic participated and contributed to the research.
The study reports the top 5 limitations and emerging trends of Six Sigma from the viewpoints of both academics and experts from large manufacturing companies. These are: integration of Six Sigma with Big Data, use of Six Sigma in small medium and micro enterprises, over emphasis of Six Sigma on variability reduction, poor implementation of Six Sigma and its negative impact on employee satisfaction and non-exploitation of integration of Six Sigma with Industry 4.0.
In order to sustain Six Sigma initiatives, it is imperative that limitations and fundamental gaps are understood, and strategies developed to address them. The authors argue that leading academic scholars have a vital role to play in working with industry practitioners to overcome the limitations and emerging trends addressed above.
To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first empirical study looking into the limitations, research gaps and emerging trends of Six Sigma.
THE last ten years have seen a remarkable revival of interest in cataloguing in the United States. As late as 1935 the veteran cataloguer, J. C. M. Hanson, was complaining…
THE last ten years have seen a remarkable revival of interest in cataloguing in the United States. As late as 1935 the veteran cataloguer, J. C. M. Hanson, was complaining that cataloguing no longer attracted the same attention as the financial, sociological, or even mechanical aspects of librarianship. A few years later the situation had completely changed, and since 1940 the problem of cataloguing has become one of the chief subjects for discussion amongst American librarians. The immediate occasion for this revival of interest was the publication of the preliminary edition of the American revision of the Anglo‐American code. Work on this had begun in 1930, but for the first few years the work of revision was left entirely to cataloguers and treated as a matter exclusively of technical and specialist interest. Then, just before publication of the preliminary edition, as an American cataloguer ruefully remarks, it occurred to some administrators and a few cataloguers that the time was ripe for a review of the whole of current cataloguing theory and practice.