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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Chengzhi Wang and Mary Bergquist

Basic education (primary and junior secondary schooling) in China has experienced phenomenal development in the reform era from the late 1970s. The most important reform…

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Abstract

Basic education (primary and junior secondary schooling) in China has experienced phenomenal development in the reform era from the late 1970s. The most important reform policies; namely, decentralization of governance and diversification of finance, have been translated into an unprecedented scale of resource mobilization for schooling expansion. This article examines China’s education finance reform and basic education development. It analyzes international aid and assistance, particularly major basic education projects financed by the World Bank and other international organizations. The article argues that China is not necessarily “in the driving seat” in cooperation with the World Bank, and that the bank does not play purely “a pivotal positive role” in helping develop Chinese basic education. In spite of its huge aid and assistance in China, the bank, to a certain extent, also contributes to the formation of China’s bifurcated schooling system.

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International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 17 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Ruth Alas

This article compares people from different countries according to their job related attitudes and ethical values based on empirical data from 15 countries. The results…

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1741

Abstract

This article compares people from different countries according to their job related attitudes and ethical values based on empirical data from 15 countries. The results indicate that countries with a socialist past have to deal with the satisfaction of needs at a lower level than traditional capitalist countries and this consequently influences attitudes and expectations toward society, organisations and work. Attitudes toward society and facets of job satisfaction predict ethical values differently in countries with a different history as well. In traditional capitalist countries ethical values were influenced by attitudes toward society and almost not connected with facets of job satisfaction. In former socialist countries facets of job satisfaction better predicted ethical values of employees than in traditional capitalist countries.

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Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2021

Alexandra McKelvie

Coined by Giorgio Agamben, the ‘State of Exception’ refers to the paradoxical predicament of exceptional measures. By virtue of their application, such proposals authorise…

Abstract

Coined by Giorgio Agamben, the ‘State of Exception’ refers to the paradoxical predicament of exceptional measures. By virtue of their application, such proposals authorise an ‘extra-legal’ executive capacity that, despite probable affront to constitutional integrity, are nevertheless acknowledged as essential in political crises. Profound threats to national security – such as 9/11 – thus stipulate the authoritative exertion of extraconstitutional competency-manifested in the unique conditions of President Bush’s declaration of double state emergency. Although discourse on military privatisation is abundant, the logic of post-9/11 preventative intervention, and the classified alliance with private actors, remains overlooked despite provoking complex questions regarding valid democratic governance. By eroding the boundary of traditionally state-circumscribed functions, outsourced intelligence is argued as the most discerning debasement of emergency power; calling for a revised understanding of exceptionalism and catalysing axiomatic displacement of principled policy-making by promoting a national security immigration market.

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Privatisation of Migration Control: Power without Accountability?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-244-8

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2019

Jiju Antony, Michael Sony, Mary Dempsey, Attracta Brennan, Thomas Farrington and Elizabeth A. Cudney

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the limitations and emerging trends of Six Sigma through an empirical study. Six Sigma is one of the most powerful business…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the limitations and emerging trends of Six Sigma through an empirical study. Six Sigma is one of the most powerful business process improvement strategies used by numerous World Class corporations for over three decades. A handful of existing publications address some limitations and potential trends of Six Sigma, yet there are no empirical studies investigating the fundamental limitations and emerging trends of Six Sigma.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors developed an online survey instrument based on the existing literature addressing the above. In this study, 61 Six Sigma Master Black Belts and Black Belts from large manufacturing companies and 25 academics who are familiar with the Six Sigma topic participated and contributed to the research.

Findings

The study reports the top 5 limitations and emerging trends of Six Sigma from the viewpoints of both academics and experts from large manufacturing companies. These are: integration of Six Sigma with Big Data, use of Six Sigma in small medium and micro enterprises, over emphasis of Six Sigma on variability reduction, poor implementation of Six Sigma and its negative impact on employee satisfaction and non-exploitation of integration of Six Sigma with Industry 4.0.

Practical implications

In order to sustain Six Sigma initiatives, it is imperative that limitations and fundamental gaps are understood, and strategies developed to address them. The authors argue that leading academic scholars have a vital role to play in working with industry practitioners to overcome the limitations and emerging trends addressed above.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first empirical study looking into the limitations, research gaps and emerging trends of Six Sigma.

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The TQM Journal, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1950

L. JOLLEY

THE last ten years have seen a remarkable revival of interest in cataloguing in the United States. As late as 1935 the veteran cataloguer, J. C. M. Hanson, was complaining…

Abstract

THE last ten years have seen a remarkable revival of interest in cataloguing in the United States. As late as 1935 the veteran cataloguer, J. C. M. Hanson, was complaining that cataloguing no longer attracted the same attention as the financial, sociological, or even mechanical aspects of librarianship. A few years later the situation had completely changed, and since 1940 the problem of cataloguing has become one of the chief subjects for discussion amongst American librarians. The immediate occasion for this revival of interest was the publication of the preliminary edition of the American revision of the Anglo‐American code. Work on this had begun in 1930, but for the first few years the work of revision was left entirely to cataloguers and treated as a matter exclusively of technical and specialist interest. Then, just before publication of the preliminary edition, as an American cataloguer ruefully remarks, it occurred to some administrators and a few cataloguers that the time was ripe for a review of the whole of current cataloguing theory and practice.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Kobana Abukari, Erin Oldford and Neal Willcott

In recent years, student-managed investment funds (SMIFs), experiential learning programs at an increasing number of universities, have attracted significant scholarly…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, student-managed investment funds (SMIFs), experiential learning programs at an increasing number of universities, have attracted significant scholarly interest. In this article, we review the academic literature on this pedagogy.

Design/methodology/approach

We use the systematic review method to assess a sample of 85 articles published in 30 journals during the period 1975 to 2020.

Findings

Our literature review reveals four streams of research: best practices and challenges, investment management, innovation and trends and SMIFs in a research setting. We also propose future research directions, including specific gaps in the literature, a focus on innovations to traditional programs, systematic investment performance and expansion into behavioral finance issues.

Originality/value

We contribute a comprehensive view of the body of scholarship on SMIFs, identifying existing streams of research and future research directions that will help guide the development of SMIF research into a cohesive and productive space.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 47 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2020

Andrew Fincham and Nicholas Burton

The importance of networks has been established in the development of commerce and capitalism, with key concepts reflecting both the dynamic and permeable characteristics…

Abstract

Purpose

The importance of networks has been established in the development of commerce and capitalism, with key concepts reflecting both the dynamic and permeable characteristics of networks. Such attributes are exemplified by religious networks, which have been typically dismissed in terms of economic contribution as being both risk-averse and bounded by ethical barriers imposed by theology. This paper aims to examine the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in the long 18th century to evidence the multi-plexity and density of connections and suggest that adherence to the Quaker discipline acted as a trust-based attribute and substituted for repeated iteration.

Design/methodology/approach

The archival investigation centres upon an analysis of “The Catalogue of Quaker Writing” and a close re-reading of the seminal text “Quakers in Science and Industry”, an authoritative account of Quaker firms and families in industry and commerce. By identifying multiple possible social network connections in Raistrick’s work, this paper reviewed and analysed The Catalogue of Quaker Writing to examine the presence or absence of these connections in the Quaker network in the long 18th century.

Findings

This paper shows how the Quaker network was an unusually dense network that benefited co-religionists by enabling commerce through its unique topography. In a period characterized by the absence of formal institutional mechanisms to regulate behaviour, Quaker discipline acted as a quasi-regulatory mechanism to regulate membership of the network and to govern member moral behaviour.

Originality/value

The Quakers offer an opportunity to examine an early modern network to gain important insights into key aspects of network topography. By using social network analysis, this paper shows how Quakers performed a multiplicity of roles, which encouraged multiple modes of contact between members of the society in a dense network of contexts, which, in turn, provided high levels of connectedness between individuals. This unique range of roles, shared among a relatively small group of individuals, ensured that the degrees of separation between roles were very few; similarly, the plethora of connections resulted in a density, which not only allowed for multiple ways to engage with other individuals but also ensured no individual would become a bottle-neck or indeed a gateway that would prevent access. This unique topography was also highly unusual in that it was permeable to any aspirant member upon acceptance of the discipline – neither poverty nor lack of social status was barriers to membership. This unusual network offered atypical commercial advantages for its members.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2021

Jamie Klapp and Nicole C. Bouvier-Brown

This study aims to analyze undergraduate science majors’ perceptions of climate change.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze undergraduate science majors’ perceptions of climate change.

Design/methodology/approach

Three science major student cohorts at Loyola Marymount University – first-year exposure (first-years taking a course related to climate science), first-year control (first-years taking a course unrelated to climate science) and non-first-year exposure (non-first-years interested in climate science taking a related course) – were given a climate literacy survey at the beginning and end of each course. Student perceptions were also compared with national and local data.

Findings

First-year students exposed to the topic showed increased awareness of climate change, trust in climate scientists and acknowledgment of the scientific consensus. Exposure also increased the non-first-year cohort’s awareness that global warming is already affecting the country. All three cohorts showed greater awareness of humanity’s role in causing climate change than the public. However, misconceptions regarding technical concepts persisted throughout.

Research limitations/implications

This was a single-institution study in Los Angeles with a limited sample. Exposure to specific topics varied between cohorts, depending on the learning outcomes of each course.

Originality/value

Undergraduate science majors have a greater understanding of climate change’s anthropogenic nature compared with local and national populations. First-year students have a lower initial understanding of climate change and less trust in climate scientists than non-first-year students interested in the topic. All science majors can improve their understanding of general concepts and strengthen their confidence in scientists by taking a relevant course. Students struggle to learn specific technical concepts, but can improve their short-term comprehension through studying.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 22 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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