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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2018

Marianne Kolding, Martin Sundblad, Jan Alexa, Merlin Stone, Eleni Aravopoulou and Geraint Evans

The purpose of this paper is to explore very recent data about how large organizations are dealing with a shortage of information and communications technology (ICT…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore very recent data about how large organizations are dealing with a shortage of information and communications technology (ICT) specialists, in terms of its implications for information management.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on qualitative interview-based research with 11 large European companies, with an estimated ICT workforce of around 400,000 (about 14 per cent of ICT professionals in Europe), covering hiring, retention and upskilling of ICT staff, and expectations concerning graduates from European universities. These data are combined with International Data Corporation (IDC) analyst reports on the demand for different categories of ICT products and services, and data from the authors’ consulting work.

Findings

Larger organizations expect hiring to be a challenge, with strong competition for talent, whether from existing users or from the many rapidly digitalizing companies – digitalizing their organizations; their products and services; and their relationships with customer, suppliers and business partners. Upskilling and retraining workforces is seen by large organizations as a better approach than hiring, allowing them to create the right skills balance and retain their workers better. However, softer skills, such as communication and problem solving, are seen as just as important. ICT workers will benefit from a lifelong approach to learning, acquiring new skills and adapting existing skills. Many ICT companies have created academies for developing employee skills and certifications related to their own technologies, while the education sector has been working on creating curricula (alone or sometimes in partnerships with vendors) to improve graduate employability.

Research limitations/implications

The research is based on a small sample of large companies. The situation may be different in other companies and smaller organizations.

Practical implications

Organizations can cope with the skills shortage by anticipating and working with the market forces rather than trying to oppose them.

Social implications

ICT employees will show the way for employees in other sectors where skills are scarce, by demonstrating how to reinvent themselves as the skills needed change.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates that employers have changed their expectations of universities. They expect less that graduates will be ICT-employment ready, and more that they will have the skills to make and keep themselves employment ready. This has significant implications for university course design.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 31 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

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Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Alessandra Girlando, Simon Grima, Engin Boztepe, Sharon Seychell, Ramona Rupeika-Apoga and Inna Romanova

Purpose: Risk is a multifaceted concept, and its identification requires complex approaches that are often misunderstood. The consequence is that decisions are based on…

Abstract

Purpose: Risk is a multifaceted concept, and its identification requires complex approaches that are often misunderstood. The consequence is that decisions are based on limited perception rather than the full value and meaning of what risk is, as a result, the way it is being tackled is incorrect. The individuals are often limited in their perceptions and ideas and do not embrace the full multifaceted nature of risk. Regulators and individuals want to follow norms and checklists or overuse models, simulations, and templates, thereby reducing responsibility for decision-making. At the same time, the wider use of technology and rules reduces the critical thinking of individuals. We advance the automation process by building robots that follow protocols and forget about the part of risk assessment that cannot be programed. Therefore, with this study, the objective of this study was to discover how people define risk, the influencing factors of risk perception and how they behave toward this perception. The authors also determine how the perception differed with age, gender, marital status, education level and region. The novelty of the research is related to individual risk perception during COVID-19, as this is a new and unknown phenomenon. Methodology: The research is based on the analysis of the self-administered purposely designed questionnaires we distributed across different social media platforms between February and June 2020 in Europe and in some cases was carried out as a interview over communication platforms such as “Skype,” “Zoom” and “Microsoft Teams.” The questionnaire was divided into four parts: Section 1 was designed to collect demographic information from the participants; Section 2 included risk definition statements obtained from literature and a preliminary discussion with peers; Section 3 included risk behavior statements; and Section 4 included statements on risk perception experiences. A five-point Likert Scale was provided, and participants were required to answer along a scale of “1” for “Strongly Agree” to “5” for “Strongly Disagree.” Participants also had the option to elaborate further and provide additional comments in an open-ended box provided at the end of the section. 466 valid responses were received. Thematic analysis was carried out to analyze the interviews and the open-ended questions, while the questionnaire responses were analyzed using various quantitative methods on IBM SPSS (version 23). Findings: The results of the analysis indicate that individuals evaluate the risk before making a decision and view risk as both a loss and opportunity. The study identifies nine factors influencing risk perception. Nevertheless, it must be emphasized that we can continue to develop models and rules, but as long as the risk is not understood, we will never achieve anything.

Details

Contemporary Issues in Social Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-931-3

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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2021

Sara Wilkinson and Agnieszka Zalejska Jonsson

Despite awareness of climate change for over 3 decades, per capita energy and water consumption increase and environmental impacts grow. The built environment contributes…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite awareness of climate change for over 3 decades, per capita energy and water consumption increase and environmental impacts grow. The built environment contributes around 40% of total global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; action is vital. Whilst building code standards have increased, rating tools and technology to reduce energy and water consumption are developed; environmental impact grows because of human behaviour. In the tertiary education sector, student accommodation constitutes a large part of the property portfolio, contributing significant amounts of GHG emissions and environmental impact. Property Managers can educate and install systems and technologies to improve behaviour if they understand it.

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory study used a questionnaire survey to explore how student's worldviews vary and the possible limitations to behaviour in respect of climate change. In total, 71 responses from international university students living in residential accommodation on campuses in Stockholm were analysed.

Findings

The results show different perceptions about the environment and actions that are needed, and this leads to different behaviours. Limited knowledge and inability to relate environmental consequences to one's own actions, effective communication and risk averse behaviour, are critical in mitigating climate change. A deeper understanding of participants worldviews and the different resulting behaviours was achieved.

Research limitations/implications

This pilot study involved a small number of participants and future studies should expand participant numbers, including those with more varied backgrounds, education levels and age groups.

Practical implications

If property managers gain a deeper understanding the different behaviours of their residents, they can develop effective strategies to facilitate action that will lower the environment impact and GHG emissions of student accommodation.

Originality/value

The knowledge gained about environmental attitudes and human behaviour can help property and facility managers, policy makers and regulators to develop more effective strategies to deliver improved sustainability outcomes.

Details

Property Management, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2021

Hieu Thanh Nguyen, Thinh Gia Hoang, Loan Quynh Thi Nguyen, Hoa Phan Le and Hoanh Xuan Vu Mai

This paper aims to explore green technology (GT) transfer through the perceptions of both business managers and technology specialists, who have been identified as the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore green technology (GT) transfer through the perceptions of both business managers and technology specialists, who have been identified as the foremost practitioners of this practice.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted with business leaders and technology scientists. The interviewees were asked to share their views on the motivations for importing GT; their familiarity with, knowledge of and understanding of GT transfer and the current GT performance in their organization; the key strengths of GT transfer and its limitations; the barriers to the use of GT; and their usefulness. The theoretical framework of actors’ resistance to institutional demands of Oliver (1991) is used as a theoretical lens to investigate the perceptions of the interviewees.

Findings

This study suggests that despite some benefits of the adoption of GT, such as increasing competitive advantage and improving green operations, there are huge concerns over the use and importation of GT. More specifically, almost all the technicians were concerned about the technical risks resulting from the lack of operational tests, the old technologies and the lack of knowledge transfer. Meanwhile, the paucity of specific regulations, guidance and environmental standards has been reported by business managers as one of the primary constraints for this movement.

Research limitations/implications

This research contributes to the emerging literature on GT transfers in the developing world. It proves that the lack of communication and the scarcity of a true champion for GT efforts have reduced the efficiency of GT transfer.

Practical implications

By shedding light on the intricate nature of the relationships arising from GT adoption in organizations, this paper aims to support business leaders and standard setters in making a decision regarding the implementation and promotion of GT transfer, especially in the context of developing countries.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the first studies to explore eco-friendly technology transfers in a developing country from the micro-level perspective of both business and technology practitioners of GT-recipient organizations.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

Kaj Grønbæk

Discusses experiences on the development and use of horizontal andvertical prototypes. Explains the difference. Resolves that horizontalprototypes can be developed with…

Abstract

Discusses experiences on the development and use of horizontal and vertical prototypes. Explains the difference. Resolves that horizontal prototypes can be developed with ′little effort′, but end users are reluctant to become involved in the development process. Contrastingly resolves that vertical prototypes appear to stimulate constructive response. Reasons that developers should be aware of the tacit knowledge which plays an important part in users′ work practices and should be involved early in the development process. Proposes three techniques to meet the requirements – participation, simulation and evaluation.

Details

Office Technology and People, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0167-5710

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

Riitta Hellman

Discusses the failure of end user computing (EUC) to achieve itsobjectives. Bases discussion on people, application and skill. Relatesthe problems to those of prototyping…

Abstract

Discusses the failure of end user computing (EUC) to achieve its objectives. Bases discussion on people, application and skill. Relates the problems to those of prototyping. Suggests some difficulties can be overcome by education. Presents an educational method consisting of five steps: interviews and observations, group discussions, lectures, simulation, and personal guidance.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Crystal Brown and Matthew Militello

Principals play a pivotal role in teachers’ professional growth, which impacts student outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to understand the perceptions principals have…

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Abstract

Purpose

Principals play a pivotal role in teachers’ professional growth, which impacts student outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to understand the perceptions principals have about effective elements of professional development (PD) and the role they play in facilitating the growth of teachers, and how this affects student learning.

Design/methodology/approach

Q methodology was utilized to investigate the subjective views of public school administrators about PD. A post sort survey was used to interpret demographic and perceptual data. The Q sorts were factor analyzed to reveal statistical correlations among the administrators. Focus group interviews representative of each emergent factor were then conducted with eight of the 34 principals who sorted the statements.

Findings

In total, 31 of the participants loaded on one of three factors. Though there were perceptional differences about which PD elements are effective, all of the principals expressed a desire to take an active role in teachers’ professional growth. These distinct viewpoints of PD included the themes of sustainability and collaboration.

Originality/value

School leaders are commonly named as the most important influence on teachers and their practices. PD is among the significant strategies that principals employ to impact teachers. Thus, studies that provide insights into how school leaders perceive PD are crucial to the in-service development of school teachers.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 54 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2008

Chuck Huff, Laura Barnard and William Frey

The purpose of this paper is to present a four component model of ethical behavior that integrates literature in moral psychology, computing ethics, and virtue ethics as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a four component model of ethical behavior that integrates literature in moral psychology, computing ethics, and virtue ethics as informed by research on moral exemplars in computing. This is part 2 of a two part contribution, part 1 having appeared in Vol. 6 No. 3.

Design/methodology/approach

This psychologically based and philosophically informed model argues that moral action is grounded in relatively stable personality characteristics, guided by integration of morality into the self‐system, shaped by the context of the surrounding moral ecology, and facilitated by morally relevant skills and knowledge.

Findings

The model seeks to explain the daily successful (and unsuccessful) performance of moral action by computing professionals and to provide groundwork for a pedagogy that emphasizes ethically effective performance.

Practical implications

The model has significant implications for how ethical action to computer professionals and other design professionals might be taught. It also makes recommendations about what need to be measured to construct a complete picture of sustained ethical action in a profession.

Originality/value

Most accepted models of ethical behavior are unidimensional, emphasizing either principled reasoning or a simplistic model of integrity/character. This model brings together a variety of disparate literatures in the light of its emphasis on sustained moral action in the profession. It thereby provides researchers and educators with a picture of what is needed to construct a complete understanding of moral action in the profession.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2019

Sajjad Rezaei

Aggression is a destructive experience in terms of social and public health. The purpose of this paper is to determine the role of depressive mood, premenstrual dysphoric…

Abstract

Purpose

Aggression is a destructive experience in terms of social and public health. The purpose of this paper is to determine the role of depressive mood, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in adolescent girls’ aggression.

Design/methodology/approach

In a cross-sectional study, 510 girl students were selected by multistage cluster sampling from Lahijan and Sangar high schools (Northern Iran) in the 2017–2018 academic year, and each of them responded to the short version of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13), Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool and Ahvaz Aggression Inventory. Data were analyzed by point-biserial and Pearson’s correlation coefficients, univariate analysis of covariance in the form of 2 × 3 factorial design and Hochberg’s GT2 post hoc test.

Findings

The questionnaires of 475 students were returned correctly (survey validity=93 percent). The results of ANCOVA after adjustment for confounding variables such as age and physical illness history revealed that the existence of main effect for depressive mood (F=31.50, df=1, p<0.0001) and PMS and PMDD diagnoses (F=11.39, df=2, p<0.0001) were associated with increased aggression. However, there was no significant interaction effect on aggression levels (p>0.05). Additionally, post hoc tests revealed no significant differences between the diagnosis of PMS and PMDD in terms of aggression (p>0.05).

Research limitations/implications

The present study has some limitations. Depressive mood and diagnoses of PMS and PMDD were defined through relying on the self-report data and cut points suggested by the questionnaires. Obviously, change of measurement tools or even cut points reduces the results reliability and repeatability. Furthermore, the research plan does not allow us to infer causal relations and does not provide information about the direction of the relationship between depression symptoms, PMS and PMDD diagnoses, and aggression. Finally, the present study is relied on high schools’ data, and the results cannot be generalized to other adolescent girls.

Originality/value

Despite the limitations of this study, its findings offer new insights into the factors influencing the perpetration of aggression in Iranian adolescent girls. Depressed adolescent girls and those receiving a PMS or PMDD diagnosis are more likely to develop aggression. These findings can be used in high schools to design educational and health-based interventions in order to reduce and prevent anger and resentment in adolescent girls.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Abstract

Details

Tourism and the Implications of Climate Change: Issues and Actions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-620-2

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