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Book part
Publication date: 27 June 2008

John Delaney and Martin J. Coe

It is broadly accepted that ethics should be incorporated into accounting programs. Most CPA firms rely on colleges and universities to teach ethical behavior. Utilizing a…

Abstract

It is broadly accepted that ethics should be incorporated into accounting programs. Most CPA firms rely on colleges and universities to teach ethical behavior. Utilizing a quasi-experimental approach, this chapter examines the effectiveness of ethics instruction delivered via a combination of lecture and active learning methods. Specifically, the impact of ethics instruction on behavior in business settings is investigated. Though similar studies have addressed this issue, this study tests the effectiveness of a particular curriculum in a post-Enron environment. Further, a new instrument to measure moral reasoning ability in work situations is introduced. The study's findings suggest that ethics instruction is effective in increasing moral reasoning ability, particularly in upper-level accounting courses such as accounting information systems and auditing.

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Advances in Accounting Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-519-2

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Book part
Publication date: 27 June 2008

Abstract

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Advances in Accounting Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-519-2

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Keith Hooper and Gina Xu

From a historical perspective, the purpose of this paper is to show how the current New Zealand Accountants' Code of Ethics (COE) differs from the first 1927 COE. The…

Abstract

Purpose

From a historical perspective, the purpose of this paper is to show how the current New Zealand Accountants' Code of Ethics (COE) differs from the first 1927 COE. The lengthy, current COE comprises strands of thought drawn from three different philosophical positions. By contrast, New Zealand's first COE was relatively short and reflected legitimacy by character employing the concepts of virtue ethics. The concepts of virtue ethics have now largely disappeared from the latest much longer code. The current code is more legalistic and technical, implying a concern for public relations. At the same time, the current COE has become a legitimising tool for the profession to emphasise image and quality.

Design/methodology/approach

To illustrate the shift in practice of ethical position, the paper is informed by a recent New Zealand case of a collapsed finance company as well as some further illustrations of a failure to discharge a duty of care to the public from the United Kingdom.

Findings

The shift in the COE coupled with a shift in underlying social values contributes to what the Economist Journal describes as a steady decline in professional ethics. There has been a shift from legitimising the character of an accountant to legitimising the character of accounting. This arguable conclusion is supported by a case study in New Zealand and cites the shift in combinations of cognitive, moral and pragmatic legitimacy as drivers employed by accounting firms.

Research limitations/implications

The paper uses secondary and documentary data and is informed by conceptual analysis which necessarily in the realm of ethics may be contentious.

Originality/value

The paper seeks to link the changing social values with changes in legitimisation and the COE to show shifts in accounting practices like the recent practice of issuing disclaimers.

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Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2014

Abstract

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Child Labour in Global Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-780-1

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

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E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2018

Varnita Srivastava, Niladri Das and Jamini Kanta Pattanayak

The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of gender diversity on corporate boards in India in the light of recent regulatory reform introduced in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of gender diversity on corporate boards in India in the light of recent regulatory reform introduced in the Companies’ Act, 2013 which mandated the presence of at least one woman on the corporate boards of all the listed firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a panel of 300 firm-year observations for 15 years from 2001 to 2015, regression analysis has been conducted to analyze the relation between gender-related variables of corporate boards with firm-specific financial characteristic, cost of equity (COE) and return on assets (ROA) of firms listed in CNX Nifty, a major financial market index of India.

Findings

The analysis indicates that boards with gender diversity explain a slightly more than 5.5 percent change in a firm’s COE and have a much higher impact of 45 percent on a firm’s ROA. The presence of female directors on the boards and their independence have a negative association with the COE, whereas the level of involvement of female directors on different committees has a positive association with the ROA.

Practical implications

The findings may help theorists in defining the right mix of female on the corporate boards in an emerging economy. Also, by taking input from the findings, regulators and industry can formulate policies to foster gender diversity on corporate boards in India.

Originality/value

This study considers the recent regulatory norm introduced in India. This issue has still not been discussed and analyzed by researchers in India. It attempts to explain the impact a gender diverse board can make on a firm’s performance. It also makes valuable recommendations to improve the norms intended to more effectively foster gender diversity on corporate boards in India.

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Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Subhadip Roy and Anita Pansari

Endorsement of a brand or sports team by a sports celebrity has been thoroughly researched within the context of sports marketing. However, the recent phenomenon of…

Abstract

Endorsement of a brand or sports team by a sports celebrity has been thoroughly researched within the context of sports marketing. However, the recent phenomenon of non-sports celebrities owning sports teams has received little research attention. This study uses a survey of Indian respondents in the context of a major sport (cricket) in India to explore the impact of a non-sports celebrity owning and endorsing a sports team on consumer attitudes towards the team and their sponsors. Findings indicate that the level of credibility assigned to the celebrity significantly affects consumer attitudes towards the team and its sponsors. The results suggest that managers of sports teams and their sponsors should consider a celebrity owner as an endorser, as long as that celebrity has high credibility.

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International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

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Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 21 January 2020

Fabio La Rosa, Francesca Bernini and Roberto Verona

Based on the institutionalized agency theory, this paper aims to analyses the role of earnings management (EM) in mediating the relationship between ownership structure…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the institutionalized agency theory, this paper aims to analyses the role of earnings management (EM) in mediating the relationship between ownership structure (OS) and the cost of equity capital (COE).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors test the above relationship by investigating a sample of 249 European non-financial listed companies during 2005-2012. The authors adopt different measures for both EM and COE and identify three main types of ownership by the majority share of the ultimate owners. Path analysis is used to explore the role of direct, mediated (i.e. EM) and total effects of OS on COE.

Findings

While OS directly affects COE, the results support the idea that an EM-mediating effect contributes to further explain this relationship in some ownership structures. Particularly European listed family-owned firms experience lower COE owing to the prevailing direct and negative effect of OS, despite the fact that both accrual and real EM mediate and have a positive effect on COE. In financial institutions-owned firms, only a direct and positive effect can be observed on COE while state-owned firms do not have a direct influence on the COE, although they do reduce real EM, which, in turn, decreases the COE in a mediated effect. Further analysis comparing the Anglo-Saxon context with Continental Europe shows more detailed results.

Practical implications

The study marks its entry into the international debate on the evolution in the value relevance of accounting information by arguing that the COE implications of EM depend on institutional factors such as OS and the context investigated.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to extant finance, accounting and corporate governance literature by providing new, robust evidence on the mediating role of EM in defining COE for different ownership types and their diverse risk-taking propensities in Continental Europe, which differs from the Anglo-Saxon context both institutionally and legally.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

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Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2017

Tay T. R. Koo and Andreas Papatheodorou

Airports and urban developments in their vicinity constitute a highly specialized type of agglomeration based on air connectivity that epitomizes the importance of…

Abstract

Airports and urban developments in their vicinity constitute a highly specialized type of agglomeration based on air connectivity that epitomizes the importance of mobility in the modern service economy. However, in a frictionless world of backyard capitalism and perfect competition, such agglomeration of civil aviation services would not have been necessary. Thus, concepts such as imperfect markets, path dependence, and cumulative causation may be alternatively used to explain the spatial aspects of airport developments. Focusing on “second-nature” concentration, the “new geographical economics” (NGE) literature offers a potential theoretical framework that organizes these concepts into a coherent economic framework. This chapter aims to highlight the unique relevance of the NGE approach in developing an economics-based understanding of the spatial distribution of airports. Drawing from the existing NGE knowledge-base, this conceptual chapter explains that the NGE approach can be adopted as a micro-foundation to show how the spatial aspects of airport development, including core-periphery dynamics of regional disparity and parity, can emerge from economic mechanisms. The chapter concludes with potential implications for airport economics and regional policy, along with the discussion of some of the main critiques of the theory.

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