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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2013

John Hamilton Bradford

To summarize and evaluate John Levi Marin’s recent book, The Explanation of Social Action (2011), the central thesis of which is that the actions of other people cannot be…

Abstract

Purpose

To summarize and evaluate John Levi Marin’s recent book, The Explanation of Social Action (2011), the central thesis of which is that the actions of other people cannot be explained without first understanding those actions from the point of view of the actors themselves. Martin thus endeavors to reorient social science toward concrete experience and away from purportedly useless abstractions.

Design/methodology/approach

This review chapter employs close scrutiny of and applies immanent critique to Martin’s argumentative claims, warrants, and the polemical style in which these arguments are presented.

Findings

This chapter arrives at the following conclusions: (1) Martin unnecessarily truncates the scope of sociological investigation; (2) he fails to define the key concepts within his argument, including “explanation,” “social action,” and “understanding,” among others; (3) he overemphasizes the external or “environmental” causes of action; (4) rather than inducing actions, the so-called “action-fields” induce experiences, and are therefore incapable of explaining actions; (5) Martin rejects counterfactual definitions of causality while defining his own notion of causality in terms of counterfactuals; (6) most of his critiques of other philosophical accounts of causality are really critiques of their potential misapplication; (7) the separation of experience and language (i.e., propositions about experience) in order to secure the validity of the former does not secure the validity of sociological inquiry, since experiences are invariably reported in language; and, finally, (8) Martin’s argument that people are neurologically incapable of providing accurate, retrospective accounts of the motivations behind their own actions is based on the kind of third-person social science he elsewhere repudiates; that he acknowledges the veracity of these studies demonstrates the potential utility of the “third-person” perspectives and the implausibility of any social science that abandons them.

Originality/value

To date Martin’s book has received much praise but little critical attention. This review chapter seeks to fill this lacuna in the literature in order to better elucidate Martin’s central arguments and the conclusions that can be reasonably inferred from the logical and empirical evidence presented.

Details

Social Theories of History and Histories of Social Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-219-6

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

Jeanie Wills and Krystl Raven

This paper uses archival documents to begin to recover a history of women’s leadership in the advertising industry. In particular, this paper aims to identify the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper uses archival documents to begin to recover a history of women’s leadership in the advertising industry. In particular, this paper aims to identify the leadership styles of the first five presidents of the New York League of Advertising Women’s (NYLAW) club. Their leadership from 1912 to 1926 set the course for and influenced the culture of the New York League. These five women laid the foundations of a social club that would also contribute to the professionalization of women in advertising, building industry networks for women, forging leadership and mentorship links among women, providing advertising education exclusively for women and, finally, bolstering women’s status in all avenues of advertising. The first five presidents were, of course, different characters, but each exhibited the traits associated with “transformational leaders,” leaders who prepare the “demos” for their own leadership roles. The women’s styles converged with their situational context to give birth to a women’s advertising club that, like most clubs, did charity work and hosted social events, but which was developed by the first five presidents to give women the same kinds of professional opportunities as the advertising men’s clubs provided their membership. The first five presidents of the Advertising League had strong prior professional credibility because of the careers they had constructed for themselves among the men who dominated the advertising field in the first decade of the 20th century. As presidents of the NYLAW, they advocated for better jobs, equal rights at work and better pay for women working in the advertising industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws on women’s advertising archival material from the Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe and Wisconsin Historical Society to argue that the five founding mothers of the NYLAW provided what can best be described as transformational feminist leadership, which resulted in building an effective club for their members and setting it on a trajectory of advocacy and education that would benefit women in the advertising industry for the next several decades. These women did not refer to themselves as “leaders,” they probably would not have considered their work in organizing the New York club an exercise in leadership, nor might they have called themselves feminists or seen their club as a haven for feminist work. However, by using modern leadership theories, the study can gain insight into how these women instantiated feminist ideals through a transformational leadership paradigm. Thus, the historical documents provide insight into the leadership roles and styles of some of the first women working in American advertising in the early parts of the 20th century.

Findings

Archival documents from the women’s advertising clubs can help us to understand women’s leadership practices and to reconstruct a history of women’s leadership in the advertising industry. Eight years before women in America could vote, the first five presidents shared with the club their wealth of collective experience – over two decades worth – as advertising managers, copywriters and space buyers. The first league presidents oversaw the growth of an organization would benefit both women and the advertising industry when they proclaimed that the women’s clubs would “improve the level of taste, ethics and knowledge throughout the communications industry by example, education and dissemination of information” (Dignam, 1952, p. 9). In addition, the club structure gave ad-women a collective voice which emerged through its members’ participation in building the club and through the rallying efforts of transformational leaders.

Social implications

Historically, the advertising industry in the USA has been “pioneered” by male industry leaders such as Claude Hopkins, Albert Lasker and David Ogilvy. However, when the authors look to archival documents, it was found that women have played leadership roles in the industry too. Drawing on historical methodology, this study reconstructs a history of women’s leadership in the advertising and marketing industries.

Originality/value

This paper helps to understand how women participated in leadership roles in the advertising industry, which, in turn, enabled other women to build careers in the industry.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2013

Xavier Martin and Koen van den Oever

We examine patterns and changes in the use of various theoretical perspectives, and in the approach to testing individual or combinations of theories, within the field of…

Abstract

We examine patterns and changes in the use of various theoretical perspectives, and in the approach to testing individual or combinations of theories, within the field of international strategy that constitutes one of the major areas of international business (IB) research. We conduct a systematic bibliometric analysis of 22 years’ worth of empirical papers. We generate tabular evidence and introduce the use of network graphing methodology to report and analyse the co-occurrence of theories. We find a changing distribution of theoretical perspectives, indicative of a re-centring of the field around strategic and organizational perspectives. This is accompanied by use of more complex approaches to testing contingencies of the sort likely to result from these theory combinations, especially across firm, interfirm and institutional levels of analysis. We thus generate and discuss critically a quantitative and graphical overview of the progress of international strategy research. This creates unique and comprehensive insights into the development of theory and empirics in IB. We draw lessons for academics and report practical recommendations for the conduct of research. Overall, our study sheds new light on the disciplinary nature of IB research and its interplay with related fields and disciplines. It explicates patterns of theory accretion alongside patterns of theory testing and refinement. It provides a comprehensive map of the field of IB strategy as it evolved since 1990 and illuminates its future.

Details

Philosophy of Science and Meta-Knowledge in International Business and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-713-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1946

A new hand‐bending tool, which permits all kinds of small tubing to be curved to any desired angle, has been developed by the Glenn L. Martin Company.

Abstract

A new hand‐bending tool, which permits all kinds of small tubing to be curved to any desired angle, has been developed by the Glenn L. Martin Company.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Book part
Publication date: 28 March 2012

Laurie Elish-Piper, Susan Hinrichs, Samantha Morley and Molly Williams

Purpose – To present the Assessment to Instructional Planning (ATIP) framework that uses assessment to guide instructional planning.Design/methodology/approach – The ATIP…

Abstract

Purpose – To present the Assessment to Instructional Planning (ATIP) framework that uses assessment to guide instructional planning.

Design/methodology/approach – The ATIP framework is comprised of three interconnected processes: data collection, data analysis and interpretation, and instructional planning.

Findings – In the ATIP framework, data collection includes reviewing background information and developing and implementing an assessment plan. The data analysis and interpretation process begins with scoring assessments and progresses to contextualizing results and making decisions. Instructional planning moves from setting goals to selecting instructional methods and materials, implementing instructional checkpoints, and monitoring and adjusting instruction.

Research limitations/implications – The ATIP framework provides a step-by-step process that educators can follow to use assessment to plan instruction. ATIP requires that educators already have knowledge of literacy assessment and instruction to apply the Framework appropriately.

Practical implications – The ATIP framework can be applied for students in grades K-8 in clinical settings, school-based intervention programs, and elementary and middle school classrooms.

Originality/value – This chapter provides three profiles to illustrate the ATIP framework in clinical, small-group intervention, and classroom settings with different levels of readers with varying strengths, needs, and backgrounds.

Details

Using Informative Assessments towards Effective Literacy Instruction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-630-0

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2020

Jorge Ferreira and Arnaldo Coelho

The purpose of this paper is to understand the impact of dynamic capabilities (DC) (in the view of exploration and exploitation) on competitiveness and performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the impact of dynamic capabilities (DC) (in the view of exploration and exploitation) on competitiveness and performance, considering the mediating role the innovation capability (IC) and branding capabilities (BC)on competitive advantage and firm’s performance and the moderating role of entrepreneurial orientation (EO).

Design/methodology/approach

This investigation proposes a theoretical model tested using structural equation modelling (SEM). Multi-group analysis was performed to understand the moderating role of. A questionnaire survey was developed to explore the relations between DC and innovation variable. For this study, 387 valid questionnaires were collected from a sample of Portugal SME’ firms. A 90-item questionnaire which consists to study the relationships among all the variables.

Findings

The results show that exists a positive direct and indirect influence of DC on competitive advantage and performance variables and mediating impact the IC and BC.

Research limitations/implications

This study has some methodological limitations affecting its potential contributions. As a cross-sectional study that captures one image in time, its ability to identify strict causality between variables is limited. Furthermore, the results are based on log collected from a key respondent, rather than broader actual data. The results are restricted to one country, Portugal. Some variables, such as ICs, may play a different role in other countries. Future research should initially target different countries. Such research could then test the generalizability of the results.

Practical implications

This study has important implications for the managers. It highlights the necessity of firms to develop superior strategic orientation of all their members and to invest in better resources and consequently superior capabilities as a way of achieving high levels of firm performance. Another implication from the study is that the firms should develop their marketing programs by focusing on developing innovativeness.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the understanding of the indirect and direct impact of exploration and exploitation variables, and the mediating role of ICs and BC on the competitive advantage and performance and the moderating effect of EO.

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Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2006

Andrew Stark

Canada's institutions, by comparison with America's, have created a unique normative regime. When it comes to conflict of interest, the main problem in Canada has not been…

Abstract

Canada's institutions, by comparison with America's, have created a unique normative regime. When it comes to conflict of interest, the main problem in Canada has not been that private interests encumber governmental judgment, but that government itself, and in particular the publicly sourced emoluments controlled by the prime minister, can encumber the judgment of ministers and legislators. When it comes to campaign finance law, the problem is that parties are treated as if they are self-interested entities, while interest groups have often been treated as if they are parties. I explore the institutional causes and regulatory consequences of Canada's unique normative approach.

Details

Public Ethics and Governance: Standards and Practices in Comparative Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-226-9

Abstract

Details

Platform Economics: Rhetoric and Reality in the ‘Sharing Economy’
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-809-5

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2009

Gastón Fornés and Guillermo Cardoza

The purpose of this paper is to look at the impact that unanticipated changes in the exchange rate, specifically the currency crises that took place in Latin America…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to look at the impact that unanticipated changes in the exchange rate, specifically the currency crises that took place in Latin America between 1998 and 2004, had on the value of Spanish companies operating in this region. It also studies the strategies, decisions, measures and initiatives that these firms made to improve the effectiveness of their hedging activities. Building upon previous studies in industrialised countries, the study applies a broader perspective as it takes a cross‐functional approach by including finance, strategic planning, marketing and operations management in the analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses qualitative and quantitative analyses to reach its conclusions. The quantitative study involves a time series regression to calculate a foreign exchange exposure (FOREX) coefficient. The qualitative analysis uses a systematic approach to develop categories from the data gathered in the interviews. Finally, the conclusions from both analyses were summarised and combined. The data was collected from interviews containing structured and open‐ended questions with senior managers and directors of the largest Spanish investors in Latin America.

Findings

The research results suggest that foreign companies exposed to exchange risks in emerging markets gain resilience when they take a cross‐functional approach for the assessment and implementation of hedging strategies along with the decentralisation to subsidiaries of the decisions and implementation of hedging initiatives. This helps companies in: elaborating scenarios, assessing the possible impact of exchange rate variations, designing pre‐emptive measures and setting alternative strategies to mitigate potential impacts. This cross‐functional approach to managing risks in emerging markets seems to offer companies higher flexibility and new knowledge that can be shared among subsidiaries working in similar economic and political environments.

Originality/value

The results from this empirical study build upon previous works on FOREX and offer companies an alternative approach to minimise its impacts when operating in emerging markets.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Book part
Publication date: 3 November 2014

Martin Hand

To outline the current trajectories in digital social research and to highlight the roles of qualitative research in those trajectories.

Abstract

Purpose

To outline the current trajectories in digital social research and to highlight the roles of qualitative research in those trajectories.

Design/methodology/approach

A secondary analysis of the primary literature.

Findings

Qualitative research has shifted over time in relation to rapidly changing digital phenomena, but arguably finds itself in ‘crisis’ when faced with algorithms and ubiquitous digital data. However, there are many highly significant qualitative approaches that are being pursued and have the potential to contextualize, situate and critique narratives and practices of data.

Originality/value

To situate current debates around methods within longer trajectories of digital social research, recognizing their conceptual, disciplinary and empirical commitments.

Details

Big Data? Qualitative Approaches to Digital Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-050-6

Keywords

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