In present study, a full-scale testing of reinforced concrete (RC) frame sub-assemblage has been investigated under fire subsequent to simulated seismic loading. First…
In present study, a full-scale testing of reinforced concrete (RC) frame sub-assemblage has been investigated under fire subsequent to simulated seismic loading. First part of the sequential loading consisted of a quasi-static cyclic lateral loading corresponds to life safety level of structural performance on the test frame. In the second part of the test, a compartment fire was ignited to the pre-damaged test frame for one hour duration simulating fire following earthquake (FFE) scenario. The results showed that the first cracking was observed at the end joints of the roof beams after the frame experienced a 30 mm cyclic lateral displacement. One hour heating and eleven hour cooling was tracked and temperatures were recorded. A knocking sound was heard from the fire compartment after 5 minutes of the fire ignition. An excessive degradation of the concrete material at a number of locations of the frame sub-assemblage was observed during visual inspection after the fire test. The Nondestructive tests (NDT) were also conducted to ascertain the damage in the RC frame at the various stages of loading. The test results developed an understanding of the behaviour of RC frame sub-assemblage in FFE.
The fire-safe structural design and construction of unbonded post-tensioned (UPT) flat plate concrete structures has recently come under debate in the UK, and questions…
The fire-safe structural design and construction of unbonded post-tensioned (UPT) flat plate concrete structures has recently come under debate in the UK, and questions are being raised regarding the response to fire of post-tensioned concrete slabs. Related to these concerns is the real world response of continuous UPT tendons inside such structures both during and after a fire, which is largely unknown and depends on many potentially important factors which are not currently accounted for in standard fire tests. Several credible concerns exist for UPT concrete structures in fire, most notably the potential for premature tendon rupture due to localized heating which may result from a number of possible causes (discussed herein). The research presented in this paper deals specifically with the time-temperature-stress-strength interdependencies of stressed UPT tendons under localized transient heating, as may be experienced by tendons in a real UPT building in a real fire. Nineteen high temperature stress relaxation tests on UPT tendons of realistic length and parabolic longitudinal profile are reported. It is shown that localized heating of UPT tendons is likely to induce premature tendon rupture during fire, even in structures which meet the prescriptive concrete cover requirements imposed by available design codes.
This is Part II of a two part paper dealing with the current state of knowledge of the fire-safe structural design and construction of unbonded post-tensioned (UPT) flat…
This is Part II of a two part paper dealing with the current state of knowledge of the fire-safe structural design and construction of unbonded post-tensioned (UPT) flat plate concrete structures. Part I provided detailed results of nineteen transient high temperature stress relaxation tests on restrained UPT tendons of realistic length and parabolic longitudinal profiles. Experimentation identified several credible concerns for UPT concrete structures in fire, most notably the potential for premature tendon rupture due to localized heating, which may result from a number of possible causes in a real structure. The real world response of continuous UPT tendons both during and after heating is largely unknown, and is dependent on factors which are not currently accounted for either in standard fire tests or by available prescriptive design guidance. This second part of the paper presents and applies a numerical model to predict the time-temperaturestress-strength interdependencies of stressed UPT tendons under localized transient heating, as may be experienced by tendons in a real concrete building in a real fire. The model is used, along with previously developed and validated computational models for heat transfer and prestress relaxation in UPT tendons, to assess existing prescriptive concrete cover requirements for UPT slabs. It is shown that localized heating of UPT tendons is likely to induce premature tendon rupture during fire, and that current prescriptive code procedures based on concrete cover alone are, in general, insufficient to prevent this. Based on the data presented it appears that minimum code prescribed concrete covers for UPT structures require revision if premature tendon rupture during fire is to be avoided.
Researchers recommend a reorganization of the medical profession into larger groups with a multispecialty mix. We analyze whether there is evidence for the superiority of…
Researchers recommend a reorganization of the medical profession into larger groups with a multispecialty mix. We analyze whether there is evidence for the superiority of these models and if this organizational transformation is underway.
We summarize the evidence on scale and scope economies in physician group practice, and then review the trends in physician group size and specialty mix to conduct survivorship tests of the most efficient models.
The distribution of physician groups exhibits two interesting tails. In the lower tail, a large percentage of physicians continue to practice in small, physician-owned practices. In the upper tail, there is a small but rapidly growing percentage of large groups that have been organized primarily by non-physician owners.
While our analysis includes no original data, it does collate all known surveys of physician practice characteristics and group practice formation to provide a consistent picture of physician organization.
Our review suggests that scale and scope economies in physician practice are limited. This may explain why most physicians have retained their small practices.
Larger, multispecialty groups have been primarily organized by non-physician owners in vertically integrated arrangements. There is little evidence supporting the efficiencies of such models and some concern they may pose anticompetitive threats.
This is the first comprehensive review of the scale and scope economies of physician practice in nearly two decades. The research results do not appear to have changed much; nor has much changed in physician practice organization.
The purpose of this chapter is to analyse the interplay between fathers’ perceptions of the workplace and how they enact fatherhood. Data were derived from qualitative…
The purpose of this chapter is to analyse the interplay between fathers’ perceptions of the workplace and how they enact fatherhood. Data were derived from qualitative in-depth interviews with seven elite, professional fathers employed at multinational manufacturing corporations in Detroit, Michigan. Fathers are highly educated, have a significant income and all but one have wives in the paid labour market. This study shows how the persistence of the ideal worker norm and penalties for using work-family policies (WFP) perpetuate the gendered division of paid and unpaid work. First, fathers who are ideal workers are rewarded; fathers who do not face criticism and obstacles to promotions. Second, management and supervisor’s discretion results in uneven access to WFP, penalizing fathers for asking and preventing most from using them. Third, fathers express desire to be ‘involved’, but their engagement is largely visible fatherhood.
This study extends our theoretical understandings of work, WFP and fatherhood from a distinct departure point – the elite fathers highlighted here have been parenting for at least three years, and live and work in circumstances that seemingly would allow them to disrupt normative expectations of work and family. The United States provides a unique backdrop to examine the navigation of competing work and family demands because reconciliation is largely left to employees and their families. Public and individual company policies are not enough; there must be a corresponding supportive family-friendly culture – supervisor support and penalty-free WFP – to disrupt gendered work and family.
Student competency in science learning relies on students being able to interpret and use multimodal representations to communicate understandings. Moreover, collaborative…
Student competency in science learning relies on students being able to interpret and use multimodal representations to communicate understandings. Moreover, collaborative learning, in which students may share physiological arousal, can positively affect group performance. This paper aims to observe changes in student attitudes and beliefs, physiology (electrodermal activity; EDA) and content knowledge before and after a multimodal, cooperative inquiry, science teaching intervention to determine associations with productive science learning and increased science knowledge.
A total of 214 students with a mean age of 11 years 6 months from seven primary schools participated in a multimodal, cooperative inquiry, science teaching intervention for eight weeks during a science curriculum unit. Students completed a series of questionnaires pertaining to attitudes and beliefs about science learning and science knowledge before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) the teaching intervention. Empatica E3 wristbands were worn by students during 1 to 3 of their regularly scheduled class sessions both before and after the intervention.
Increases in EDA, science knowledge, self-efficacy and a growth mindset, and decreases in self-esteem, confidence, motivation and use of cognitive strategies, were recorded post-intervention for the cohort. EDA was positively correlated with science knowledge, but negatively correlated with self-efficacy, motivation and use of cognitive strategies. Cluster analysis suggested three main clusters of students with differing physiological and psychological profiles.
First, teachers need to be aware of the importance of helping students to consolidate their current learning strategies as they transition to new learning approaches to counter decreased confidence. Second, teachers need to know that an effective teaching multimodal science intervention can not only be associated with increases in science knowledge but also increases in self-efficacy and movement towards a growth mindset. Finally, while there is evidence that there are positive associations between physiological arousal and science knowledge, physiological arousal was also associated with reductions in self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation and the use of cognitive strategies. This mixed result warrants further investigation.
Overall, this study proposes a need for teachers to counter decreased confidence in students who are learning new strategies, with further research required on the utility of monitoring physiological markers.
This paper aims to examine indigenous governance and economies of iwi Maori (Maori tribes) in Aotearoa New Zealand. Research into persisting inequities amongst iwi that…
This paper aims to examine indigenous governance and economies of iwi Maori (Maori tribes) in Aotearoa New Zealand. Research into persisting inequities amongst iwi that have settled treaty claims and the potential for intervention through new governance models and indigenous entrepreneurship contextualise the paper.
Kaupapa Maori (Maori philosophy) is used as an indigenous methodology to facilitate and empower transformative change, underpinned by Maori knowledge, language and culture. A multi-level approach is used to collect data from international, national and local tribal organisations. Validity is established through stakeholder engagement.
A central challenge in the post-treaty settlement context is exponentialising tribal capabilities because of the multiple purposes ascribed to post-settled iwi. Four themes, characterised as “unfolding tensions”, offer a critique and basis for solving tribal development challenges: how do tribes create culturally grounded global citizens; how do tribes rebalance wealth creation and wealth distribution; how do tribes recalibrate tribal institutions; and how do tribes embed entrepreneurship and innovation within their economies?
As data collection is still underway, the paper is conceptual.
Five strategies to address unfolding tensions are identified for tribes to consider.
Tribal governors and tribal members are implicated in the analysis, as well as the architects of post-treaty settlement governance models.
The paper contributes to theorising about tribal governance, economies and entrepreneurship.
In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This…
In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This wealth of material poses problems for the researcher in management studies — and, of course, for the librarian: uncovering what has been written in any one area is not an easy task. This volume aims to help the librarian and the researcher overcome some of the immediate problems of identification of material. It is an annotated bibliography of management, drawing on the wide variety of literature produced by MCB University Press. Over the last four years, MCB University Press has produced an extensive range of books and serial publications covering most of the established and many of the developing areas of management. This volume, in conjunction with Volume I, provides a guide to all the material published so far.
The introduction of female writers to The Archers in 1975 brought a new perspective to the programme, revitalising its profile and cementing its place in the British…
The introduction of female writers to The Archers in 1975 brought a new perspective to the programme, revitalising its profile and cementing its place in the British psyche. This ‘feminisation’ of the programme was an important turning point for the women of Ambridge with increasing focus on issues important to them. This chapter argues that until this time storylines had tended to position women in the background of farming life, their identities shaped solely in terms of their relationships with the men of the village, as homemakers, carers and love-interests. The new band of female writers meant that the women of Ambridge were able to emerge as fully-rounded characters in their own right, as professionals, farmers, business women and matriarchs, at the forefront of village life. It goes on to discuss the character and function of Susan Carter, from the writer's perspective of both a research psychologist and the actor who plays Susan. It is argued that Susan utilises gossip not only as a tool with which to create interpersonal alliances and cement friendships but also to enhance her damaged self-worth and increase her status and power as a fount of all Ambridge knowledge.
The paper aims to explore young people's experiences of having access to personal advisors (PAs), from Connexions, a support and guidance service.
Semi‐structured interviews were conducted, in two phases, with young people in a large new town. Thematic analysis highlighted significant issues and suggested factors that might differentiate between those in employment, education and training and those not in this position.
Young people's relationship with their Connexions PA emerged as a significant factor in mediating the extent to which they used the service as a “portal” to opportunities and resources. For some young people faced with complex and challenging circumstances, the relationship with their PA provided a uniquely stable and valued source of support.
Although drawn from a small and focused sample, the results suggests that the large‐scale cuts to the service, currently underway, could have a significant impact on young people in difficult circumstances.
The identity of the Connexions service creates issues of access for potential service users.
The research illustrates the positive impact that PAs can have in the complex and challenging situations which some young people encounter. It highlights the nature of the relationship developed with PA as a key issue in facilitating positive changes in the lives of young people. It also suggest that the categories of not in education, employment and training and education, employment and training are too simplistic as descriptors of the young peoples lives or the work undertaken with them by PAs.