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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1975

John P. Walter and William H. Leahy

Economic studies that attempt to explain or describe the process of economic development in Latin America often overlook the participation of youth. Such studies generally…

Abstract

Economic studies that attempt to explain or describe the process of economic development in Latin America often overlook the participation of youth. Such studies generally address themselves to such problems as capital formation, investments in natural and human resources, foreign trade, population, and agriculture. Problems faced by the youth within the development process are usually oversimplified or treated as insignificant. For example, the works of Higgins, Kindleberger, Lewis, and Myrdal cover a vast number of economic development topics. But Myrdal's work is the only one that even lightly dwells on the problems faced by youth in the development process. Yet it is today's youth who will be tomorrow's participants in the development process and it is today's youth who must be counted on to solve the existing problems experienced in the development process—shortage of savings, shortage of educational and social services, housing shortages, and all the other problems inherent in a developing country.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1985

Lois Weis

Education perpetuates inequality directly, in that messages distributed by schools are linked to student social class. A specific focus on the response of white…

Abstract

Education perpetuates inequality directly, in that messages distributed by schools are linked to student social class. A specific focus on the response of white working‐class and minority students' attitudes to school (in the USA) reveals that elites maintain themselves not only through their own education but also through the education of others; and that those at the bottom contribute to the maintenance of class structure through their own creative response to wider ranging inequalities, and the way these inequalities are mediated in schools.

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1974

ALAN L. SORKIN

From December, 1969 to March, 1970 a sample survey was conducted throughout Chile to determine individual utilization and expenditures on health services. As a by‐product…

Abstract

From December, 1969 to March, 1970 a sample survey was conducted throughout Chile to determine individual utilization and expenditures on health services. As a by‐product of this survey, information was obtained on individual schooling and income by age, occupation, and region of residence. This paper analyzes the latter information. The sample consists of 3,839 Chilean males who were heads of households and who were employed during 1969.

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Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Ernesto Schiefelbein and Paulina Schiefelbein

In the past two decades, Chile has implemented three reform strategies that shaped its educational decentralization process, each motivated by different goals. In the…

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1278

Abstract

In the past two decades, Chile has implemented three reform strategies that shaped its educational decentralization process, each motivated by different goals. In the 1980s, during the military regime, an economic model structured a voucher system that created incentives for parents to choose schools for their children. In theory, bad schools would improve in quality or go out of business. The second reform began in 1990 and was embedded in the transition from autocratic to democratic government. Sociologists were the intellectual authors of this initiative which focused on improving the working conditions of teachers. In 1994, the third strategy began with educational researchers focusing attention on the classroom effectiveness and the need for better instructional materials and improvements in the teaching/learning process. The continued study of educational decentralization in Chile is important because it represents the only nation in the world with a nation‐wide voucher system.

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Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

Martin Carnoy

The technological revolution is creating new goods and services and altering how and where they are produced. One of the principal issues for all countries is how these…

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3321

Abstract

The technological revolution is creating new goods and services and altering how and where they are produced. One of the principal issues for all countries is how these new technologies will affect employment and the composition of skills demand. Surveys the literature to attempt to answer three main questions: to what degree are the new technologies becoming diffused around the world? How much do they reduce, or increase employment? And do they reduce, or increase, the skills required in the labour force? Touches briefly on implications for educational policy. The survey suggests that because of new technologies, new organizations of production, changing employment conditions and the development of new sectors of production, the complementarity of general, formal schooling, in‐plant training and learning‐by‐doing to capital investment are increasing over time and that general schooling plus on‐the‐job training is more complementary to new technologies than is vocational schooling. The former combination is more likely to give workers the flexibility they need in such changing conditions.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 18 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Julia Kuzmina and Martin Carnoy

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative academic effectiveness of vocational education in three countries with early tracking systems: Austria, Croatia, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative academic effectiveness of vocational education in three countries with early tracking systems: Austria, Croatia, and Hungary.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use an instrumental variables approach to estimate vocational education’s relative academic effectiveness in terms of achievement on an international test, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s Program of International Student Assessment (PISA), and two possible indicators of non-cognitive outcomes – self-efficacy in mathematics and intrinsic motivation in mathematics, both also available from the PISA student survey.

Findings

The results show few, if any, differences in student gains from attending the vocational track in secondary school as opposed to the academic track. Specifically, the results show that attending the vocational or academic track results in similar achievement gains in the tenth grade and generally similar gains in self-efficacy and motivation in mathematics.

Originality/value

The study is unique because in the three countries, the authors can use a fuzzy regression discontinuity approach based on school systems’ age entrance date rules to estimate the gain in test scores over an academic year and to compare the gain for students in the vocational and academic tracks. The results contradict almost all other studies by showing that in these countries student academic gains in vocational education are about the same as in the academic track.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2008

Adeela Arshad-Ayaz

In this chapter I argue that education cannot escape being influenced by the economic, political and cultural effects of globalization. Through an examination of the…

Abstract

In this chapter I argue that education cannot escape being influenced by the economic, political and cultural effects of globalization. Through an examination of the policies of national governments, agenda of international organizations such as the World Bank and UNESCO, the global practices of privatization, accountability and managerialism, I demonstrate that education is being used as a tool of neo-liberal economic reform, a process that increases inequalities and marginalizes the already unheard voices. I argue that any analysis of globalization and its impact on higher education requires stepping back from all interactions and practices and asking basic questions about what these terms imply, why they function the way they do, and whose interests they serve. A critical analysis of the transformation of universities and thus the knowledge produced is essential as it affects and infiltrates our very consciousness. I argue that while higher education is being restructured under the neo-liberal economic rationality it is important for educators to find out what will be gained and what will be lost before going ahead with such restructuring. I also contend that the neo-liberal economic rationality of globalization has framed the restructuring of education in such a manner that its function has changed from production of knowledge to production and management of wealth. As a result of accepting the dominant discourse of the globalization agenda without much critical analysis or debate regarding its consequences, education has lost its basic function of producing democratic citizens.

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Power, Voice and the Public Good: Schooling and Education in Global Societies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-185-5

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Book part
Publication date: 3 December 2005

Ward Churchill

There is no argument among serious researchers that a mongoloid stock first colonized the New World from Asia. Nor is there controversy about the fact that these…

Abstract

There is no argument among serious researchers that a mongoloid stock first colonized the New World from Asia. Nor is there controversy about the fact that these continental pioneers used the Bering Land Bridge that then connected the Asian Far East with Alaska.– Gerald F. Shields, et al.American Journal of Genetics (1992)

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Social Theory as Politics in Knowledge
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-363-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

John Middleton and Adrian Ziderman

Reports that although the results of the World Bank’s programme of policy research on vocational and technical education and training are available in published form, the…

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2936

Abstract

Reports that although the results of the World Bank’s programme of policy research on vocational and technical education and training are available in published form, the process through which these publications are developed is known only to those directly involved. Asserts that the process of policy research is as important as the product. Reviews the policy study programme and research conducted or sponsored by the World Bank and other international agencies. Reviews the literature and addresses key policy areas with recent information.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 18 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2008

Michael E. Jones

Throughout the course of its history, Thailand has thrived on international commerce and interacting with global forces. During the past two centuries, Thailand has faced…

Abstract

Throughout the course of its history, Thailand has thrived on international commerce and interacting with global forces. During the past two centuries, Thailand has faced a progression of events threatening its self-definition requiring very conscious educational and cultural reform policies to offset the advances of globalized movements. The first series of reforms began to take place in the late 19th century and served as a defensive measure to fend off the onslaught of European colonial activity and to unify a disjointed society. This reform was used to primarily centralize the cultural and religious authority and power of the kingdom, while assimilating the local/regional/rural areas through education. The most recent reform in late 20th century was devised to fend off global market forces and to unify a disjointed society through a strategy of decentralization and educational reform. Both these reforms were countered with strong resistance movements that reflect a resistance heritage that aspires to civil society.

Details

Power, Voice and the Public Good: Schooling and Education in Global Societies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-185-5

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