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This article presents the findings of an evaluation of the impact on service users of a local authority's individual budgets pilot. The local authority has pursued an…
This article presents the findings of an evaluation of the impact on service users of a local authority's individual budgets pilot. The local authority has pursued an outcomes‐focused approach to care planning. The research findings suggest that these service users and their families see individual budgets as a very positive development. Service users have been able to gain greater control over their lives, not least in that they are able to determine to a much greater extent how they have their needs met. This facilitates service users' general growth and development, such that they are able to engage more fully and on a more equal footing as part of their families and communities. However, there remain a number of challenges that need to be addressed if individual budgets, or personal budgets generally, are to be rolled out successfully across adult social and health care.
The concept of light-handed regulation, including light-handed approaches to the regulation of airport services, is discussed. The rationale for the economic regulation of…
The concept of light-handed regulation, including light-handed approaches to the regulation of airport services, is discussed. The rationale for the economic regulation of airport services and the traditional approaches used for economic regulation of airport charges are summarized. The evolution of international practice of light-handed regulation is outlined, including the experience with minimal regulation across monopoly industries in New Zealand and the acceptance of “negotiated settlements” in utility industries in North America. General reasons for moving to light-handed regulation of airports include the disadvantages of the price cap approach in practice and the benefits of facilitating greater negotiation between airports and users. Comparisons are made between alternative approaches to light-handed regulation of airport services, including price and quality of service monitoring, information disclosure regulation and negotiate-arbitrate regulation, approaches that have been applied to airport services in Australia and New Zealand. The role and nature of the incentives under each approach are discussed. The chapter concludes that whether light-handed regulation provides a suitable alternative approach to direct regulation depends on the market circumstances and the design characteristics of the light-handed approach.
The growing importance of small‐ and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) in high‐technology innovation and the importance of innovation in maintaining competitive advantage…
The growing importance of small‐ and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) in high‐technology innovation and the importance of innovation in maintaining competitive advantage has been acknowledged. The possibilities of co‐operation between high‐technology SMEs as a mechanism for enhancing individual firm growth is considered. The current stock of empirical evidence on high‐technology SMEs is outlined and the fact that few small firms achieve substantial growth highlighted. The major barriers to growth which lie behind this outcome are considered. The possibilities of networking, in its various forms, are considered as a facilitating medium for aiding business growth, with particular attention paid to high intensity co‐operative arrangements. The need for heterogeneous skill possession is emphasized, and how environments comprising homogeneous core competencies make networking an inappropriate solution for business growth. The existing empirical data on SME networking is considered and the relative costs and benefits of membership tabulated on the basis of network type. This leads on to an analysis of how beneficial, long‐term arrangements between actors may not occur in the market because of short‐term risks associated with other party(ies) defecting, as can be modelled within a prisoner's dilemma game theory structure. The final section discusses the possible role for network brokers in lessening these risks and aiding the development of mutually beneficial, growth‐oriented relationships between high‐technology SMEs.
Although the threat of terrorist attacks is not a new phenomenon for hotels, limited literature exists on measures that hotels can take to prevent them or limit their…
Although the threat of terrorist attacks is not a new phenomenon for hotels, limited literature exists on measures that hotels can take to prevent them or limit their damage. The purpose of this paper is to propose a baseline strategy to address this threat.
Using the terrorist attack cycle and the security function models introduced in this paper, 19 hotel security experts, members of an international working group on terrorism, were tasked to reach consensus on a baseline anti‐terrorist strategy for a hotel. To reach this consensus, the study employed the Nominal Group Technique.
The study presents a six‐step baseline anti‐terrorism strategy and a series of measures and actions under each step. In the centre of this strategy lies the disruption of the terrorist attack cycle.
There are limitations inherent to the Nominal Group Technique which may not allow the generalizability of the findings. However, every effort was made to ensure the reliability and validity of the study.
The study suggests a shift from physical protection alone to a more intelligence‐led approach. Counter‐surveillance, terrorist behavioral analysis, higher visibility of security measures, stronger relationships with local community leaders, collaborative relationships with emergency response agencies and strategic use of risk intelligence providers will have to take a higher place in the agendas of hotel security departments.
The paper presents, for the first time, two models that industry practitioners will find useful when designing security policies: the terrorist attack cycle and the security function model. Each component of the proposed strategy provides a starting point for the design of security strategies tailored on the security needs and budget of any hotel property.
Provides a synthesis and critical evaluation of the results of existing research on privatization utilizing an international review and comparative analysis of relevant…
Provides a synthesis and critical evaluation of the results of existing research on privatization utilizing an international review and comparative analysis of relevant factors of economic and social performance. Based on the results of this analysis, it appears that the economic benefits of privatization activities promoted as a panacea by many public and private sector managers, are on average modest at best, while the social benefits are often mixed and uneven. Moreover, it seems that the role of privatization as a means of reforming the public sector has expanded internationally in scope and at such a rapid pace, that in many cases, the importance of objective and balanced measures of its overall effectiveness and impact on the affected communities need to be reexamined. Recommends that those responsible for planning of future privatization activities should refocus the present economic emphasis and strive for a balance of economic and social performance to improve long‐term benefits for all sectors of the affected communities.
To compare the profitability and technical efficiency of firms in a monopoly industry, airports, operating with different degrees of market power and under differing…
To compare the profitability and technical efficiency of firms in a monopoly industry, airports, operating with different degrees of market power and under differing regulatory regimes, minimalist in New Zealand and interventionist in Australia.
Unlike previous privatisation studies, this study measures efficiency and profitability separately. Using data envelopment analysis (DEA), the technical efficiency of privatised airports is assessed, and this independent measure is used in regression analyses to determine whether efficiency, regulation or privatisation is related to airport profitability.
For firms with monopolistic characteristics operating under minimalist regulation, profitability is related to market power, not efficiency improvements. For firms operating in a regulated environment, profitability is related to regulation, which constrains market power but does not impede efficiency.
This study is limited by its small sample size and its generalisability due to its single industry and regional focus. However, the findings support assertions that the impact of privatisation cannot be assessed independently of industry structure and regulation.
Policy makers considering SOE privatisation in non‐competitive markets should introduce either competition or regulation if firm efficiency is a desired outcome.
Academics and policy makers should be aware that privatisation and competition are not only complementary, as per the extant literature, but they are essential bedfellows. In the absence of competition, regulation is required to control for market power.
Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐18; Property Management Volumes 8‐18; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐18.
Index by subjects, compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐18; Property Management Volumes 8‐18; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐18.