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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2011

Martin Boisen, Kees Terlouw and Bouke van Gorp

The purpose of this paper is to strengthen the conceptual understanding of place brands and place branding by exploring to what extent place branding implies a level of…

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2201

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to strengthen the conceptual understanding of place brands and place branding by exploring to what extent place branding implies a level of selectivity and how this relates to the layering of spatial identities.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual approach has been taken in this paper to provide an analytical conceptualisation of place branding to guide future empirical studies. The research, and the resulting paper has been structured around a progressive discussion of place as concept, of place brands as limited forms of geographical representations and of place branding as a highly selective process.

Findings

Places are highly complex and cannot simply be understood as spatial entities within a closed hierarchical, territorial‐administrative system. Places only exist when they have an audience, and the resulting spatial identities often overlap, contradict or complement each other across existing territorial‐administrative levels. The rise of new forms of spatial identities results in new “places”, and all places can be seen as having or being brands. The notion of place branding implies market segmentation and a certain level of power to exercise control by selecting target groups and formulating policy, strategy and undertaking action.

Research limitations/implications

In future empirical and conceptual research concerned with place branding the inherent selectivity of place branding should be given more attention. The ends to which place branding is used as a means should be paid more attention in both policy (practice) and science (theory).

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the understanding of the metaphorical translation of branding and marketing towards places and spaces.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2011

Cathy Parker

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413

Abstract

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Abstract

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Peter Atorough and Andrew Martin

Destination Management Organisations (DMOs) are very much a part of the Scottish tourism landscape in 2011. Some regional tourism stakeholders have created DMOs to manage…

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1388

Abstract

Purpose

Destination Management Organisations (DMOs) are very much a part of the Scottish tourism landscape in 2011. Some regional tourism stakeholders have created DMOs to manage their respective regional attractions, but until now, this has not been the case with north‐east Scotland. As a prelude to the potential creation of a regional DMO, the purpose of this paper is to empirically evaluate tourism business leaders' attitudes and likely acceptance of the DMO's structure and functions.

Design/methodology/approach

The Thomas‐Kilmann Conflict Mode (TKCM) was utilised to provide an evaluative framework, with discussion of the assertiveness versus cooperativeness needs of tourism business stakeholders in the region. The TKCM's measurement instrument was utilised along with a purpose‐built questionnaire to gather information about tourism leaders' interaction orientations and their level of support for the formation of a DMO, its structure and functions.

Findings

Tourism leaders in north‐east Scotland are collaboration‐oriented. Initial findings indicate that on balance, tourism businesses (as expressed by their managers/owners) are persuaded by the attractiveness of collaboration at an integrated regional level, but would nevertheless prefer a certain degree of competition. In addition, organisational size and membership of existing destination management networks appear to moderate the interaction choice preference.

Research limitations/implications

First, the scale and questionnaire instrument developed to test attitudes toward a DMO formation have not been exhaustively evaluated, nor have the potential moderating factors been comprehensively assessed. A more robust and validated scale should be developed and moderators clearly modelled. Second, current sample size is limited and may not provide an adequate basis for generalisation. In future, a larger sample should be employed. Finally, this research is exploratory in scope, and future research, designed along an evaluative and analytical basis, is encouraged.

Practical implications

Collaboration within a new DMO in marketing to new markets and the support for this is not challenged, but some competition among tourism providers will continue. It is likely that the disparity between tourism performance in the city and rural areas will continue in the near future. The role of the DMO will therefore involve enlarging the customer base and raising the tourism profiles of both city and rural locations, in order to create a level playing field.

Originality/value

This research is the first to utilise the TKCM and Instrument to assess tourism business leaders' assertiveness versus cooperativeness orientations, prior to the initiation of an alliance in a region. The paper shows that this approach holds viability for future research in this direction, especially the potential of TKCM as a predictive framework for interorganisational interaction and collaboration.

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Sebastian Zenker and Adrian Seigis

To develop a city, officials frequently invest a great deal of taxpayers' money in large‐scale place development projects, which are often sparsely supported by the…

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1193

Abstract

Purpose

To develop a city, officials frequently invest a great deal of taxpayers' money in large‐scale place development projects, which are often sparsely supported by the citizens because such projects often lead to unwanted effects (such as gentrification). This results in conflicts between planners and citizens, which are expressed in public protest and resistance. The instrument of citizen participation is repeatedly raised as a solution for such conflicts, but it remains unclear how and especially why this concept should be effective. The purpose of this paper is to empirically highlight the mediating role in this process: the feeling of being respected. By this means, the paper will contribute to a better general understanding of citizen participation.

Design/methodology/approach

In an experimental scenario study (n=368), different types of citizen participation (i.e. cases where the result was binding for the city vs non‐binding) were researched using a between‐groups design. To validate results, in a second step, the outcome was discussed with three experts, all of whom have worked in the field.

Findings

Surprisingly, it seems that neither the type of participation nor satisfaction with the project makes a difference with regards to citizen satisfaction, but simply the condition of being asked. One could argue that the feeling of being respected is the main mediator in this process. These results show the effectiveness of the participation tool in general, and give a possible explanation for this effect.

Originality/value

This paper concentrates on the variables underlying citizen participation. It shows empirically that the feeling of being respected is the mediator within this process. By this means, the paper offers a valuable insight into citizen participation in general and discusses its usage in place marketing.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Mihalis Kavaratzis

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the role of stakeholders in the creation, development and ultimately ownership of place brands. The paper contributes towards…

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4576

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the role of stakeholders in the creation, development and ultimately ownership of place brands. The paper contributes towards laying the foundations of a participatory view of place branding. It establishes an urgent need to rethink place branding towards a more participation‐oriented practice. This is based on the centrality of stakeholders in the creation, development and ownership of place brands. The role of stakeholders goes well beyond that of customers/consumers as they are citizens who legitimize place brands and heavily influence their meaning.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper highlights a turn towards stakeholder‐oriented place branding in recent literature. This is contrasted to a critical evaluation of place branding practice where stakeholders are paid “lip service” regarding their participation, rather than being given opportunities to get more fully involved in the development of their place brand.

Findings

An emerging discussion is identified on the significance of stakeholders. This is integrated with additional arguments for stakeholders' participation found in the political nature of place branding, in the concept of “participatory branding” and in the changes that on‐line communication has brought about.

Practical implications

The participatory approach introduced here re‐evaluates the role of both stakeholders and place brand managers. It also implies a significant change in the perceived role of analysis within the place branding process. A re‐direction of branding budgets is also suggested.

Originality/value

The paper provides a clear description of the role of stakeholders in place branding. It brings together for the first time in an integrated manner several arguments for stakeholders' participation. These lead to the conclusion that effective place brands are rooted in the involvement of stakeholders and substantiate the call made here for participatory place branding.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Andreas Mueller and Michael Schade

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discussion about how to develop a common identity of local stakeholders of places (e.g. politicians, local companies…

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2713

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discussion about how to develop a common identity of local stakeholders of places (e.g. politicians, local companies, residents). Such a common identity is regarded as an essential aspect to market a place consistently to external target groups (e.g. tourists, companies, qualified workers, students).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper follows a conceptual approach by transferring semiotic (symbolism) and sociological concepts (symbolic interactionism) to the concept of place branding. Moreover, a practical example of how to identify potential place symbols of cities is presented within the case study of the German town of Bremen.

Findings

Symbols are identified to be of special importance for the development of group identity of local stakeholders of places. Moreover, symbols are presented as essential aspects of a feeling of belonging to a place (place commitment).

Research limitations/implications

As semiotic theory has not yet been transferred to the context of place branding this paper is opening up a new subject and needs to be understood as a first approach to constitute a theoretical framework. An empirical analyses needs to be carried out in order to proof the theories in the place branding context.

Practical implications

The paper explains that symbols can be established by the arrangement of public discourses like, e.g. competitions for place logos, place mascots or place songs. Moreover, it is pointed out, how already established place symbols which are not yet part of branding strategies can be identified in order to strengthen place identity.

Social Implications

Following the semiotic concept of symbolism the paper explains a high participation of residents as a necessity to establish and negotiate the meaning of symbols in order to strengthen place identity.

Originality/value

Because of being the first paper putting the semiotic theory of symbolism in the focus of the interdisciplinary discussion of branding the originality of the paper can be regarded as high.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Marinda Scaramanga

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework to describe possible key features in the relationship between culture and place branding. The inspiration to…

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1640

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework to describe possible key features in the relationship between culture and place branding. The inspiration to redact this paper was drawn from the inadequacy of literature and attempts to introduce the theoretical framework linking these two fields by asking: how do we define culture within the context of place branding? How do decision makers distinguish whether culture should be at the forefront of a place branding strategy? On one hand, the paper points out the powerful advantages while using art(s) and culture‐based activities to promote a place. On the other hand, the paper highlights the layered dilemmas for practitioners concerning the amalgamation of such a practice on a branding campaign.

Design/methodology/approach

Those questions' clarification is achieved by means of a literature review that examines this relationship from a wide range of disciplines: sociology, marketing, place branding, cultural management, urban studies, etc.

Findings

The paper's findings can be summarized in three points: first, culture plays a critical role on a place branding campaign, as long as the authentic cultural elements are produced by the residents. This practice helps to avoid the mass reproduction of “borrowed” cultural elements, i.e. the investment in cultural and leisure consumption industries. Second, the cultural field has already deployed practices used by local authorities in urban regeneration, such as cultural planning. Thus, converged objectives link cultural managers to place branding experts, refining multi‐dimensional policy thinking towards a more integrated image. Finally, the cultural aspect is related with the pre‐existing reputation of a place. Further, it is connected with the minds of people, fostering the contentions of common essence between culture and branding.

Social implications

This paper intends to contribute and enhance inter‐professional thinking, by approaching the cultural sector with the appropriate sensitivity.

Originality/value

The paper provides deeper understanding of culture, bordering the gap between technocrats and cultural‐oriented professionals by contributing to the creation of a coherent communication system for the study of place branding theory. The cultural dimension of a place is very spacious and further research needs to be made, approaching the subject from new perspectives, such as people's perception of the brand while using art(s) as a branding tool.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Marcus Andersson and Malla Paajanen

Since early 2000s, several efforts have been initiated to market the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) globally, and the BaltMet Promo project is among them. Simultaneously, several…

Abstract

Purpose

Since early 2000s, several efforts have been initiated to market the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) globally, and the BaltMet Promo project is among them. Simultaneously, several other cases of supra‐national branding have emerged, e.g. the Greater Mekong region, Danube region, and Visegrad countries. Little attention has yet been paid in the literature to branding of supra‐national entities. The purpose of this paper is to discuss branding of BSR using the examples of supra‐national product building of the BaltMet Promo project (2010‐2011).

Design/methodology/approach

Branding BSR has faced criticism against its supra‐national perspective which may be seen as a direct competitor to city or nation branding. To shift from competition to cooperation BaltMet Promo acknowledged a bottom‐up approach and nine organisations from six countries created supra‐national products to promote tourism, talent attraction, and investments. Each product concept was built on intensive background research and transnational triple‐helix cooperation.

Findings

The case of BaltMet Promo shows that supra‐national branding benefits from a bottom‐up approach that uses concrete products and services as the core of the brand identity. To shift from competition to cooperation the partnership promoted BSR as a common region with a common work plan. Different scales of branding serve different markets. The more distant the market, such as Japan in the case of BaltMet Promo, the more cost effective supra‐regional branding becomes compared to more narrow scales of branding.

Originality/value

The paper introduces recent developments in supra‐national branding using data of the BaltMet Promo project. The analysis aims to contribute to product building, triple helix stakeholder cooperation, and policy making.

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

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117

Abstract

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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