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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Marshall L. Stocker

Crisis events are windows of opportunity during which a country’s leaders may implement economic policy adjustments which change that country’s level of economic freedom…

Abstract

Purpose

Crisis events are windows of opportunity during which a country’s leaders may implement economic policy adjustments which change that country’s level of economic freedom and affect the local capital market. This paper aims to investigate the relationship between annual changes in an economic freedom index, six types of crises and equity market returns.

Design/methodology/approach

The author uses fixed-effects regressions on annual panel data for 69 countries during the period 2000-2010.

Findings

Banking, domestic debt and inflation crises decrease economic freedom, and an external debt crisis weakly relates to increases in economic freedom. Only banking crises relate to a change in economic freedom in the following year, suggesting that crisis-driven changes in economic freedom happen quickly. Gains in economic freedom are more likely to occur during periods of positive local and global equity returns. Preceding and contemporaneous to increases in economic freedom, a country’s equity market outperforms a global equity index, offering observers a leading indicator for economic policy change.

Originality/value

The author finds that crises coincide with decreases in economic freedom, while gains in economic freedom happen during periods of positive capital market sentiment. The absence of a relationship between one-year lagged crisis events and changes in economic freedom suggests prior research relating gains in economic freedom to a crisis occurring 5 or 10 years earlier is a relationship which is more complex, non-linear and specific to the selected data period or spurious. Furthermore, relative equity market returns are related to changes in economic freedom, suggesting that equity markets identify which countries have increased economic freedom, long before popular economic freedom indexes are published.

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

Tomas Riha

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and…

1981

Abstract

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and, conversely, innovative thought structures and attitudes have almost always forced economic institutions and modes of behaviour to adjust. We learn from the history of economic doctrines how a particular theory emerged and whether, and in which environment, it could take root. We can see how a school evolves out of a common methodological perception and similar techniques of analysis, and how it has to establish itself. The interaction between unresolved problems on the one hand, and the search for better solutions or explanations on the other, leads to a change in paradigma and to the formation of new lines of reasoning. As long as the real world is subject to progress and change scientific search for explanation must out of necessity continue.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 12 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1969

J. O'Connor

December 20, 1968 Occupiers' liability — Common duty of care — Duty owed to visiting workmen by main contractors — Whether visiting workman's knowledge of danger absolving…

Abstract

December 20, 1968 Occupiers' liability — Common duty of care — Duty owed to visiting workmen by main contractors — Whether visiting workman's knowledge of danger absolving main contractors from liability — Safe means of access — Duty to comply with regulations — Whether owed to non‐employee — Construction (General Provisions) Regulations, 1961 (S.I. 1961, No. 1580), regs. 3(1) (a), 7(1) — Occupiers' Liability Act, 1957 (5 & 6 Eliz.II, c. 31), s.2(l),(2).

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1899

The Food and Drugs Bill introduced by the Government affords an excellent illustration of the fact that repressive legislative enactments in regard to adulteration must…

Abstract

The Food and Drugs Bill introduced by the Government affords an excellent illustration of the fact that repressive legislative enactments in regard to adulteration must always be of such a nature that, while they give a certain degree and a certain kind of protection to the public, they can never be expected to supply a sufficiently real and effective insurance against adulteration and against the palming off of inferior goods, nor an adequate and satisfactory protection to the producer and vendor of superior articles. In this country, at any rate, legislation on the adulteration question has always been, and probably will always be of a somewhat weak and patchy character, with the defects inevitably resulting from more or less futile attempts to conciliate a variety of conflicting interests. The Bill as it stands, for instance, fails to deal in any way satisfactorily with the subject of preservatives, and, if passed in its present form, will give the force of law to the standards of Somerset House—standards which must of necessity be low and the general acceptance of which must tend to reduce the quality of foods and drugs to the same dead‐level of extreme inferiority. The ludicrous laissez faire report of the Beer Materials Committee—whose authors see no reason to interfere with the unrestricted sale of the products of the “ free mash tun,” or, more properly speaking, of the free adulteration tun—affords a further instance of what is to be expected at present and for many years to come as the result of governmental travail and official meditations. Public feeling is developing in reference to these matters. There is a growing demand for some system of effective insurance, official or non‐official, based on common‐sense and common honesty ; and it is on account of the plain necessity that the quibbles and futilities attaching to repressive legislation shall by some means be brushed aside that we have come to believe in the power and the value of the system of Control, and that we advocate its general acceptance. The attitude and the policy of the INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ADULTERATION, of the BRITISH FOOD JOURNAL, and of the BRITISH ANALYTICAL CONTROL, are in all respects identical with regard to adulteration questions; and in answer to the observations and suggestions which have been put forward since the introduction of the Control System in England, it may be well once more to state that nothing will meet with the approbation or support of the Control which is not pure, genuine, and good in the strictest sense of these terms. Those applicants and critics whom it may concern may with advantage take notice of the fact that under no circumstances will approval be given to such articles as substitute beers, separated milks, coppered vegetables, dyed sugars, foods treated with chemical preservatives, or, in fact, to any food or drug which cannot be regarded as in every respect free from any adulterant, and free from any suspicion of sophistication or inferiority. The supply of such articles as those referred to, which is left more or less unfettered by the cumbrous machinery of the law, as well as the sale of those adulterated goods with which the law can more easily deal, can only be adequately held in check by the application of a strong system of Control to justify approbation, providing, as this does, the only effective form of insurance which up to the present has been devised.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 27 May 2021

Nolwenn Bühler

Abstract

Details

When Reproduction Meets Ageing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-747-8

Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Hera Khan, Ayush Srivastav and Amit Kumar Mishra

A detailed description will be provided of all the classification algorithms that have been widely used in the domain of medical science. The foundation will be laid by…

Abstract

A detailed description will be provided of all the classification algorithms that have been widely used in the domain of medical science. The foundation will be laid by giving a comprehensive overview pertaining to the background and history of the classification algorithms. This will be followed by an extensive discussion regarding various techniques of classification algorithm in machine learning (ML) hence concluding with their relevant applications in data analysis in medical science and health care. To begin with, the initials of this chapter will deal with the basic fundamentals required for a profound understanding of the classification techniques in ML which will comprise of the underlying differences between Unsupervised and Supervised Learning followed by the basic terminologies of classification and its history. Further, it will include the types of classification algorithms ranging from linear classifiers like Logistic Regression, Naïve Bayes to Nearest Neighbour, Support Vector Machine, Tree-based Classifiers, and Neural Networks, and their respective mathematics. Ensemble algorithms such as Majority Voting, Boosting, Bagging, Stacking will also be discussed at great length along with their relevant applications. Furthermore, this chapter will also incorporate comprehensive elucidation regarding the areas of application of such classification algorithms in the field of biomedicine and health care and their contribution to decision-making systems and predictive analysis. To conclude, this chapter will devote highly in the field of research and development as it will provide a thorough insight to the classification algorithms and their relevant applications used in the cases of the healthcare development sector.

Details

Big Data Analytics and Intelligence: A Perspective for Health Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-099-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Elia Marzal

The object of this research is the reconstruction of the existing legal response by European Union states to the phenomenon of immigration. It seeks to analyse the process…

2837

Abstract

Purpose

The object of this research is the reconstruction of the existing legal response by European Union states to the phenomenon of immigration. It seeks to analyse the process of conferral of protection.

Design/methodology/approach

One main dimension is selected and discussed: the case law of the national courts. The study focuses on the legal status of immigrants resulting from the intervention of these national courts.

Findings

The research shows that although the courts have conferred an increasing protection on immigrants, this has not challenged the fundamental principle of the sovereignty of the states to decide, according to their discretionary prerogatives, which immigrants are allowed to enter and stay in their territories. Notwithstanding the differences in the general constitutional and legal structures, the research also shows that the courts of the three countries considered – France, Germany and Spain – have progressively moved towards converging solutions in protecting immigrants.

Originality/value

The research contributes to a better understanding of the different legal orders analysed.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 48 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2008

Jenna Drenten, Cara Okleshen Peters and Jane Boyd Thomas

The purpose of this study is to examine the consumer socialization of preschool age children in a peer‐to‐peer context as they participate in dramatic play in a grocery…

2245

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the consumer socialization of preschool age children in a peer‐to‐peer context as they participate in dramatic play in a grocery store setting.

Design/methodology/approach

This research employs a case study approach as outlined by Yin. A preschool located within a major metropolitan area in the Southeastern USA was selected for investigation. Located within each of the three classrooms was a grocery store learning center. This learning center provided children the opportunity to engage in dramatic play while enacting grocery shopping scripts. A total of 55 children between the ages of three‐ and six‐years old were observed over a six‐week period. Observations were recorded via field notes and transcribed into an electronic data file. Emergent themes were compared with theoretical propositions, fleshing out an overall interpretation and description of the case context.

Findings

Findings indicate that even very young children (ages three to six years) are able to successfully adopt and utilize adult shopping scripts within the grocery store shopping context. The children followed a common sequence of behaviors that mimicked adult shopping patterns. Furthermore, the children demonstrated peer‐to‐peer consumer socialization strategies, directing each other on how to perform appropriate shopping scripts.

Originality/value

This study differs from previous research in that the data reveal that preschool age children do in fact exhibit peer‐to‐peer influence while enacting shopping scripts. Although research has examined children as consumers, no researchers have used dramatic play to study young children in a grocery store setting. The rich content obtained from observing children in dramatic play in a grocery store learning center is unique to the marketing literature and provides a better understanding of the consumer socialization of young children.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 36 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 August 2022

Joachim Stocker, Nils Herda and Jan Jürjens

Enterprises often face a wide variety of adverse events. Adverse events can have negative effects on organizations like failures of resources. In case resources fail, they…

Abstract

Purpose

Enterprises often face a wide variety of adverse events. Adverse events can have negative effects on organizations like failures of resources. In case resources fail, they are not available and cannot perform the assigned work. Enterprises are therefore especially interested in how resilient processes and workflows are in case adverse events occur and resources may fail. For this purpose, process resilience measurement approaches are needed.

Design/methodology/approach

To measure the resilience of processes and workflows, a life cycle and five quantitative metrics have been developed. The metrics have been validated using five real-world production and logistics cases to show their applicability on process models and paths. Furthermore, workshops have been conducted with professionals to get additional feedback on the contributions.

Findings

Based on the results obtained from applying the metrics to five real-world cases, view-based resilience improvements can be derived. Overall, only one of the five real-world cases can be considered as completely resilient. Furthermore, the metrics and life cycle have been especially valued by professionals with respect to transparency, independency, comparability as well as the ability to determine critical process paths.

Originality/value

Several authors have dealt with different aspects related to the measurement of business processes, resilience or a combination thereof. However, a life cycle or metrics to quantitatively measure the resilience of processes by considering resources has not been found yet. The life cycle and metrics are therefore novel. As a future research direction, they can be applied in different domains for further validation purposes.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1929

WE place this special Conference number in the hands of readers in the hope and belief that it will offer features of distinct interest which will increase the value and…

Abstract

WE place this special Conference number in the hands of readers in the hope and belief that it will offer features of distinct interest which will increase the value and enjoyment of Brighton. There can be no doubt that the organizers of Library Association Conferences have endeavoured to surpass one another in recent years; almost always, it may be said, with success. Brighton, like Blackpool if in a rather different way, is a mistress of the art of welcome, and it will be long before another town can surpass her in the art. She is at her best in September when the great, and to some appalling, crowds of her promenades have thinned out a little. This year, then, librarians have an interesting time ahead; although, as we glance over the programme again, we fear that the outdoor and other pleasures we have subtly suggested will occur only fitfully. There will be so much to do in the way of business.

Details

New Library World, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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