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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2012

Louise Thornthwaite and Peter McGraw

Purpose – To examine Gerald Mars’ contribution to scholarly understanding of workplace crime by revisiting his seminal work, Cheats at Work, and to explore developments in…

Abstract

Purpose – To examine Gerald Mars’ contribution to scholarly understanding of workplace crime by revisiting his seminal work, Cheats at Work, and to explore developments in the forms, patterns, and implications of cheating at work since its publication.

Methodology/approach – This chapter critically reviews Cheats at Work and explores the changing nature of fiddling over time using the analytical framework and four associated occupational categories of workplace crime identified by Mars. The review is based on three main sources: recent scholarly literature on misbehavior, deviance, and employee misconduct; cases from industrial law reports, newspapers, and social media; and the views of informants conveyed directly to the authors.

Findings – The analytical framework that Mars contributed remains useful even if the boundaries of the occupational categories of workplace crime are now more blurred, with some jobs and fiddles spanning categories. Although, technology has changed the nature of fiddling, new forms have emerged as old ones have disappeared.

Social implications – Three decades after publication of Mars's study, it is evident that fiddling remains a normal, albeit covert, activity in many jobs and occupations. His typology continues to be valuable for explaining patterns, forms, and implications of cheating at work.

Originality/value of chapter – Given the growing interest in the forms and implications of misbehavior and workplace resistance, this chapter provides an opportunity for reflection on the enduring salience of Cheats at Work, thirty years after its publication.

Details

Rethinking Misbehavior and Resistance in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-662-1

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

Elena Loutskina and George Shapovalov

Recommended for MBAs, this case is one of a pair of cases used in a merger negotiation exercise. It is designed to be used with “Mars, Incorporated” (UVA-F-1612), but it…

Abstract

Recommended for MBAs, this case is one of a pair of cases used in a merger negotiation exercise. It is designed to be used with “Mars, Incorporated” (UVA-F-1612), but it can also be used on its own. Half of the class prepares only the Wrigley case and the other half uses the Mars case.

Wrigley and Mars are in the process of negotiating a merger agreement. Macroeconomic assumptions—particularly forecasting future sugar prices in an uncertain environment—and assumptions about Wrigley's value make Wrigley's future cash flows difficult to predict.

Details

Darden Business Publishing Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-7890
Published by: University of Virginia Darden School Foundation

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Yongfeng Liu, Yi Liu and Duolong Di

The purpose of this study is to focus on the preparation of macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) functionalized with carbazole and N-methylimidazole, and adsorption…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to focus on the preparation of macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) functionalized with carbazole and N-methylimidazole, and adsorption behaviors of (–)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and caffeine (CAF) on the functionalized MARs.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the Friedel–Crafts and amination reactions, novel MARs functionalized with carbazole and N-methylimidazole were synthesized and characterized by the BET method. Accordingly, adsorption behaviors and structure-activity relationships for EGCG and CAF were studied in detail.

Findings

The results showed that pseudosecond-order kinetic model was provided with a better correlation for the adsorption of EGCG and CAF onto L-1 and L-2, and pseudofirst-order kinetic model was the most suitable model to illustrate the adsorption process for EGCG and CAF on L-3. The result indicated that Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin–Pyzhev and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherms all could better illustrate the adsorption processes of EGCG and CAF on L-1, L-2 and L-3.

Practical implications

This study provides theoretical guidance and technical support for the efficient separation and purification of EGCG and CAF from waste tea leaves by MARs on a large scale. In addition, the results showed that this novel MARs would provide useful help and be used in large-scale production of active ingredients from natural products in the industry and other fields.

Originality/value

Adsorption kinetic models such as pseudofirst-order, pseudosecond-order and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models, and adsorption isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin–Pyzhev and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherms models were adopted to illustrate the adsorption mechanisms of EGCG and CAF. The main driving forces for MARs with no functional groups were pore sieving effects, pp conjugation effects and hydrophobic interactions, and the other significant driving forces for MARs functionalized with carbazole and N-methylimidazole were electrostatic interactions, ion-dipole and hydrogen bonding interactions. This study might provide scientific references and useful help for large-scale separating and enriching active ingredients in natural products using the technology of MARs with special functional groups.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 May 2011

Vicky Palmer

This case study seeks to provide insight into the day‐to‐day operation of the MARS scheme, a service offered by Mansfield District Council to help homeless households…

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Abstract

Purpose

This case study seeks to provide insight into the day‐to‐day operation of the MARS scheme, a service offered by Mansfield District Council to help homeless households secure good quality, affordable accommodation in the private rented sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Beginning with a brief reflection of the development of the scheme, the study moves on to focus on three typical days in the life of the MARS Senior Tenancy Support Officer, demonstrating how the service identifies suitable tenants and good quality properties and offers ongoing practical support and advice to landlords and their tenants to deliver sustainable tenancies.

Findings

The study goes on to reflect on the development of the scheme, evidencing the effectiveness of MARS both in preventing homelessness and reducing the number of empty homes in the Mansfield District.

Originality/value

Ongoing funding difficulties have threatened the future of the MARS scheme and the study reveals how the Council intends to address these challenges in the longer term to ensure that the MARS scheme can continue to be delivered to landlords and tenants in Mansfield.

Details

Housing, Care and Support, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-8790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Pierpaolo Pergola and Vittorio Cipolla

The purpose of this paper is to deal with the study of an innovative unmanned mission to Mars, which is aimed at acquiring a great amount of detailed data related to both…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deal with the study of an innovative unmanned mission to Mars, which is aimed at acquiring a great amount of detailed data related to both Mars’ atmosphere and surface.

Design/methodology/approach

The Mars surface exploration is conceived by means of a fleet of drones flying among a set of reference points (acting also as entry capsules and charging stations) on the surface. The three key enabling technologies of the proposed mission are the use of small satellites (used in constellation with a minimum of three), the use of electric propulsion systems for the interplanetary transfer (to reduce the propellant mass fraction) and lightweight, efficient, drones designed to operate in the harsh Mars environment and with its tiny atmosphere.

Findings

The low-thrust Earth-Mars transfer is designed by means of an optimization approach resulting in a duration of slightly more than 27 months with a propellant amount of about 125 kg, which is compatible with the choice of considering a 500 kg-class spacecraft. Four candidate drone configurations have been selected as the result of a sensitivity analysis. Flight endurance, weight and drone size have been considered as the driving design parameters for the selection of the final configuration, which is characterized by six rotors, a total mass of about 6.5 kg and a flight endurance of 28 minutes. In the mission scenario proposed, the drone is assumed to be delivered on the Mars surface by means of a passive entry capsule, which acts also as a docking station and charging base. Such a capsule has been sized both in terms of mass (68 kg) and power (80 W), showing to be compatible with 500 kg-class spacecraft.

Research limitations/implications

As a general conclusion, the study shows the mission concept feasibility.

Practical implications

The concept would return incomparable scientific data and can be also be potentially implemented with a relatively low budget exploiting of the shelf components to the larger extent, small identical spacecraft buses and modular low-cost drones.

Originality/value

The innovative mission architecture proposed in this study aims at providing a complete coverage of the surface and lowest atmospheric layers. The main innovation factor of the proposed mission consists in the adoption of small multi-copter UAVs, also called “drones,” as remote-sensing platforms.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

Elena Loutskina and George Shapovalov

Recommended for MBAs, this case is one of a pair of cases used in a merger negotiation exercise. It is designed to be used with “Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company” (UVA-F-1607), but…

Abstract

Recommended for MBAs, this case is one of a pair of cases used in a merger negotiation exercise. It is designed to be used with “Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company” (UVA-F-1607), but it can also be used on its own. Half of the class prepares only the Wrigley case and the other half uses the Mars case.

Wrigley and Mars are in the process of negotiating a merger agreement. Macroeconomic assumptions—particularly forecasting future sugar prices in an uncertain environment—and assumptions about Wrigley's value make Wrigley's future cash flows difficult to predict.

Details

Darden Business Publishing Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-7890
Published by: University of Virginia Darden School Foundation

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2019

Roger D. Launius

In the 1950s, a combination of technological and scientific advancement, political competition, and changes in popular opinion about spaceflight generated public policy in…

Abstract

In the 1950s, a combination of technological and scientific advancement, political competition, and changes in popular opinion about spaceflight generated public policy in favor of an aggressive space program. This and that of 1960s moved forward with a Moon landing and the necessary budgets. Space exploration reached equilibrium in the 1970s, sustained through to the present. The twenty-first-century progresses signals that support for human space exploration is waning and may even begin declining in the coming years. This chapter reviews this history and analyzes five rationales suggested in support of continued human spaceflight: discovery and understanding, national defense, economic competitiveness, human destiny, and geopolitics.

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2022

Jianzhong Ding, Xueao Liu, Yang Dong and Chunjie Wang

The purpose of this paper is to study the landing performance of the Mars lander considering uncertain landing conditions under two landing modes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the landing performance of the Mars lander considering uncertain landing conditions under two landing modes.

Design/methodology/approach

A dynamics analysis model for the legged Mars lander is established for landing simulation, where the nonlinear large-deformation flexible buffer rods are equivalently modeled with a rigid-body mechanism with external forces and movement limit. Sensitivities of the landing stability to various landing conditions are analyzed using the Quasi–Monte-Carlo-based Sobol’ method and computer-aided landing simulations. Moreover, based on the results of sensitivity analysis, sensitive parameters are selected for estimating the safe boundaries for stability indices of rotation and clearance.

Findings

It can be concluded from this study that the lander has excellent ability against overturning. The shutdown-before-touchdown strategy helps to maintain than landing pose, and the shutdown-at-touchdown strategy helps to prevent the nozzle from colliding with the surface of Mars.

Practical implications

This study provides a theoretical reference to choose the better landing strategies for Mars landers considering uncertain landing conditions.

Originality/value

A parameterized dynamics Mars lander model and a simplification method are proposed to simulate the landing on Mars. Uncertain landing conditions are parameterized and considered in the dynamics model. Sensitivity analysis and safe boundary methods are used to compare the landing performances with two landing strategies.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 October 2018

Natalia Ewa Zalewska, Maja Mroczkowska-Szerszeń, Joerg Fritz and Maria Błęcka

This paper aims to characterize the mineral composition of Martian surfaces based on Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES; Mars Global Surveyor) as measured in the infrared…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to characterize the mineral composition of Martian surfaces based on Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES; Mars Global Surveyor) as measured in the infrared thermal range. It presents modeling and interpreting of TES spectral data from selected Martian regions from which the atmospheric influences had been removed using radiative transfer algorithm and deconvolution algorithm. The spectra from the dark area of Cimmeria Terra and the bright Isidis Planitia were developed in Philip Christensen’s and Joshua Bandfield’s publications, where these spectra were subjected to spectral deconvolution to estimate the mineral composition of the Martian surface. The results of the analyses of these spectra were used for the modeling of dusty and non-dusty surface of Mars. As an additional source, the mineral compositions of Polish basalts and mafic rocks were used for these surfaces as well as for modeling Martian meteorites Shergottites, Nakhlites and Chassignites. Finally, the spectra for the modeling of the Hellas region were obtained from the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) – (Mars Express) and the mineralogical compositions of basalts from the southern part of Poland were used for this purpose. The Hellas region was modeled also using simulated Martian soil samples Phyllosilicatic Mars Regolith Simulant and Sulfatic Mars Regolith Simulant, showing as a result that the composition of this selected area has a high content of sulfates. Linear spectral combination was chosen as the best modeling method. The modeling was performed using PFSLook software written in the Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Additional measurements were made with an infrared spectrometer in thermal infrared spectroscopy, for comparison with the measurements of PFS and TES. The research uses a kind of modeling that successfully matches mineralogical composition to the measured spectrum from the surface of Mars, which is the main goal of the publication. This method is used for areas where sample collection is not yet possible. The areas have been chosen based on public availability of the data.

Design/methodology/approach

The infrared spectra of the Martian surface were modeled by applying the linear combination of the spectra of selected minerals, which then are normalized against the measured surface area with previously separated atmosphere. The minerals for modeling are selected based on the expected composition of the Martian rocks, such as basalt. The software used for this purpose was PFSLook, a program written in C++ at the Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences, which is based on adding the spectra of minerals in the relevant percentage, resulting in a final spectrum containing 100 per cent of the minerals.

Findings

The results of this work confirmed that there is a relationship between the modeled, altered and unaltered, basaltic surface and the measured spectrum from Martian instruments. Spectral deconvolution makes it possible to interpret the measured spectra from areas that are potentially difficult to explore or to choose interesting areas to explore on site. The method is described for mid-infrared because of software availability, but it can be successfully applied to shortwave spectra in near-infrared (NIR) band for data from the currently functioning Martian spectroscopes.

Originality/value

This work is the only one attempting modeling the spectra of the surface of Mars with a separated atmosphere and to determine the mineralogical composition.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 October 2020

Bharat Bhushan Mishra, Ajay Kumar, Pijush Samui and Thendiyath Roshni

The purpose of this paper is to attempt the buckling analysis of a laminated composite skew plate using the C0 finite element (FE) model based on higher-order shear…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to attempt the buckling analysis of a laminated composite skew plate using the C0 finite element (FE) model based on higher-order shear deformation theory (HSDT) in conjunction with minimax probability machine regression (MPMR) and multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS).

Design/methodology/approach

HSDT considers the third-order variation of in-plane displacements which eliminates the use of shear correction factor owing to realistic parabolic transverse shear stresses across the thickness coordinate. At the top and bottom of the plate, zero transverse shear stress condition is imposed. C0 FE model based on HSDT is developed and coded in formula translation (FORTRAN). FE model is validated and found efficient to create new results. MPMR and MARS models are coded in MATLAB. Using skew angle (α), stacking sequence (Ai) and buckling strength (Y) as input parameters, a regression problem is formulated using MPMR and MARS to predict the buckling strength of laminated composite skew plates.

Findings

The results of the MPMR and MARS models are in good agreement with the FE model result. MPMR is a better tool than MARS to analyze the buckling problem.

Research limitations/implications

The present work considers the linear behavior of the laminated composite skew plate.

Originality/value

To the authors’ best of knowledge, there is no work in the literature on the buckling analysis of a laminated composite skew plate using C0 FE formulation based on third-order shear deformation theory in conjunction with MPMR and MARS. These machine-learning techniques increase efficiency, reduce the computational time and reduce the cost of analysis. Further, an equation is generated with the MARS model via which the buckling strength of the laminated composite skew plate can be predicted with ease and simplicity.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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