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1 – 10 of 117
Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Manuel Schwabl, Markus Schwarz, Franz Figl, Lara Carvalho, Martin Staudinger, Wolfgang Kalb, Christoph Schmidl and Walter Haslinger

Decreasing energy demand due to improved building standards requires the development of new biomass combustion technologies to be able to provide individual biomass…

Abstract

Purpose

Decreasing energy demand due to improved building standards requires the development of new biomass combustion technologies to be able to provide individual biomass heating solutions. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, the development of a pellet water heating stove with minimal emission at high thermal efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The single components of a 10 kW water heating pellet stove are analysed and partly redesigned considering the latest scientific findings and experimental know‐how in combustion engineering. The outcome of this development is a 12 kW prototype which is subsequently down‐scaled to a 6 kW prototype. Finally, the results of the development are evaluated by testing of an accredited institute.

Findings

Based on an existing pellet water heating stove, the total excess air ratio was reduced, a strict air staging was implemented and the fuel supply was homogenized. All three measures improved the operating performance regarding emissions and thermal efficiency. The evaluation of the development process showed that the CO emissions are reduced by over 90 per cent during full load and by 30‐60 per cent during minimum load conditions. Emissions of particulate matter are reduced by 70 per cent and the thermal efficiency increased to 95 per cent.

Originality/value

The result represents a new state of technology in this sector for minimal emissions and maximal thermal efficiency, which surpasses the directives of the Eco label “UZ37” in Austria and “Blauer Engel” in Germany, which are amongst the most stringent performance requirements in the European Union. Hence this design possesses a high potential as heating solution for low and passive energy houses.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2013

Markus Schwarz, Sebastian Goers, Michael Schmidthaler and Robert Tichler

The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the methodological approach and the results of the investigation of greenhouse gas emission abatement costs in Upper Austria.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the methodological approach and the results of the investigation of greenhouse gas emission abatement costs in Upper Austria.

Design/methodology/approach

The assessment covers the quantification of marginal abatement costs (MACs) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the emission reduction potentials of various energy efficiency and fuel switch measures with a special emphasis on the heat, electricity and transport sectors in Upper Austria during the period from 2010 to 2030.

Findings

The expert‐based assessment in Upper Austria shows negative abatement costs for 19 of 56 evaluated strategies. While these measures are very efficient from an economic point of view, the remaining 37 measures are associated with higher costs. The evaluation reveals a significant reduction potential of 5.2 million tons CO2e (which represent 21 per cent) of the current GHG emissions in Upper Austria for the examined period.

Research limitations/implications

MACs are generally limited to a certain time frame. Furthermore, the expert‐based approach is based on several assumptions and neglects behavioural and learning aspects.

Originality/value

This contribution uses a multi‐criteria approach that reveals the economic efficiency and the ecological effectiveness of the considered strategies/technologies with regard to greenhouse gas emission reductions, the improvement of the overall energy efficiency, and the competitiveness of a fuel switch towards renewable energy sources. Drawing upon the findings of this study, policy recommendations can be elaborated and the necessary improvements of the regulative framework can be implemented.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2012

Tibor Szvircsev Tresch, Natalie Schwarz and Markus Williner

Purpose – The present study addresses: First, which traditions are currently lived in the Swiss Armed Forces? Second, which traditions are viewed in positive or negative…

Abstract

Purpose – The present study addresses: First, which traditions are currently lived in the Swiss Armed Forces? Second, which traditions are viewed in positive or negative terms and why is this so? And finally, which traditions have disappeared and which are wished for?

Methodology/approach – Two separate surveys were conducted by the authors of this study in an attempt to answer these questions. For the first survey, qualitative interviews were conducted with 50 professional and militia military commanders in order to get the internal perspective. For the second survey, a representative sample of 1,200 Swiss voters was interviewed in an attempt to get the external perspective.

Findings – The main findings show that there are few formal traditions in the Swiss Armed Forces. The republican self-concept and the decentralized political system in Switzerland have significantly influenced the meaning of traditions and their practice. Moreover, traditions mainly serve to integrate cadres and soldiers into the military. The majority of traditions is informal or a combination of formal (top-down) and informal (bottom-up) traditions. Lost traditions not only fell victim to structural changes, but their purpose was also questioned by commanders. Two major military reforms as well as societal change are the main reasons for the disappearance of traditions in the Swiss Armed Forces. The results show a high degree of congruence with the qualitative survey. In short, the Swiss population generally views military traditions in favorable terms. In particular, it endorses traditions that serve to foster a sense of community and impart knowledge. However, traditions that stress manhood and bravery are strongly rejected.

Research limitations/implications – The approach could be applied to other cases. Case studies may be generalized in a conceptual sense.

Originality/value of paper – Case study with broader practical and research implications, invites international comparative research.

Details

New Wars, New Militaries, New Soldiers: Conflicts, the Armed Forces and the Soldierly Subject
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-638-6

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2014

Daphna Oyserman

People believe that they know who they are and that who they are matters for what they do. These core beliefs seem so inherent to conceptualizations of what it means to…

Abstract

Purpose

People believe that they know who they are and that who they are matters for what they do. These core beliefs seem so inherent to conceptualizations of what it means to have a self as to require no empirical support. After all, what is the point of a concept of self if there is no stable thing to have a concept about and who would care if that concept was stable if it was not useful in making it through the day? Yet the evidence for action-relevance and stability are surprisingly sparse.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper outlines the identity-based motivation theory, a theoretical approach that takes a new look at these assumptions and makes three core predictions as to when an accessible self-concept influences behavior. These are termed “dynamic construction”, “action-readiness”, and “interpretation of difficulty”. That is, rather than being stable, which identities come to mind and what they mean are dynamically constructed in context.

Findings

People interpret situations and difficulties in ways that are congruent with the currently active identities and prefer identity-congruent to identity-incongruent actions. When action feels identity-congruent, experienced difficulty highlights that the behavior is important and meaningful. When action feels identity-incongruent, the same difficulty suggests that the behavior is pointless and “not for people like me.”

Details

Motivational Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-555-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2006

Ayse K. Uskul and Daphna Oyserman

We integrate cross-cultural literature with broader literature in survey methodology, human cognition, and communication. First, we briefly review recent work in cognitive…

Abstract

We integrate cross-cultural literature with broader literature in survey methodology, human cognition, and communication. First, we briefly review recent work in cognitive survey methodology that advances our understanding of the processes underlying question comprehension and response. Then, using a process model of cultural influence, we provide a framework for hypothesizing how cross-cultural differences may systematically influence the meaning respondents make of the questions that researchers ask, how memory is organized, and subjective theories about what constitutes an appropriate answer and therefore the answers participants are likely to give.

Details

National Culture and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-362-4

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Patrick Gregori, Patrick Holzmann and Erich J. Schwarz

Entrepreneurial identity aspiration refers to the desire to occupy an entrepreneurial role in the future and is an essential impetus for initially engaging in…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurial identity aspiration refers to the desire to occupy an entrepreneurial role in the future and is an essential impetus for initially engaging in entrepreneurial activities. Building on identity theory, the article investigates the effects of personal attitudes, experiences and inclination towards specific practices on the strength of entrepreneurial identity aspiration.

Design/methodology/approach

This article applies multiple linear regression analysis to test the developed hypotheses on an original sample of 127 vocational college students in Austria.

Findings

Results show that risk-taking propensity, proactiveness, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and competitiveness drive entrepreneurial identity aspiration. The effects of innovativeness and need for achievement motivation are nonsignificant. Data further suggest that entrepreneurial identity aspiration is related to gender, while entrepreneurial exposure and previous entrepreneurship education show no or adverse effects.

Practical implications

Based on our findings, the authors argue that education should focus on teaching and discussing the identified attitudes and inclinations to foster the formation of entrepreneurial identities. Doing so increases students' aspirations and provides them with the necessary cognitive underpinnings for subsequent entrepreneurial action. The article suggests action-based teaching to achieve this goal.

Originality/value

This article is the first to investigate antecedents of entrepreneurial identity aspiration by connecting it to essential concepts of entrepreneurship research. The authors extend previous work on entrepreneurial identity and add to the theoretical approaches for research in entrepreneurship education. Furthermore, the article points out central aspects that should receive additional attention in educational settings.

Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Hamidreza Harati, Neal M. Ashkanasy and Mahsa Amirzadeh

The purpose of this chapter is to build a new framework for understanding the antecedents of emotional well-being across different psychological states, situations, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to build a new framework for understanding the antecedents of emotional well-being across different psychological states, situations, and cultural settings. In this regard, we develop propositions regarding causal relationships between self-uncertainty and emotional well-being in the context of social comparison and in two different culture types: dignity and honor.

Design/Methodology/Approach

Based on a literature review, this chapter connects empirical evidence in three areas of research. (1) self-uncertainty literature, (2) emotional well-being, and (3) cross-cultural psychology to propose a new conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between self-uncertainty and well-being across different cultural settings.

Findings

The main finding of this chapter is a model that explains how emotional well-being is comprised of three elements of the psychological state, situation, and culture. We seek to explain how and why different cultures and psychological states might have different effects on human emotions. We propose mediators in order to demonstrate how culturally determined notions of self-construal, self-worth, and social order mediate the relationship between self-uncertainty and emotional well-being.

Research Limitations/Implications

We limited our theorizing to investigate only two broad culture types: honor and dignity. Clearly, there are many more nuances of national culture than this. In addition, our model limited to investigate the role of social comparison among other possible mechanisms to reduce the uncertainty.

Practical Implications

The practical implication of our theory is that it enables leaders to gain a more holistic perspective of emotional well-being in their organizations. In particular, in international organizations, leaders have to pay attention to the cultural background of their employees. This, in turn, enables leaders to understand the antecedents of social comparison and emotional well-being in their employees.

Originality/Value

This chapter proposes a holistic model that explains the simultaneous effects of different psychological states, situations, and cultures.

Details

Emotions and Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-202-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 March 2019

Markus Kattenbeck and David Elsweiler

It is well known that information behaviour can be biased in countless ways and that users of web search engines have difficulty in assessing the credibility of results…

1320

Abstract

Purpose

It is well known that information behaviour can be biased in countless ways and that users of web search engines have difficulty in assessing the credibility of results. Yet, little is known about how search engine result page (SERP) listings are used to judge credibility and in which if any way such judgements are biased. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies are presented. The first collects data by means of a controlled, web-based user study (N=105). Studying judgements for three controversial topics, the paper examines the extent to which users agree on credibility, the extent to which judgements relate to those applied by objective assessors and to what extent judgements can be predicted by the users’ position on and prior knowledge of the topic. A second, qualitative study (N=9) utilises the same setup; however, transcribed think-aloud protocols provide an understanding of the cues participants use to estimate credibility.

Findings

The first study reveals that users are very uncertain when assessing credibility and their impressions often diverge from objective judges who have fact checked the sources. Little evidence is found indicating that judgements are biased by prior beliefs or knowledge, but differences are observed in the accuracy of judgements across topics. Qualitatively analysing think-aloud transcripts from participants think-aloud reveals ten categories of cues, which participants used to determine the credibility of results. Despite short listings, participants utilised diverse cues for the same listings. Even when the same cues were identified and utilised, different participants often interpreted these differently. Example transcripts show how participants reach varying conclusions, illustrate common mistakes made and highlight problems with existing SERP listings.

Originality/value

This study offers a novel perspective on how the credibility of SERP listings is interpreted when assessing search results. Especially striking is how the same short snippets provide diverse informational cues and how these cues can be interpreted differently depending on the user and his or her background. This finding is significant in terms of how search engine results should be presented and opens up the new challenge of discovering technological solutions, which allow users to better judge the credibility of information sources on the web.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 71 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1998

Gavin M. Schwarz and David M. Brock

Organizational change in an evolving technological age is reconsidered here. Extant organization theory focuses largely on technologically‐induced transformation. This…

Abstract

Organizational change in an evolving technological age is reconsidered here. Extant organization theory focuses largely on technologically‐induced transformation. This paper argues that this focus is inappropriate. With the proliferation of information technology in the workplace, change literature propounds a particular view of the organization: a lean, flat and networked organization. Reevaluating future change and future shock literature prediction, we establish a more realistic account of technology and the organization and question the accuracy of the “altered organization” expectation. In developing a conceptualization of a “limited reality of change,” we imply that predicted changes are not as clear cut as certain proponents would have us believe. Though there is a willingness throughout technology change literature to slip into the language of organizational transformation, this paper indicates that the reality of change is far more restrictive than has largely been previously acknowledged We conclude by proposing the coexistent organization as an alternative—arguing that hierarchical organizational forms can coexist with a networked organization—and discuss implications for organization change theory.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

1 – 10 of 117