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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2021

Mansour Abedian, Atefeh Amindoust, Reza Maddahi and Javid Jouzdani

Adopting efficient marketing strategies is a challenging task in a competitive market place involving complex marketing planning, techniques and mechanisms to identify the…

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1014

Abstract

Purpose

Adopting efficient marketing strategies is a challenging task in a competitive market place involving complex marketing planning, techniques and mechanisms to identify the best course of action under these circumstances and finding optimal solutions or stable outcomes. Decisions and strategies of competitors in the market influence the selection of the appropriate marketing strategy. The main purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical methodology based on the game theory approach for planning optimal marketing-mix strategies in dynamic competitive markets, taking into account strategic foresight and interaction effects.

Design/methodology/approach

The game theory approach, as a decision-making tool in conflict situations, is suggested for planning and adopting optimal marketing strategy. The main intellectual attraction of the game theory is essentially a question of how to act in gaming situations against highly rational opponents A kind of static, finite and non-cooperative game analytics approach has been developed for this issue, and the proposed model has been implemented to design optimal marketing strategies for two top brands of the automotive parts market in Iran.

Findings

The findings of this study show that the optimal marketing-mix strategy for brand A is pricing and for brand B is the product strategy.

Practical implications

Game theory and the Nash equilibrium model can provide a practical approach to find and adopt the right strategy, know competitors' movements and strategies and get more profit.

Originality/value

The integration of the game theory approach into the marketing mix framework has been adopted as a generalized model for marketing strategy planning and analysis as well as to resolve some shortcomings of the marketing mix framework. The Nash equilibrium model has been used to analyze the results. The incorporation of game theory into marketing models has the potential to enrich the scope of marketing modeling.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2020

Ville Lahtinen, Timo Dietrich and Sharyn Rundle-Thiele

The marketing mix has been extensively criticised by scholars and practitioners, which has led marketing scholars to redefine the original 4P concept, expand the 4Ps with…

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6525

Abstract

Purpose

The marketing mix has been extensively criticised by scholars and practitioners, which has led marketing scholars to redefine the original 4P concept, expand the 4Ps with additional Ps and develop new concepts to replace the marketing mix. However, there is very limited empirical testing assessing the effectiveness of the original marketing mix (4Ps).

Design/methodology/approach

This research applies a field experiment to assess whether the application of a full marketing mix (4P) is more effective than a promotion only campaign (1P) when aiming to increase fruit and vegetable (FV) intake of 6–13-year-old Finnish children. A total of 15 schools were randomly assigned to 4P, 1P and control settings. Data was collected from schoolchildren using the Day in the Life Questionnaire.

Findings

A repeated measures analysis involving 1,076 children demonstrated that a full application of the marketing mix (4P) is more effective than a promotion only (1P) campaign in increasing FV intake within children.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first empirical test of the effectiveness of the commercial marketing mix against a promotion only strategy in social marketing.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1997

Christian Grönroos

Discusses the nature and sometimes negative consequences of the dominating marketing paradigm of today, marketing mix management, and furthermore discusses how modern…

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69163

Abstract

Discusses the nature and sometimes negative consequences of the dominating marketing paradigm of today, marketing mix management, and furthermore discusses how modern research into, for example, industrial marketing and services marketing as well as customer relationship economics shows that another approach to marketing is required. This development is supported by evolving trends in business, such as strategic partnerships, alliances and networks. Suggests relationship marketing, based on relationship building and management, as one emerging new marketing paradigm of the future. Concludes that the simplicity of the marketing mix paradigm, with its Four P model, has become a strait‐jacket, fostering toolbox thinking rather than an awareness that marketing is a multi‐faceted social process, and notes that marketing theory and customers are the victims of today’s mainstream marketing thinking.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

Gordon Wills, Sherril H. Kennedy, John Cheese and Angela Rushton

To achieve a full understanding of the role ofmarketing from plan to profit requires a knowledgeof the basic building blocks. This textbookintroduces the key concepts in…

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11660

Abstract

To achieve a full understanding of the role of marketing from plan to profit requires a knowledge of the basic building blocks. This textbook introduces the key concepts in the art or science of marketing to practising managers. Understanding your customers and consumers, the 4 Ps (Product, Place, Price and Promotion) provides the basic tools for effective marketing. Deploying your resources and informing your managerial decision making is dealt with in Unit VII introducing marketing intelligence, competition, budgeting and organisational issues. The logical conclusion of this effort is achieving sales and the particular techniques involved are explored in the final section.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1985

Thomas A. Petit and Martha R. McEnally

The promotion mix is the combination of personal selling, advertising, and sales promotion used to achieve marketing objectives. The objective‐and‐task method is used in…

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4064

Abstract

The promotion mix is the combination of personal selling, advertising, and sales promotion used to achieve marketing objectives. The objective‐and‐task method is used in practice to develop a single promotion mix plan. This is practical but has drawbacks: (1) only one promotion strategy and mix is considered, and (2) decision making is taken out of the hands of senior marketing management. This paper sets forth a decision‐making process by which alternative promotion strategies and mixes are generated so that senior marketing management can choose the one that is most promising.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Paul Blaise Issock Issock, Mercy Mpinganjira and Mornay Roberts-Lombard

This study aims to provide empirical evidence and a different perspective on the relevance of the traditional marketing mix in social marketing programmes. This is a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide empirical evidence and a different perspective on the relevance of the traditional marketing mix in social marketing programmes. This is a response to the ongoing debate about the (in)compatibility of the traditional marketing mix (the 4Ps) in the field of social marketing. In doing so, this study examines the important role that the stages of behaviour change play in influencing the effectiveness of traditional marketing mix elements in the context of recycling in South African households.

Design/methodology/approach

This study follows a quantitative method, relying on a survey of 699 heads of households in South Africa. Multigroup analysis and structural equation modelling were applied to test the impact of stages of changes on the potential effect of marketing mix elements on the intention to recycle household waste.

Findings

The results established that although the traditional marketing mix elements have a marginal effect on the intention to recycle household waste, further analyses revealed that this impact of the marketing mix is contingent on the stage of change in which the target audience is found. Thus, the findings indicated that the marketing mix elements significantly influence the intention to recycle when the target audience is at the contemplation and preparation phases.

Originality/value

Whilst both critics and proponents of the adoption of the traditional marketing mix in social marketing initiatives have provided relevant arguments, the debate had remained largely theoretical. This study discusses the limitations of the traditional marketing mix in behaviour change programmes and the need for a segmented approach based on the stages of behaviour change when using the 4Ps. However, given the hegemony of the 4Ps in the social marketing literature, this study sheds light on the appropriate “Ps” to activate to influence recycling behavioural intention at different stages of change.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 January 2021

Oliver Cruz-Milan

The purpose of this paper is to investigate specific marketing mix activities and influencing factors in hotels coping with falling room demand derived from drug…

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2156

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate specific marketing mix activities and influencing factors in hotels coping with falling room demand derived from drug cartel-related risk and insecurity.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study research was carried out using semistructured interviews with key informants (hotel managers) in two neighboring destinations at the US–Mexico border, an area where criminal organizations' drug trafficking-related violence has impacted the hospitality industry.

Findings

The research identifies factors that are internal (market segment diversification, type of ownership, magnitude of investments) and external (tourism promotion organizations, media coverage, tourist flow volume) to the firms as they affect their marketing mix implementation.

Research limitations/implications

The research developed a framework to better understand the use of marketing mix practices and influencing factors in criminal insecurity contexts, which could be further studied in other risk and conflict scenarios.

Practical implications

The pricing and communication tactics are employed more intensively, while product-service and distribution channel actions are used to a lesser extent. Greater emphasis should be placed on product-service, distribution and market segment diversification.

Social implications

Considering the positive impacts that tourism and hospitality businesses have on local communities, it is recommended that the hotel sector works together with government and industry associations to improve the safety and security at tourism destinations.

Originality/value

The research extends the extant knowledge in hospitality crisis management by investigating the full marketing mix tactics in hotels at destinations stricken by cartel-related organized crime, an understudied context in the literature.

Details

International Hospitality Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-8142

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2021

Dobromir Stoyanov

This study identifies the conventional elements of the vending marketing mix and how they vary across academic segments in the context of a typical French university.

Abstract

Purpose

This study identifies the conventional elements of the vending marketing mix and how they vary across academic segments in the context of a typical French university.

Design/methodology/approach

To determine the elements of the vending marketing mix, the author conducts interviews with international industry experts and undertake 170 direct observations at various universities to verify the differences between the marketing mix proposals of dissimilar target markets.

Findings

The results reveal significant variances across all elements of the marketing mix, with distribution characteristics being the most frequently adapted element across various markets, followed by promotion- and product-related parameters, while pricing characteristics are most commonly standardised.

Research limitations/implications

Vending operators should pay particular attention to marketing decisions related to the product assortment length, selection of appropriate locations, availability of smart payment options and feedback communication channels. The results reveal significant variances across all elements of the marketing mix indicating that vending operators apply strategies to reach different market segments. However, there is a high degree of standardisation within vending channels.

Originality/value

Though vending channels are an important retail format, prior studies do not investigate their marketing mixes. This is the first attempt to empirically establish the conventional elements of the vending marketing mix and to measure its variation across customer segments.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2011

Robert L. Harrison and Timothy M. Reilly

The purpose of this article is to determine the uses of mixed method research designs published in major marketing journals.

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31033

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to determine the uses of mixed method research designs published in major marketing journals.

Design/methodology/approach

This study involved a content analysis of 2,166 articles published between 2003 and 2009 in nine prominent marketing journals.

Findings

A total of 34 mixed method studies implemented data‐collection procedures sequentially (79 percent), eight implemented them concurrently (19 percent) and one combined both sequential and concurrent procedures (2 percent). On the whole, priority was skewed more toward quantitative strands, with 27 articles prioritizing quantitative data (63 percent), three articles prioritizing qualitative data (7 percent), and 13 articles prioritizing both equally (30 percent).

Research limitations/implications

It is clear that marketing scholars recognize the benefit of mixing qualitative and quantitative research; however, as a discipline we are not demonstrating knowledge of the mixed method literature or procedures, as only one article recognized or mentioned knowledge of mixed method procedures or cited mixed method research.

Practical implications

This study provides guidance for researchers in identifying design types appropriate for various rationales or research objectives and models of different design types that have been published in marketing journals. In addition, implications for designing mixed methods studies in marketing include highlighting the need for scholars to specifically address issues such as the timing and priority given to each data type (i.e. sequential or concurrent), and the integration (or mixing) of the both data types.

Originality/value

Until now, the role of mixed methods designs in marketing has not been the subject of formal examination. The delineation of the major forms in mixed method designs provides a framework for looking at such design types, which helps to provide more credibility to the field of marketing by providing examples of research designs that are substantially different than single strand studies.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1995

Mohammed Rafiq and Pervaiz K. Ahmed

McCarthy′s 4Ps mix has increasingly come under attack with theresult that different marketing mixes have been put forward fordifferent marketing contexts. Contends that…

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100411

Abstract

McCarthy′s 4Ps mix has increasingly come under attack with the result that different marketing mixes have been put forward for different marketing contexts. Contends that the numerous and ad hoc conceptualizations undermine the concept of the marketing mix and proposes that Booms and Bitner′s (1981) 7Ps mix for services be extended to other areas of marketing. Shows how the 7Ps framework can be applied to consumer goods and reports the results of a survey of UK and European marketing academics which suggest that there is a high degree of dissatisfaction with 4Ps. Also suggests that the 7Ps framework has already achieved a high degree of acceptance as a generic marketing mix among both groups of respondents. Overall provides fairly strong support for the view that Booms and Bitner′s 7Ps framework should replace McCarthy′s 4Ps framework.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 13 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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