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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Nick French, Neil Crosby and Chris Thorne

Market value is an estimation of price in the market. It is value in exchange. The valuer's role is to determine the appropriate approach, the method and use the right…

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186

Abstract

Purpose

Market value is an estimation of price in the market. It is value in exchange. The valuer's role is to determine the appropriate approach, the method and use the right model to achieve this aim as best as possible. However, underpinning all valuations and property analysis are valuation standards and definitions. This paper looks at the definition of market value and how some market participants may misunderstand or even misrepresent it. This is particularly true when there is a downturn in the market.

Design/methodology/approach

This practice briefing is an overview of the role of market value as a definition of price and how it is often misused by stakeholders in the property market.

Findings

This briefing is a review of the valuation definitions clarifying what they mean and what they do not mean.

Practical implications

The role of the valuer in practice is to use the appropriate definition for the task in hand. The understanding of those definitions is central to the valuation process.

Originality/value

This provides guidance on how valuation definitions can be presented to the client in accordance with the International Valuation Standards.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2020

Nick French

An understanding of uncertainty has always been an integral part of property valuations. No valuation is certain, and the valuer needs to convey to the user of the…

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1545

Abstract

Purpose

An understanding of uncertainty has always been an integral part of property valuations. No valuation is certain, and the valuer needs to convey to the user of the valuation in the degree of uncertainty pertaining to the market value.

Design/methodology/approach

This practice briefing is a short overview of the importance of understanding uncertainty in valuation in normal markets and the particular difficulties now with the material uncertainty created by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Findings

This paper discusses how important it is for the valuer and the client to communicate and understand the uncertainty in the market at any point of time. The COVID-19 has had a significant impact on property values and the importance of clarity within valuation reports.

Practical implications

This paper looks at the importance of placing capital and rental value changes due to material uncertainty in valuation reports.

Originality/value

This provides guidance on how professional bodies are advising their members, around the world, on how to report valuations and market value in the context of material uncertainty.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2007

Nick French and Laura Gabrielli

In January 2005, the International Valuation Standards Committee (IVSC) published the International Valuation Guidance Note No. 8 entitled The Cost Approach for Financial

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2395

Abstract

Purpose

In January 2005, the International Valuation Standards Committee (IVSC) published the International Valuation Guidance Note No. 8 entitled The Cost Approach for Financial Reporting – (DRC). This guidance note provides background to the use of depreciated replacement cost (DRC) in connection with International Valuation Application 1 (IVA 1), Valuation for Financial Reporting and suggests that the valuer reports the result of a DRC valuation as market value subject to the test of adequate profitability or service potential. This suggestion has caused a lot of debate and consternation in the UK where the DRC approach has always been considered as a method of last resort and not a market valuation. However, in continental Europe the cost approach (DRC) is often the principal method of valuation and has always been considered to produce market value. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the impact of this change to valuation practice in the UK.

Methodology/design/approach

In this paper, we discuss the concept of market value and its relationship to DRC in an attempt to identify the principal areas of concern in the UK and, through the use of an Italian case study, show how the DRC approach can be adopted as an appropriate method (not basis) for calculating Market Value.

Findings

It is probable that most valuers will still provide the DRC valuation using exactly the same calculation as they did before. They are likely to provide the same (relative to the valuation date) figure; the difference is that they will feel less easy about the robustness of that figure

Originality/value

It is argued that the UK market has, for too long, hidden behind DRC being a basis of value that UK valuers now feel uncomfortable in reporting DRC as market value. They are uncertain with the valuation figure. However, this uncertainty can be addressed in other ways and a suggested “solution” to help the valuer overcome their discomfort with the market valuation is proffered.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2009

Peter Wyatt

Several problems arise from the current valuation standards and guidance in relation to the replacement cost method and they can be classified as definitional and…

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2217

Abstract

Purpose

Several problems arise from the current valuation standards and guidance in relation to the replacement cost method and they can be classified as definitional and methodological. Definitional problems include confusion over the precise meaning of the terms cost, price and value and clarification of the economic concepts of substitution and “highest and best use” in the cases of market‐based and replacement cost methods. Methodological problems include the difficulty in finding market‐derived inputs, particularly when estimating depreciation, and the need to make end adjustments. These matters raise the question as to whether a replacement cost method is compatible with a market basis of value. This paper aims to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews academic literature and professional practice guidance in relation to the replacement cost method of valuation and the market value basis of valuation.

Findings

Defining replacement cost as a method of estimating market value rather than a separate basis of value blurs the distinction between cost and value. This paper argues that market value assumptions do not hold in the case of the replacement cost method.

Originality/value

The paper seeks to stimulate debate on the current professional guidance for the use of the replacement cost method of valuation.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 22 December 2020

Laura Gabrielli and Nick French

Valuation is the process of determining Market Value. Property valuation, as with the valuation of all assets, is an estimation of price in the market. It is value in…

Abstract

Purpose

Valuation is the process of determining Market Value. Property valuation, as with the valuation of all assets, is an estimation of price in the market. It is value in exchange. The valuer role is to determine the appropriate approach, the method and use the right model to achieve this aim as best as possible. It is a combination of analysing the market and determining the critical variables for the valuation method/model. The method is separate from the valuation process which should be followed (according to the International Valuation Standards Council Valuation Standards) regardless the valuation method chosen. There are valuation approaches, valuation methods and, as a subset of the methods, techniques or models.

Design/methodology/approach

This practice briefing is an overview of the Valuation Methods and Models available to the valuer and comments on the appropriateness of valuation each in assessing Market Value for specific property types.

Findings

This briefing is a review of the valuation methods and models and models that can be applied to determine market value.

Practical implications

The role of the valuer in practice is to identify the method of valuation and then apply the correct mathematical model for the valuation task in hand.

Originality/value

This provides guidance on how valuations can be presented to the client in accordance with the International Valuation Standards.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1996

Andrew Baum, Neil Crosby and Bryan MacGregor

Responds to “A note on ‘The initial yield revealed: explicit valuations and the future of property investment’” published in an earlier issue of the Journal of Property

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3063

Abstract

Responds to “A note on ‘The initial yield revealed: explicit valuations and the future of property investment’” published in an earlier issue of the Journal of Property Valuation & Investment. Addresses issues raised and develops and extends the organizations of the original paper, in particular: definitions of certain concepts; the determination of value; the need for explicit valuations; price formation in the property market; and the influence of valuation on price. Reiterates the purposes of the original worked example of valuations; produces a corrected version; and in an appendix presents extended solutions and a fuller discussion of the central issues.

Details

Journal of Property Valuation and Investment, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-2712

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2009

Scott Fung, Hoje Jo and Shih‐Chuan Tsai

The purpose of this paper is to examine the ways in which stock market valuation and managerial incentives jointly affect merger and acquisition (M&A) decisions and…

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2883

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the ways in which stock market valuation and managerial incentives jointly affect merger and acquisition (M&A) decisions and post‐M&A performance, and to provide new evidence on the agency implications where such acquisitions are driven by the stock market.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilizing all publicly‐traded US firms in the NYSE, AMEX and NASDAQ during the period from 1992 to 2005 (excluding financial and utility firms), obtained from COMPUSTAT, CRSP, I/B/E/S, and the M&A database provided by SDC Platinum, this paper adopts a two‐stage approach: the first stage, predicts the probability of an M&A based on the market valuation variables; the second stage, regresses the post‐M&A firm performance on the predicted probability of a merger or acquisition from the first stage and other control variables.

Findings

Market valuation has a significant influence on corporate acquisition decisions, particularly for those firms whose compensation packages include less managerial equity ownership, more executive stock options and no long‐term incentive plans, and in those firms where CEOs are serving on the board of directors. The value‐destroying acquisitions made by these types of managers are likely to be financed using the firms' stocks, executed with high premiums and undertaken during periods of high market valuation.

Originality/value

The main finding suggests that market‐driven acquisitions could be value destroying when managers engage in opportunistic acquisitions for reasons of self‐interest. Managerial myopia, overconfidence, misaligned incentives, empire‐building motives and poor corporate governance can all exacerbate the agency problem of market‐driven acquisitions.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Georgia Warren‐Myers

The purpose of this paper is to synthesise the plethora of research that has been conducted into the relationship between sustainability and market value in real estate…

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9659

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to synthesise the plethora of research that has been conducted into the relationship between sustainability and market value in real estate, by critically analysing the research and the applicability of sustainability and value research in valuation practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The research on the relationship between sustainability and market value in real estate is examined from the perspective of its usefulness to the valuation profession in providing guidance, information and evidence to be used in valuation practice.

Findings

Existing research conducted into the relationship between sustainability and market value has not provided the valuation profession with evidence which would allow the incorporation of normative theories on the value of sustainability in valuation practice. This review highlights the lack of evidence, and the applicability of current research into sustainability and value to the valuation profession in providing guidance and information in valuing real estate incorporating sustainability.

Practical implications

This paper highlights the limited applicability of research to date in regard to the relationship between sustainability and market value for the valuation profession. The lack of historical evidence, data or information on the quantifiable effects on market value of this new trend (sustainability), leaves the valuation profession uncertain as to the relationship between sustainability and market value. There is a probable risk of valuers interpreting strategic research incorrectly, and making inappropriate adjustments or comparisons because of their lack of knowledge and limited sustainability assessment skills. Although there is an evolving body of knowledge, there is a need for extensive analysis of unbiased, evidence‐based research in individual and broader markets to provide guidance, evidence and knowledge of the implications of sustainability in the valuation of real estate.

Originality/value

The examination of research investigating the relationship between sustainability and value from a valuation perspective provides an alternative insight into the applicability of current research in valuation practice. The increasing profile and role of sustainability in the real estate sector needs to be addressed in valuation practice; however, the variety of research to date needs to be interpreted by valuers in the correct context. This paper brings to light the applicability of sustainability and value research for the broader valuation profession, and the potential implications of misuse or misunderstanding of that research.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Maurizio d'Amato, Nikolaj Siniak and Giulia Mastrodonato

The purpose of this study is providing a possible methodological solution to the valuation of cyclical.assets. International Valuation Standards introduce a brand new…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is providing a possible methodological solution to the valuation of cyclical.assets. International Valuation Standards introduce a brand new definition of property: the cyclical asset (International Valuation Standards Council 2017, IVS 105, p. 39 and p. 41). Among different property valuation methods, normally this kind of properties is appraised using income approach. In this group of methodology, the opinion of value is based on a proportional relationship between property value and rent. In the past years, a group of methods called cyclical capitalization has been proposed (d’Amato, 2003; d’Amato, 2013;d’Amato, 2015; d’Amato, 2017a; d’Amato 2017 b; d’Amato, 2017c). This method proposes an integration between property valuation and property market cycle.

Design/methodology/approach

Cyclical capitalization method is applied using a time series of property market rent of offices in prime location in the South Bank area in London. It consists of the determination of more than one all-risk yield to reproduce the property market cycle.

Findings

A comparison between the cyclical capitalization and two traditional capitalization rate shows how the proposed model is able to provide a stable opinion of value.

Research limitations/implications

The method may represent a contribution for the determination of the value of cyclical assets or for the mortgage lending value.

Practical implications

This paper provides the possibility to have a property valuation method less sensitive to upturn and downturn of the property market.

Social implications

The valuation based on cyclical capitalization are less sensitive to the upturn and the downturn of the market.

Originality/value

It is one of the first scientific paper addressing the problem of the determination of the value of cyclical assets.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Neil Crosby, Nick French and Melanie Oughton

This paper reviews a number of alternative bases of valuation which can be applied for lending purposes. In early 1999, the European Mortgage Federation suggested that the…

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2045

Abstract

This paper reviews a number of alternative bases of valuation which can be applied for lending purposes. In early 1999, the European Mortgage Federation suggested that the philosophy of a European Mortgage Lending Value (EMLV) should be based on “sustainable” values and this recommendation is compared to the current basis used for bank lending valuations, mainly market value. This comparison is of both concepts and applications. In addition, concepts and applications of worth valuations are considered. The paper concentrates on commercial property but many of the principles also apply to residential property valuations. The paper concludes that the EMLV concept of sustainable values is itself unsustainable. There are a number of reasons for this view, not least that the concept itself cannot be closely defined and will be interpreted differently by those who apply it. It lacks the objectivity of market value and the rationality of concepts of worth. The paper also questions whether any concept of value can apply over a period of time and suggests that all other “values” do not have a shelf life and relate to one specific point in time only. In application, in the absence of any meaningful conceptual basis, sustainable value appears to have been applied as a conservative market value. It may give the illusion of having some extended time horizon attached to it but this is the major danger. The reality is that it is just another product of the endless search for a single valuation figure which can give lenders the holy grail of longer‐term protection from lender default. This it will fail to do as all other bases applied so far to lending valuations have done. The recommendations of this paper are that all European institutions and valuer/appraisers resist this latest incursion into the fruitless search for the perfect loan valuation basis and concentrate on the other aspects of the valuation which can truly help lenders make their decisions. These are the economic, property market and occupier issues which should be considered by the appraiser and included as major items in valuation reports, many of which would be explicitly included in a full discounted cash flow approach to commercial property loan valuations.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

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