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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2013

Gavin Lees and Malcolm Wright

There has been long‐standing interest in the duplication of audience between media vehicles, starting with work by Agostini and later developed by Goodhardt, Ehrenberg and…

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Abstract

Purpose

There has been long‐standing interest in the duplication of audience between media vehicles, starting with work by Agostini and later developed by Goodhardt, Ehrenberg and Collins into the “duplication of viewing law”. The aim of this paper is to further extend duplication analysis to radio listening. As radio markets are believed to have many partitions, the paper considers whether an un‐partitioned duplication analysis provides an adequate description of market structure.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reports the results of a weekly radio diary with 1,129 responses in a regional New Zealand radio market. This data has special characteristics suitable for this research: the market has experienced rapid expansion in station numbers with substantial attempts at format segmentation, providing a strong test of the un‐partitioned nature of the duplication analysis; use of a single regional market avoids the aggregation bias inherent in national data; use of primary research allows the inclusion of non‐commercial stations, which are not included in syndicated radio research in this market.

Findings

Duplication of listening does broadly follow the duplication of viewing law. Contrary to industry belief, most of the deviations from a mass market are not due to micro‐formats (e.g. classic rock) but rather are explained by a broad partitioning of the market between “talk” and “music” segments, although the paper also identifies a unique station that still deviates from its parent partition.

Research limitations/implications

The duplication of listening law does hold for this market, showing that radio stations compete largely on the basis of cumulative audience. However, it also provides a tool for identifying partitions and benchmarking station performance within this broad market structure. Future research could consider demographic or psychographic correlates of market partitions, alternative methods of purchase‐based segmentation such as nested logit, latent segmentation and Hendry analysis, and breaking duplication analysis down from weekly level to dayparts.

Practical implications

Station and network managers can apply this methodology to identify partitions and benchmark brand performance in their own markets. They should expect to usually compete on the basis of cumulative audience rather than station loyalty, as customer loyalty tends to be a feature of the partition rather than the station. Media planners should also be aware of the duplication of listening law when designing media schedules: greater frequency can be achieved by choosing a set of stations with high duplications (generally higher share stations); greater reach can be achieved by including some smaller stations with low duplications.

Originality/value

This is the first application of duplication analysis to radio audiences, and the confirmation of the law goes against practitioner expectations. It is also a rare example of how duplication analysis can be used to identify not just segments, but also individually unique stations. Therefore, while this research disconfirms prior expectations it also provides a new tool for practical segmentation of radio markets.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 47 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1986

Tony Reynolds

Reports on office planning's new type (known as ‘open planning’( with a case study of the principal innovator in this procedure's development, Dexion Ltd, in the UK, which…

Abstract

Reports on office planning's new type (known as ‘open planning’( with a case study of the principal innovator in this procedure's development, Dexion Ltd, in the UK, which was heavily involved in the wall (office) partitioning range. Evaluates and discusses all of the company's various spin off companies and the products therein. Examines also the sales performance and marketing approach of the company and its good and bad points. Closes by making recommendations for Dexion's Partitioning Division including sales promotion and distribution channel development. Concludes that the recommended actions would establish Dexion as a major player in its market, allowing other Dexion products to break into the market.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

John Dawes, Jenni Romaniuk and Annabel Mansfield

The purpose of this paper is to examine competition between tourism destination brands in terms of how they share travelers with each other.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine competition between tourism destination brands in terms of how they share travelers with each other.

Design/methodology/approach

The study analyzes survey data from four international markets (USA, UK, Japan and Singapore). The study examines the cross‐purchasing of travel destinations. It applies an established empirical generalization, the duplication of purchase law (DPL) to frame hypotheses and contextualize results.

Findings

The overall results are consistent with the DPL. Destination brands share tourists with other destinations generally in‐line with the popularity of the competing destination. However, there are very noticeable market partitions, most of which take two forms: destinations that are either geographically close to each other, or close to the point of origin. Destination brands in these partitions share travelers far more than they would be expected to, given their respective size.

Practical implications

Tourism marketers need to appreciate the broad nature of competition. A specific destination brand competes with many other travel destinations, sharing customers more with other broadly popular destinations and less with less popular destinations.

Originality/value

The analytical approach presented in this study provides a straightforward benchmark for assessing the expected level of competition between particular tourist destinations, given their respective overall popularity.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 June 2019

Damien Wilson and Maxwell Winchester

This study aims to understand the market structure and explore the applicability of recognised generalisations to a European wine retail market. The study considers…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand the market structure and explore the applicability of recognised generalisations to a European wine retail market. The study considers whether brands in European wine retailing follow the established double jeopardy and duplication of purchase laws, with the aim of investigating their limits so as to identify where market partitions are evident.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers conducted a cross-purchasing analysis within the wine category over a 12-month period, using a customer panel of n = 25,000 across a chain of independent retail stores in an English-speaking European country. Analysis was conducted across purchases of the top 20 wine brands.

Findings

Consumer wine repurchase results confirmed a double jeopardy pattern. These consumers’ wine repurchasing behaviour from other top-20 wine brands could have generally been predicted in line with the duplication of purchase law. However, a small number of exceptions to these patterns were identified, suggesting the existence of market partitions.

Research limitations/implications

In this study, market partitions were evident for selected brands, a wine region and a common grape variety, Sauvignon blanc. Such exceptions illustrate that consumer purchase patterns can deviate from predictions, for a small number of brands in a consumer goods category than would be expected given duplication of purchase law norms. Such anomalies to empirical generalisations help demonstrate boundary conditions and lead further research on the market conditions required for such anomalies to be evident. Implications suggest that further research should be conducted on the product features creating market partitions.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that regional wines can appeal to a more clearly partitioned customer group within the clientele, but that substitution is noted among brands within regions.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to use a large sample consumer database to determine the generalisability of two well-established empirical generalisations: the double jeopardy and duplication of purchase laws, to the wine retail market. Knowing these are applicable to the wine retail markets allows wine producers and retailers to predict expected repurchase and cross-purchasing norms.

Book part
Publication date: 27 April 2004

Matthew E Archibald

This paper analyzes a multidimensional model of organizational legitimacy, competencies, and resources in order to develop the linkage between institutional and…

Abstract

This paper analyzes a multidimensional model of organizational legitimacy, competencies, and resources in order to develop the linkage between institutional and resource-based perspectives by systematically detailing relationships among these factors and organizational viability. The underlying mechanisms of isomorphism and market partitioning serve as a point of departure by which the effects on organizational persistence of two sociocultural processes, cultural (constitutive) legitimation and sociopolitical (regulative) legitimation, are distinguished. Using data on 589 national self-help/mutual-aid organizations, this chapter explores how isomorphism and market partitioning foster legitimacy and promote organizational viability. Results show that the more differentiated an organization’s core competencies and resources, the greater the sociopolitical legitimacy; the more isomorphic an organization’s competencies and resources, the greater the cultural legitimacy. The latter isomorphic processes, however, do not promote greater organizational viability. In fact, while isomorphism legitimates with respect to cultural recognition, it is heterogeneity, not homogeneity, that promotes organizational survival.

Details

Legitimacy Processes in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-008-1

Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2006

Christophe Boone, Filippo Carlo Wezel and Arjen van Witteloostuijn

The “upper echelon” literature has mainly produced static empirical studies on the impact of top management team composition on organizational outcomes, ignoring the…

Abstract

The “upper echelon” literature has mainly produced static empirical studies on the impact of top management team composition on organizational outcomes, ignoring the dynamics of industrial demography. Organizational ecology explicitly studied the dynamics of organizational diversity at the population level, however largely ignoring how the entry and exit of executives shapes organizational diversity over time. In this paper, we try to integrate both streams of demography research and develop a multi-level behavioral theory of organizational diversity, linking selection processes at both levels of analysis. The behavioral mechanism connecting the two levels of analysis is the stylized empirical fact that small groups, including top management teams, routinely reproduce their demographic characteristics over time. We argue that, under certain conditions, the potent forces of team homogenization coevolve with those of population-level selection to sustain between-firm diversity.

Details

Ecology and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-435-5

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Toni Repetti, Susan Roe and Amy Gregory

The purpose of this study is twofold: to determine hotel customers’ preference among hotel amenities pricing strategies, specifically a bundled, all-inclusive charge in…

2861

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is twofold: to determine hotel customers’ preference among hotel amenities pricing strategies, specifically a bundled, all-inclusive charge in the form of a resort fee, a limited choice resort fee at a lower price or a la carte pricing, and to determine whether hotel customer prefer bundled or partitioned pricing when faced with a mandatory resort fee.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey of participants aged 18 years and older who had taken an overnight leisure trip in the past six months is conducted. A fixed-choice set conjoint analysis is performed to analyze the 353 usable surveys.

Findings

Results of this conjoint analysis show that 67 per cent of respondents prefer bundled pricing over partitioned pricing. Respondents also show higher utility for no resort fee and paying for amenities based on usage instead of being forced to pay a mandatory resort fee.

Practical implications

Guest preferences for pricing strategies can provide hotel operators with valuable information on how to establish pricing structures. Results suggest that hotel operators could benefit from presenting a bundled price inclusive of room rates and mandatory fees.

Originality/value

This is the only known study that examines mandatory fees in which customers receive additional amenities or services in exchange for an additional surcharge. This study also adds to the literature on pricing research in the hospitality industry.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Jenni Romaniuk and John Dawes

Investigates the purchasing of brands across different price tiers. The purpose was to determine if buying across price tiers followed the same pattern widely found in…

3081

Abstract

Purpose

Investigates the purchasing of brands across different price tiers. The purpose was to determine if buying across price tiers followed the same pattern widely found in brand purchasing, known as the Duplication of Purchase Law.

Design/methodology/approach

Uses a consumer survey methodology, using bottled wine as an example category. It provides evidence that while buyers exhibit repeat‐purchase loyalty to price tiers, they also buy from a repertoire of different price tiers.

Findings

Finds that sharing of purchases with other price tiers does approximate the Duplication of Purchase Law. That is, a price tier shares customers with other price tiers approximately in line with the overall popularity of those other price tiers. This suggests that competition between price tiers is largely predictable, and based on the prevalence of purchases at each tier. However, there is also consistent “partitioning” where adjacent price tiers share customers to a greater extent than would be expected under the Duplication of Purchase Law.

Originality/value

This research is valuable to both marketers and researchers, as it provides a quantifiable context and structure to those examining competition from a pricing perspective. It provides insights into where new brands should be launched and potential cannibalization effects. Finally, the presence of a price repertoire suggests that researchers should be wary of categorizing buyers to specific segments based on single answers to questions about “last” or “typical” price paid for purchases. Several fruitful areas for further research also emerge from this study, in particular the examination of what price levels or tiers actually constitute break‐points in markets, whereby brands residing in one tier are recognized as markedly different to those in other tiers.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2006

Filippo C. Wezel and Arjen van Witteloostuijn

This paper extends organizational ecology by making an attempt to disentangle the consequences of scale and scope economies for organizational survival under different…

Abstract

This paper extends organizational ecology by making an attempt to disentangle the consequences of scale and scope economies for organizational survival under different product market configurations. We test our hypotheses by analyzing the mortality rates of 643 UK motorcycle producers during the 1899–1993 period. The findings obtained offer two specific contributions. First, by separating the performance impact of scale from scope economies we clarify the complex mechanisms behind the survival consequences of different organizational strategies. Second, we show how the intensity of both scale and scope forces is relative to the aggregate market-level product configuration. The implications of these findings for organizational ecology and strategic management, and their cross-fertilization, are further discussed.

Details

Ecology and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-435-5

Article
Publication date: 28 August 2018

Wen-Yu Chiang

Online customer relationship management (CRM) is an important issue for implementing digital marketing of electronic commerce or social commerce. The purpose of this study…

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Abstract

Purpose

Online customer relationship management (CRM) is an important issue for implementing digital marketing of electronic commerce or social commerce. The purpose of this study is to establish valuable markets for discovering customer knowledge from data-driven CRM systems for enhancing growth rates of businesses. Airline or travel agency industries are online businesses in the world. Therefore, the industries in Taiwan will be an empirical case for this study.

Design/methodology/approach

This research applied a procedure with an applied proposed model for establishing valuable markets from data-driven CRM systems. However, the study used a proposed customer value model (recency, frequency and monetary [RFM]; RFM model-based), the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) procedure and a proposed equation for estimating customer values.

Findings

For enhancing the data-driven CRM marketing of the industries, in this research, the market of air travelers can be partitioned into eight markets by the proposed model. As well, the markets can be ranked by the AHP procedure. Furthermore, the travelers’ customer values can be estimated by a proposed customer value equation.

Originality/value

Via the applied proposed procedure, online airlines, travel agencies or other online businesses can implement the research procedure as their data-driven marketing strategy on their online large-scale or Big Data customers’ databases for enhancing sales rates.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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