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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Guido Bortoluzzi, Selma Kadic-Maglajlic, Maja Arslanagic-Kalajdzic and Bernardo Balboni

The purpose of this paper is to examine the curvilinear effects of firm innovativeness (i.e. product, organisational and marketing innovation) on international expansion

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the curvilinear effects of firm innovativeness (i.e. product, organisational and marketing innovation) on international expansion as well as the effect of expansion on performance in the developing countries (DCs) setting.

Design/methodology/approach

Research hypotheses are tested using survey data obtained from firms located in four South-East European DCs. Covariance-based structural equation modelling is used to test the proposed conceptual framework.

Findings

Empirical findings support the hypothesised U-shaped relationship between product innovation and organisational innovation and the level of international expansion of firms in developing markets. The authors found an inverse U-shaped relationship between marketing innovation and the level of international expansion. Furthermore, the existence of a strong positive link between the level of international expansion and firm performance is also confirmed.

Research limitations/implications

While this research utilises a sample of firms from a homogenous group of DCs, further research could use a more heterogeneous sample and thus control the model for various contingency effects (e.g. environment turbulence, market structure and competitive dynamics).

Practical implications

When it comes to product and organisational innovation, international expansion is achieved only with a higher level of innovativeness. On the contrary, beyond a certain level, further investments in marketing innovation do not have additional positive effects on international expansion.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first that explicitly focuses on examining the non-linear effects of innovativeness on international expansion in the DC context.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2018

Renata Maria Gomes, Jorge Carneiro and Luis Antonio Dib

The purpose of this paper is to identify patterns for the intra-market expansion of international branded retailers on a continent-sized emerging market using the network approach.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify patterns for the intra-market expansion of international branded retailers on a continent-sized emerging market using the network approach.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple-case study design of four foreign branded retailers that have expanded onto regional markets in Brazil is used.

Findings

The intra-market expansion process shares similarities with the cross-market expansion process; is influenced by the relationships of foreign branded retailers with local competitors and shopping mall firms; and market selection, mode of operation and store location decisions are interrelated and conjointly taken, instead of forming a three-stage process. Additionally, the importance of relationships with host market shopping malls firms is highlighted.

Research limitations/implications

This paper advances a conceptual model of the intra-market expansion process, which comprises a system of interrelated decisions – (regional) market selection, mode of operation and store location – influenced by several network effects.

Practical implications

Managers of foreign branded retail suffer from liability of foreignness when undertaking intra-market expansion. Although Brazil is a large market, the retail community is highly connected because of managers’ personal relationships. Brazilian shopping malls dominate suitable store locations, and represent a valuable source of knowledge and resources for the foreign branded retailer.

Originality/value

This paper addresses two under-researched aspects of international retail: branded retailers – manufacturers that develop brands and operate stores – and intra-market expansion (i.e. to geographic regions of a given foreign country). It also discusses the challenges of intra-market expansion in continent-sized emerging markets, with considerable regional diversity (culture, infrastructure and institutions).

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 46 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2014

Anders Pehrsson and Tobias Pehrsson

The purpose is to extend the understanding of the resource base of the industrial firm's greenfield expansion on a foreign country market once a wholly owned subsidiary…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose is to extend the understanding of the resource base of the industrial firm's greenfield expansion on a foreign country market once a wholly owned subsidiary has been established.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework is developed relying on the resource-based theory of strategy. Resource bases in terms of value-adding activities of four Swedish industrial firms' subsidiaries in the USA are analysed. Four theoretical propositions are formulated regarding consistent associations among the activities and contingencies that are relevant to expansion on a foreign country market.

Findings

The propositions show how foreign subsidiaries' value-adding activities are aligned with two contingencies: the corporate strategy manifested by the product/market knowledge transferred from the parent firm that enable local expansion and the subsidiary's knowledge of competition barriers that obstruct local expansion. The value-adding activity may be basic or advanced and may repeat the parent firm's activity.

Research limitations/implications

US subsidiaries of four Swedish industrial firms were analysed. The propositions may be turned into hypotheses suitable for tests in statistical studies. A test may include firms from different home countries and subsidiaries on different host country markets.

Practical implications

The conceptual framework and the propositions provide a ground for an industrial firm's decision to conduct a strategy of greenfield expansion on a foreign country market once a wholly owned subsidiary has been established.

Originality/value

The framework is unique and emphasizes that both knowledge stemming from corporate strategy and knowledge of local competition need to be acknowledged in order to understand firm's greenfield expansion on a foreign country market.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1990

Chong S. Lee and Yoo S. Yang

This empirical study investigates the relationship between thechoice of an export market expansion strategy and the subsequentperformance of exporting firms. Multiple…

Abstract

This empirical study investigates the relationship between the choice of an export market expansion strategy and the subsequent performance of exporting firms. Multiple measures of export performance were compared across three groups of firms following different export market expansion strategies: export market concentration, concentric diversification, and diversification strategies. A sample of 52 small and medium‐sized US high technology manufacturers showed significant differences among three strategic groups in export level and growth measures, but no significant differences in export profitability measures were found.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2002

Francisco José Mas‐Ruiz, Juan Luis Nicolau‐Gonzálbez and Felipe Ruiz‐Moreno

The aim of this study is to examine the determining factors of a firm’s performance, as a direct consequence of its diversification strategy in its expansion into foreign…

Abstract

The aim of this study is to examine the determining factors of a firm’s performance, as a direct consequence of its diversification strategy in its expansion into foreign markets, considering certain factors like the market, the product and the company itself. As a novelty, the methodology employed uses the event‐study to estimate the excess of returns generated by its shares on the Stock Market, based on a sample of 35 expansion announcements into external markets corresponding to 11 diversifying companies. A regression analysis is also carried out to examine the impact of these factors, market, product and company, on the excesses in returns observed. The empirical application, carried‐out in Spain, has allowed us to detect that, on average, the impact of the news about a company’s expansion on the returns on its shares is positive; its determining factors being the speciality of the product offered and the level of development in the target country.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 31 March 2021

Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk, Anna Małgorzata Grudecka and Anna Napiórkowska

The aim of this paper is to identify ways and motives of application of e-commerce in the foreign expansion of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) fashion brands.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to identify ways and motives of application of e-commerce in the foreign expansion of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) fashion brands.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple case study was used as the research method. Data were obtained from primarily in-depth interviews with managers of four Polish SMEs –fashion brands owners, whose products are sold in the foreign markets using e-commerce, and secondary sources.

Findings

Through this study the authors identified both strategic-proactive and market-reactive motives of e-commerce applications in SMEs’ fashion brands in the internet-enabled foreign expansion and three different models of usage of e-commerce in the foreign expansion of SMEs.

Research limitations/implications

The research was based on the multiple case study of only Polish SMEs in the fashion industry. The conclusions of this study can be applied by fashion companies in their internet-based foreign expansion.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing body of literature on the internationalization process of SMEs, and particularly on the application of cross-border e-commerce in the foreign internet-enabled expansion of fashion SMEs by identifying three various models of applying e-commerce, in the internet-enabled foreign expansion and their both proactive and reactive motives.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 21 November 2018

Gao Feng

There exist long-term fluctuations in the process of capital accumulation. The economic long wave is an essential part of research into non-mainstream western economics…

Abstract

Purpose

There exist long-term fluctuations in the process of capital accumulation. The economic long wave is an essential part of research into non-mainstream western economics. After the Second World War, the capitalist world experienced the fourth long wave of expansion and then entered into a downward phase of the long wave in the 1970s. Regarding to whether a new long wave of expansion took place in the 1980s, left-wing scholars hold different viewpoints. The purpose of this paper is to focus on this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

First, based on the review of the long wave history, this paper discusses three kinds of long wave theories with significant influence and puts forward the theoretical framework of analyzing the long wave of capitalist economy. Next, under the guidance of this theoretical framework and in combination with the actual development and evolution of the capitalist economy, the issue of whether the fifth long wave of the capitalist economy began to emerge in the 1980s is discussed deeply.

Findings

This paper argues that, from the early 1980s to 2007, the US-dominated developed countries experienced a new long wave of expansion driven by the information technology revolution, the adjustment of the neoliberalism system and the economic globalization. However, the financial-economic crisis of 2008–2009 led to a new phase of long wave downswing.

Originality/value

This paper does not agree with the single-factor analysis of the intrinsic formation mechanism of economic long wave and sticks to the multi-factor analysis centering on the fluctuation of accumulation rate. It is pointed out that the evolution of the long wave of capitalist economy depends on the combined influence of technology, institutions and market. The study of the long wave of the economy will help us to correctly understand the historical stage and characteristics of the current world capitalist economy in the long-term fluctuations, so that we can make an appropriate and positive response.

Details

China Political Economy, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-1652

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Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2017

Frank Elter and Svein Ulset

This chapter develops a multi-path theory of diversified international expansion that explains how multiple wave-shaped performance curves are created as multinational…

Abstract

This chapter develops a multi-path theory of diversified international expansion that explains how multiple wave-shaped performance curves are created as multinational companies expand into increasingly distant and dissimilar countries. According to this theory, multinational mobile network operators (MNOs) recover from over-diversified expansion by improving their local adaptation strategies by means of reconfiguring the value chain and entering local partnerships, by improving their global replication capabilities or by concentrating expansion to clusters of similar country markets. Three dynamic propositions are developed and exemplified concerning MNOs’ diversified international expansion. Implications for international diversification research finalize the chapter.

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2020

Huifeng Bai, Julie McColl, Christopher Moore, Weijing He and Jin Shi

This empirical study, from the international retailing perspective, examines the direction of retailers' further expansion after initial entry into overseas host market in…

Abstract

Purpose

This empirical study, from the international retailing perspective, examines the direction of retailers' further expansion after initial entry into overseas host market in the context of the luxury fashion retail market in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopts qualitative multiple case studies.

Findings

After initial entry into China, luxury fashion retailers further expand their retail operations through three directional patterns: cautious, regional and countrywide expansions. The stepwise expansion from tier-1 to tier-2 and tier-3 cities remains popular; however, the importance of the tier system of Chinese cities has been weakened because tier-3 cities in affluent regions are perceived to have more potential than some tier-2 cities in less developed regions. The retailers assess a potential local market through interrelated criteria, including location and strategic importance, economic development, available store locations and staff, a high degree of urbanisation and tourism, debatable favourable policies and offers, and popularity of e- and m-commerce. There is a positive relationship between popularity of e- and m-commerce in a city and the potential of that city to run brick-and-mortar stores.

Originality/value

The paper offers an insight into the current international retailing literature by examining the direction of luxury fashion retailers' further expansion after their initial market entry. Particularly, the research considers a set of criteria which can be used to assess a potential local market, and the impact of e- and m-commerce on local market choices for brick-and-mortar stores.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2021

Gaston Fornes, Guillermo Cardoza and Maria Altamira

This study aims to understand whether business and political relations help emerging markets' SMEs to overcome the challenges posed by low institutionalization in their…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand whether business and political relations help emerging markets' SMEs to overcome the challenges posed by low institutionalization in their national and international expansion. It focuses on the role that these relations play in determining access to government funding and contracts and to market information and business-related knowledge.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from 828 SMEs in Brazil and China. The data analysis was developed in two stages: the first stage was based on multivariate regression analyses using the ratio of sales outside the companies' region of origin divided by total sales as a dependent variable and the survey's answers as independent variables; outward sales were taken at two different levels – national and international – to consider: (1) the different stages in the national and international expansion process, and (2) the fragmented nature of domestic markets in both Brazil and China. The second stage was based on a stepwise multiple regression as the relative importance of the variables was not known beforehand and the objective was to rank them according to the managers' perceptions.

Findings

Informal institutions, in particular business and political relations, can help to reduce uncertainty and overcome some disadvantages associated with weak institutionalization. They do this by providing access to trusted distribution channels, improving the familiarity with different institutional environments and strengthening the management of supply chains and commercial strategies to serve markets outside their region. Also, SMEs in emerging markets getting access to private sources of funding, market knowledge and government contracts through business and political relations are in a better position to expand nationally and internationally.

Originality/value

The research shows that the domestic environment, in particular one with low levels of institutionalization, impacts negatively the national and international expansion of SMEs and, more importantly, how firms can use business and political relations to overcome the obstacles posed by this environment. The findings also have implications for theory, practice and policymaking.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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